**USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL**

MATERIAL AS A TOOL IN ENHANCING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS

MATERIAL AS A TOOL IN ENHANCING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS

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**CHAPTER ONE**

**INTRODUCTION**

**1.1**

**Background**

of the Study

of the Study

Instructional materials play an important role in teaching Mathematics

. The teaching and even the learning process would never be complete without

full utilization of instructional materials in whatever form. The teacher uses

instructional materials suited for the level of understanding of the students.

Instructional materials are based on the topics to be discussed by the teacher.

Teachers should plan for the instructional materials to be used in the class

and prepare all important or necessary things to use and make sure that the

instructional materials are neatly done and an eye catching for the students.

The instructional materials serve as a simple motivation not only for the

students but also for the teachers in their learning process. It can help the

students in reinforcing in their new learning. The teacher uses

instructional materials that help the students to improve their knowledge,

abilities and skill from the information in using the instructional materials.

It can help the students in their development in learning Mathematics and to their upbringing. Teachers use

instructional materials to transfer new ideas or information from one student

to another. Some of the instructional materials that can be use are power point

presentation, books, Articles, SIM, visual aids and other materials for subject

development. Some of the teachers use books as their way of imparting knowledge

to their students. Some of the teachers use games as the medium of instruction

in their classroom setting. In Mathematics , games are more effective for the

students to learn the subject matter. Games are informal way of teaching. It

includes goals, rules and reward for the students to learn. Most of the time,

students are interested in learning when the teacher uses games as their

instructional materials. With the use of instructional materials, the teacher

has less talk when it comes to discussion of the lesson. The students learn the

subject matter in Mathematics on their

own understanding with the help of the instructional materials together with

the supervision of the teacher in charge. With the use of certain instructional

materials the students uplift their confidence in learning the topics in Mathematics

. Most of the students learn Mathematics topic with the use of instructional material

like the power point presentation. Since we are now in the internet world, the

students are engaged with the computer in their everyday life situation. When

the lessons in Mathematics are introduced

with the help of our technology, the students have an extra interest with the

subject matter. Students are active in participating in the lesson since the

lesson is presented in computer. One of the commonly used instructional

materials is the modules. Modules are made for the students to understand Mathematics

with the use of examples given in the

modules. The students will have a guide in the modules on how to execute the

given task. It can help the students to familiarize with terminologies and

process involved in Mathematics . Modules can be done in anywhere, anytime as

long as it engaged the interest of the students. With the help of the

instructional materials, students can be exposed with the different methods of

learning Mathematics . It is rest assures that the students will acquire new

ideas or knowledge about the topics in Mathematics with the use of instructional materials.

. The teaching and even the learning process would never be complete without

full utilization of instructional materials in whatever form. The teacher uses

instructional materials suited for the level of understanding of the students.

Instructional materials are based on the topics to be discussed by the teacher.

Teachers should plan for the instructional materials to be used in the class

and prepare all important or necessary things to use and make sure that the

instructional materials are neatly done and an eye catching for the students.

The instructional materials serve as a simple motivation not only for the

students but also for the teachers in their learning process. It can help the

students in reinforcing in their new learning. The teacher uses

instructional materials that help the students to improve their knowledge,

abilities and skill from the information in using the instructional materials.

It can help the students in their development in learning Mathematics and to their upbringing. Teachers use

instructional materials to transfer new ideas or information from one student

to another. Some of the instructional materials that can be use are power point

presentation, books, Articles, SIM, visual aids and other materials for subject

development. Some of the teachers use books as their way of imparting knowledge

to their students. Some of the teachers use games as the medium of instruction

in their classroom setting. In Mathematics , games are more effective for the

students to learn the subject matter. Games are informal way of teaching. It

includes goals, rules and reward for the students to learn. Most of the time,

students are interested in learning when the teacher uses games as their

instructional materials. With the use of instructional materials, the teacher

has less talk when it comes to discussion of the lesson. The students learn the

subject matter in Mathematics on their

own understanding with the help of the instructional materials together with

the supervision of the teacher in charge. With the use of certain instructional

materials the students uplift their confidence in learning the topics in Mathematics

