ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS HIV/AIDS INFECTIONS

ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS HIV/AIDS INFECTIONS
ABSTRACT
This study investigated the attitude of
adolescent towards HIV/AIDS infection. Most previous studies have focused on
the health problems and prevention HIV/AIDS infection carried by virus. In
order to accomplish the subjects of the study a number of research
question/hypothesis were put forward to guild the investigation. The population
of the study consisted of 100 randomly selected adolescent students from 6 of
the 10 public schools in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State. A
questionnaire was designed to elicit the predictive posture/attitude of the
students (Adolescents) on HIV/AIDS. The questionnaires were administered to the
selected secondary schools. The data collected were analyzed using simple
means, percentage, and t-test statistics. The results were discussed in
relation to the research question/hypothesis. The result indicated that the
respondents expressed both positive and negative attitude about the HIV/AIDS
infections. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that everyone
can help to prevent this tragedy. It is your responsibility to be informal and
to inform others about this disastrous disease that many children will not be
left as orphans of having their hopes for the future ruined by losing their
chances for education and a happy life. The parents, teachers and the three
tiers of government all have roles to ensure that adolescent develop the right
attitude that can ensure the survival of the generation yet unborn. This can be
done through lectures, seminars, workshop, about this global epidemic and the
risk of consequences on sexual delinquency.  
  
   
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title                                                                                                  Page
Certification                                                                                                ii
Dedication                                                                                         iii
Acknowledgement                                                                                      iv
Abstract                                                                                            vi
Table of content                                                                                viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study                                                                            1
Statement of the Problem                                                                           8       
Significance of the Study                                                                            8
Research Questions                                                                           9       
Hypotheses                                                                                       10
Assumption of the Study                                                                           10     
Delimitation of the study                                                                            11
Limitation of the study                                                                     12
Definition of terms                                                                                     13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Review of the Literature                                                                             14
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design                                                                                41
Area of the Study                                                                              41
Population                                                                                        42
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                    42
Sampling Procedure                                                                          43
Instrument                                                                                        44
Validity
of the Instrument                                                                 44
Administrative
and Method of Data Collection                                44
Data
Analysis                                                                                   45
CHAPTER FOUR
Discussion of Result                                                                         46
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                                  56
Summary                                                                                          57
Conclusion                                                                                        57
Recommendations                                                                                      60
Suggestion for further Study                                                            61
References                                                                                         62
Questionnaire                                                                                    67
CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study
Sexually transmitted
infections (STI) are spread primarily through person-to-person contact,
although some of the pathogens that cause it, especially Human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) and syphilis, can be transmitted from mother to child during
pregnancy and childbirth, and through blood products and tissue transfer (World
Health Organization (WHO) Media centre, 2011; Nsuami et al., 2010). Sexually
transmitted can be divided into those caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites
(WHO media centre, 2011). STI are most common in young sexually active people.
It has been reported that the incidence declines with age and that adolescents
and young adults experience the highest risk of exposure to STI (Richard and
Jay; 2002; Mudassir et al., 2010).
According to 1999 WHO
estimates, 340 million new cases of curable STIs (Syphilis, Gonorrhoea,
Chlamydia and Trichomoniasis
) occur annually throughout the world in adults
aged 15 to 49 years. In the developing countries, STI and their complications
rank in the top five disease categories for which adult seek health care (WHO media
centre, 2011). Some of these STI when not controlled can lead to severe
complications. In men, gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to
epididymitis. Inflammatory urethral stricture may arise later from poorly
treated gonococcal urethritis, which in turn may lead to urinary retention and
possibly chronic renal failure if not properly managed. Some of the diseases
may result to genital ulcers, with few cases developing severe sacral
dysfunction resulting in urinary retention (Richard and Jay, 2002; Gerald and
Steven, 2002). Consequences of these STI include AIDS, spontaneous abortions,
stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal morbidities, chronic pelvic pains,
dyspareunia, infertility, increased risk of ectopic pregnancy and even death
(Whitfield, 1986; De Schryver and Meheus,1990; Chamberlain, 1995; Westrom and
Mardh, 1990; Rice, 1991; Robinson and Ridgeway, 1996; Otolorin, 1999).
Interestingly, STI are
preventable diseases and their prevention is even a priority for World Health
Organisation (WHO) (WHO media centre, 2011). For adequate prevention, sound
knowledge of the disease is very crucial. Knowledge of STI complication may
play an important role in encouraging safer sexual behaviours (Mmbaga et al.,
2007). Historically, knowledge about STI had been very low in communities where
there is high prevalence of STI. Some communities viewed STI as unavoidable or
as an “initiation into adulthood”. In Tanzania, the prevalence of STI
knowledge is very low (22.0%) (Mudassir et al., 2010; Mmbaga et al., 2007).
Also in Nepal, the knowledge about STI is low (about 40%) (Jaiswal et al.,
2005).