. Most of the students learn Mathematics topic with the use of instructional material

like the power point presentation. Since we are now in the internet world, the

students are engaged with the computer in their everyday life situation. When

the lessons in Mathematics are introduced

with the help of our technology, the students have an extra interest with the

subject matter. Students are active in participating in the lesson since the

lesson is presented in computer. One of the commonly used instructional

materials is the modules. Modules are made for the students to understand Mathematics

with the use of examples given in the

modules. The students will have a guide in the modules on how to execute the

given task. It can help the students to familiarize with terminologies and

process involved in Mathematics . Modules can be done in anywhere, anytime as

long as it engaged the interest of the students. With the help of the

instructional materials, students can be exposed with the different methods of

learning Mathematics . It is rest assures that the students will acquire new

ideas or knowledge about the topics in Mathematics with the use of instructional materials.

Mathematics

level of education

**is one of the core subjects offered at all**level of education

Mathematics

for higher learning in a number of science-related professional courses like

medicine, agriculture, pharmacy. Mathematics

world: How the world is structured, how it functions and what these functions

are, how it develops, how living things came into existence, and how they interact

to one another and with their environment (Umar, 2011). It is a prerequisite

subject for many fields of learning that contributes immensely to the

technological growth of the nation (Ahmed, 2008). This includes medicines,

pharmacy, nursing, agriculture, forestry, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and

many other areas (Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011).

**is a very important subject and a requirement**for higher learning in a number of science-related professional courses like

medicine, agriculture, pharmacy. Mathematics

**is a natural science that deals with the living**world: How the world is structured, how it functions and what these functions

are, how it develops, how living things came into existence, and how they interact

to one another and with their environment (Umar, 2011). It is a prerequisite

subject for many fields of learning that contributes immensely to the

technological growth of the nation (Ahmed, 2008). This includes medicines,

pharmacy, nursing, agriculture, forestry, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and

many other areas (Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011).

In contemporary

Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development.

As a result students are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects

and one subject that most students opt for is Mathematics

endeavour and it plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. Nigeria’s

need for an effective scientific and technological development appears to be

overwhelming as she is going through hard times in her history especially with

regard to her economy. This hard condition has partly resulted to a poor living

standard of the people. Agommuoh and Nzewi (2003) acknowledged that science and

technology have always been recognized as critical factors in the process of

development. Science and Technology can provide the basis for Nigeria’s social,

economic and political well-being. Therefore, many people in Nigeria have come

to realize that Mathematics

the nation, especially as a result of the technological breakthrough in the

advanced countries. Eno (2005) predicted that in a short time to come, only

people with appropriate and appreciable knowledge and skills in science and

technology disciplines would be required in the job market.

Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development.

As a result students are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects

and one subject that most students opt for is Mathematics

**Today, Mathematics****pervades literally every field of human**endeavour and it plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. Nigeria’s

need for an effective scientific and technological development appears to be

overwhelming as she is going through hard times in her history especially with

regard to her economy. This hard condition has partly resulted to a poor living

standard of the people. Agommuoh and Nzewi (2003) acknowledged that science and

technology have always been recognized as critical factors in the process of

development. Science and Technology can provide the basis for Nigeria’s social,

economic and political well-being. Therefore, many people in Nigeria have come

to realize that Mathematics

**can be applied to solve many problems facing**the nation, especially as a result of the technological breakthrough in the

advanced countries. Eno (2005) predicted that in a short time to come, only

people with appropriate and appreciable knowledge and skills in science and

technology disciplines would be required in the job market.

The implication of this

is that economic survival, relevance and social mobility will depend

considerably on the level and appropriateness of the knowledge and skills an

individual has acquired through science education. Science education is needed

to dispel ignorance, poor cultural practices and beliefs in the society.

Nigerians are still enslaved by diseases, poverty and ignorance and these calls

for effective science education that is relevant to the improvement of the

society. Instructional materials are essential and

significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote

teachers’ efficiency and improve students’ performance. They make learning more

interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the

teachers and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson

sessions. They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development

of self- confidence and self- actualization. Ibeneme (2000) defined instructional

materials as those materials used for practical and demonstration in the class

situation by students and teachers. Ikerionwu (2000) saw instructional

materials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present a lesson to the learners in a

logical and manner.

is that economic survival, relevance and social mobility will depend

considerably on the level and appropriateness of the knowledge and skills an

individual has acquired through science education. Science education is needed

to dispel ignorance, poor cultural practices and beliefs in the society.

Nigerians are still enslaved by diseases, poverty and ignorance and these calls

for effective science education that is relevant to the improvement of the

society. Instructional materials are essential and

significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote

teachers’ efficiency and improve students’ performance. They make learning more

interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the

teachers and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson

sessions. They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development

of self- confidence and self- actualization. Ibeneme (2000) defined instructional

materials as those materials used for practical and demonstration in the class

situation by students and teachers. Ikerionwu (2000) saw instructional

materials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present a lesson to the learners in a

logical and manner.

Mathematics

Therefore, to effectively implement the new curriculum it requires that both

the teachers and students should extensively carry out many activities using

modern, current, and suitable instructional materials. The importance of

instructional materials to the successful implementation of the new Mathematics

because the use of instructional materials is essential for effective behaviour

change in learners (Jimoh, 2009). Okobia (2011), noted that when the students

are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn

faster and easier. Iherionwu (2000) referred to instructional materials as

objects or devices which help the teacher make learning meaningful to the

learner. They are materials used to aid the transfering of information from one

person to another (Adeoye, 2012).

**as a science subject is practical based.**Therefore, to effectively implement the new curriculum it requires that both

the teachers and students should extensively carry out many activities using

modern, current, and suitable instructional materials. The importance of

instructional materials to the successful implementation of the new Mathematics

**curriculum cannot be overemphasized. This is**because the use of instructional materials is essential for effective behaviour

change in learners (Jimoh, 2009). Okobia (2011), noted that when the students

are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn

faster and easier. Iherionwu (2000) referred to instructional materials as

objects or devices which help the teacher make learning meaningful to the

learner. They are materials used to aid the transfering of information from one

person to another (Adeoye, 2012).

Poor achievement in Mathematics

method of teaching, unavailability of laboratory facilities, lack of

instructional materials, inadequate time allocation and large class size.

According to Etukudo (2009), poor achievement in Mathematics

instructional delivery approach adopted by teachers in schools. To support this

assertion, Salau (2009) submitted that many researchers have adduced that poor

achievement in public examinations is traceable to instructional delivery

approaches adopted by teachers. The resultant effect is the low achievement and

low retention level in students outcome both in internal and external

examinations. This implies that the mastery of Mathematics

the use of a good instructional delivery approach that utilizes instructional

materials. West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiner’s report

(2005-2010) stated that the persistent poor achievement of students in Mathematics

leaves one in doubt about the effectiveness of instructional materials and

instructional delivery approaches popularly used by the Mathematics

**can be attributed to many factors such as: poor**method of teaching, unavailability of laboratory facilities, lack of

instructional materials, inadequate time allocation and large class size.

According to Etukudo (2009), poor achievement in Mathematics

**is incontrovertibly attributed to poor**instructional delivery approach adopted by teachers in schools. To support this

assertion, Salau (2009) submitted that many researchers have adduced that poor

achievement in public examinations is traceable to instructional delivery

approaches adopted by teachers. The resultant effect is the low achievement and

low retention level in students outcome both in internal and external

examinations. This implies that the mastery of Mathematics

**concept might not be fully achieved without**the use of a good instructional delivery approach that utilizes instructional

materials. West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiner’s report

(2005-2010) stated that the persistent poor achievement of students in Mathematics

**at Senior Schools Certificate Examination**leaves one in doubt about the effectiveness of instructional materials and

instructional delivery approaches popularly used by the Mathematics

**teachers for the teaching and learning of Mathematics****.**
Poor teaching methods

adopted by teachers at senior secondary school level in Nigeria have been

identified as one of the major factors contributing to poor performance of

students in Mathematics

Umar, 2011). The conventional teaching method is classroom-based and consists

of lectures and direct instructions conducted by the teacher. This

teacher-centered method emphasizes learning through the teacher’s guidance at

all times. Students are expected to listen to lectures and learn from them. The

persistent use of this method makes students passive rather than active

learners. It does not promote insightful learning and long–term retention of

some abstract concepts in Mathematics

Kareem, 2003; Umar, 2011). And the only way out of this ugly situation is for

the teacher to make the teaching of Mathematics

and adequate instructional materials in the teaching and learning process of Mathematics

adopted by teachers at senior secondary school level in Nigeria have been

identified as one of the major factors contributing to poor performance of

students in Mathematics

**(Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011; Kareem, 2003;**Umar, 2011). The conventional teaching method is classroom-based and consists

of lectures and direct instructions conducted by the teacher. This

teacher-centered method emphasizes learning through the teacher’s guidance at

all times. Students are expected to listen to lectures and learn from them. The

persistent use of this method makes students passive rather than active

learners. It does not promote insightful learning and long–term retention of

some abstract concepts in Mathematics

**(Ahmed, 2008; Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011;**Kareem, 2003; Umar, 2011). And the only way out of this ugly situation is for

the teacher to make the teaching of Mathematics

**concept relevant through the use of necessary**and adequate instructional materials in the teaching and learning process of Mathematics

**in senior secondary schools.****1.2 Statement of the Problem**

**FOR COMPLETE PROJECT CALL 07064961036****1.3 Purpose of the Study**

**The main purpose**

of this study is to investigate the use of instructional to enhance teaching

and learning of Mathematics

**secondary schools in**

**Ilaje Local government Area of Ondo State.**

Specifically,

this study sought to:

this study sought to:

1.

Investigate the availability of

instructional materials for the teaching and learning of Mathematics

Government Area of Ondo State.

Investigate the availability of

instructional materials for the teaching and learning of Mathematics

**in the secondary schools in Ilaje Local**Government Area of Ondo State.

2.

Determine how often Mathematics

Area of Ondo State.

Determine how often Mathematics

**teachers use instructional materials to teach Mathematics****in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government**Area of Ondo State.

3.

Investigate the reason why instructional

materials are not effectively used during Mathematics

Government Area of Ondo State.

Investigate the reason why instructional

materials are not effectively used during Mathematics

**teaching and learning in Ilaje Local**Government Area of Ondo State.

4.

To determine the impact of instructional

materials on the attitude of Mathematics

Area of Ondo State.

To determine the impact of instructional

materials on the attitude of Mathematics

**students towards the teaching and learning of Mathematics****in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government**Area of Ondo State.

**1.4 Significance of the Study**

This study which is

concerned with investigating the use of instructional materials in teaching and

learning of Mathematics

schools in Ilaje Local government Area of Ondo State is bound to be of immense

benefits to students, teachers, school authorities, curriculum planner,

educational stakeholders and Ministries of Education at different level of

government.

concerned with investigating the use of instructional materials in teaching and

learning of Mathematics

**in secondary**schools in Ilaje Local government Area of Ondo State is bound to be of immense

benefits to students, teachers, school authorities, curriculum planner,

educational stakeholders and Ministries of Education at different level of

government.

The finding from this study will be of immense

benefit because it will enhance the learning processes of the students and

thereby improve on their overall academic performance, since it will increase

the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make

learning more interesting.

benefit because it will enhance the learning processes of the students and

thereby improve on their overall academic performance, since it will increase

the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make

learning more interesting.

Also, the result from

this study will help to re-emphasis the need for Mathematics

making the use of instructional materials a factor to be considered in

promoting teaching and learning of Mathematics

measure provides a basis that compliments and supports the use of teaching

skills and enhances effectiveness.

this study will help to re-emphasis the need for Mathematics

**teachers of secondary schools on importance of**making the use of instructional materials a factor to be considered in

promoting teaching and learning of Mathematics

**. And this in no small**measure provides a basis that compliments and supports the use of teaching

skills and enhances effectiveness.

The findings will

further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the

importance or otherwise of the impact of instructional materials in teaching

and learning of Mathematics

secondary schools.

further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the

importance or otherwise of the impact of instructional materials in teaching

and learning of Mathematics

**in**secondary schools.

Furthermore,

finding from this study has much significance on the ministries of education at

all government level in Nigeria. This is because it will serve as a source of

information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials

to teaching and learning of Mathematics

one of the problems leading to poor academic performance in the subject.

finding from this study has much significance on the ministries of education at

all government level in Nigeria. This is because it will serve as a source of

information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials

to teaching and learning of Mathematics

**is**one of the problems leading to poor academic performance in the subject.

**1.5 Scope of the Study**

The

study will be delimited to investigate the impact of instructional materials in

teaching and learning of Mathematics

Area of Ondo State. The study will cover all the Mathematics

Ilaje Local Government.

study will be delimited to investigate the impact of instructional materials in

teaching and learning of Mathematics

**secondary schools in Ilaje Local government**Area of Ondo State. The study will cover all the Mathematics

**students in five (5) secondary schools within**Ilaje Local Government.

**1.6 Research Questions**

**The following**

research questions are to guide this study:

1.

Are instructional materials available

for the teaching and learning of Mathematics

Government Area of Ondo State?

Are instructional materials available

for the teaching and learning of Mathematics

**in the secondary schools in Ilaje Local**Government Area of Ondo State?

2.

How often do Mathematics

Area of Ondo State?

How often do Mathematics

**teachers use instructional materials to teach Mathematics****in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government**Area of Ondo State?

3.

What are the problems hindering

effective use of instructional materials during Mathematics

Government Area of Ondo State?

What are the problems hindering

effective use of instructional materials during Mathematics

**teaching and learning in Ilaje Local**Government Area of Ondo State?

4.

Do instructional materials have impact on

the attitude of Mathematics

Area of Ondo State?

Do instructional materials have impact on

the attitude of Mathematics

**students towards the teaching and learning of Mathematics****in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government**Area of Ondo State?

**1.7 Operational Definition of Terms**

**Academic**

performance: Is defined as successful completion, through effort, of the

performance

acquisition of academic content and skills mostly determined by the grades or

scores that the student gets in a test.

**Effective learning**– is learning which develops

understanding of learning in the changing world. Effective learning involves

individuals moving beyond making connections of new ideas to old ones into

restructuring their thinking radically by changing the connections among the

things they already know or even discard some long-held beliefs about the

world.

**Learning**– is the act of acquiring new, or

modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviours, skills, values or

preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.

**Teaching**: Teaching is the concerted sharing of knowledge and

experience, which is usually organized within a discipline and more generally,

the provision of stimulus to the psychological and intellectual growth of

students by teachers.

**Assumptions**

of the study

of the study

**The researcher**

assumes that there is lack of use of instructional material in teaching of Mathematics

**in secondary schools in Ilaje local government**

area of Ondo State. Also, the researcher assumed that if instructional

materials are properly used in teaching and learning of Mathematics

**in secondary schools in Ilaje local government**

area of Ondo State, the academic performance of the students will become better

and improved.

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