In Nigeria, 62% of
young women and 40% of young men lack knowledge of STIs (National Population
Commission, 2004). More importantly, report on STIs knowledge in southwest
Nigeria is scanty and that of Ekiti land is not available. The purpose of this
study was to assess the level of knowledge of STIs and possible factors
associated with the knowledge of patients attending outpatient clinics in the
University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. This will enable advocacy to
be targeted on at risk population, in order to control STIs and prevent its
possible sequelae.  
The human immune
deficiency Virus (HIV) is a non-on cogenic refrouvirus and is the primary
acrologic agent of acquiring immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The illness was
first described in 2009 and the virus was isolated by the end of 2005. Since
then, Aids has become a worldwide epidemic expanding is scope and magnitude as
HIV infection have affected population and geography regions. Million are now
infected worldwide and once infected individuals remain infected for life
within a decade the vast majority of HIV infected individuals develop fatal
opportunities infected as a result of HIV induced deficiencies in the immune
system. Infact AIDs promises to be a major health problem worldwide into the
next species (Nyamekye M. 2014) the causes of HIV/AIDS has been observe in the
1970s before it was fully identify in the western Nigerian in 2011 and in
eastern Ethiopia 2013 according to the health organization (WHO) report. But
Naido (2014) believed and claimed that is now know where AIDS actually started.
The virus causing HIV-1 was discovered in 2013 while the HIV-2 was discovered
in Nigerian 2014.
One difference between
the two types is that with HIV-2, there seems to be longer time before the full
blown disease develops. It is estimated that for every known cause of AIDs
there are 50 to 100 silent carriers. There are also many patients or vietims
who have the disease and it is neither diagnosed or reported.
AIDs was first
suspected of being a disease of the immune system when the number of so called
opportunistic infected was observed. The most common AIDS associated
opportunistic infection include pneumonia and other protozoa infection. However
pneumonia is by far the most common opportunistic disease encountered (Durojaye
Oc. 2011).
The major routes of HIV
transmission are sexual contact, contamination by blood or blood products, and
mother-to-newborn transmission. The principal cells infected by HIV are
lymphocytes. This cells play a key role in the immune defence system of the
organism the progressive decrease of the lymphocytes level during development
of the diseases lead to opportunistic infection with fatal consequences.
With HIV/AIDS there is
no class distinction as both the rich and highly educated people can be
infected as well as the poor. This epidemic has generated a lot of concern due
to the immediate and long effects on victim families and the society at large,
since it attack woman and men in their prime of life. The danger for youth or
adolescent or teenager is that the more frequently they have sex with the
victim, the more likely they are to be infectual with the virus. If they are
infected, they will certainly become carries of the disease immediately, and
without a blood test, they would not known that they have become carries if
they marry and have normal sexual contact, there is over 80-90 percent chance
that they would infact their partners. There is also between 20% to 40% chance
that they would pass on the infection to their unborn babies or children who
die within a year or two of birth. But is a young man or woman had avoided sex
before marriage and had remained faithful to his/her partner after marriage and
have also avoided transfusion with infected blood and unsterilized injection
needle then, there is no reason for any of the partners to be contacted with
HIV/AIDS.
Epidemiological studies
in the United State have identified five groups of adults at risk for
developing AIDS. The case distribution in there groups are as follow:
i.                  
Homosexual or bisexual males constitute
by far the largest group accounting for 60% of the reported cases. This include
5% who were intravenous drug abuses as well.
ii.                
Intravenous drug abuses with no previous
history of homosexually compose the next longest group, representing about 23%
of all patients. The represent the majority of all cares among heter-o sexual
iii.             
Hemophiliacs especially those with
received larger among of factor (vii) concentrates before 2011 make up 1% of
all cases.
iv.             
Recipients of blood and blood component
who are not hemophiliac but who received transfusion of HIV infected whole
blood or component (e.g platelets, plasma) account for 2% of patients.
v.                
Hero sexual contacts of members of other
high risk group, (chiefly intravenous drug abuses) constitute 6% of the patient
population.
In Nigeria, when the
first case of aids reported in 2012, it was estimated that by the year 2000
A.D, at least 4100 cases of AIDS would have occurred with about 7 million
people infected by the HIV virus.
However, the official
cumulative cases of AIDS reported by the National AIDS and sexually transmitted
disease control programme (NASTDCP) was 5,843 by the end of June 2000. This
1000 figure has been associated with poor access to hospitals, poor case
reporting and recording, under-reporting and logistic constrains.
The surveillance
studies constructed in 17 out of the 30 States of Nigeria between 2010 and 2012
shows that there is a rapid increase in HIV infections in all population
surveyed in urban and rural area.
Furthermore Worku A.
AND Philips in 2009/2011 survey data showed a pre-ponderance of HIV infection
in females between 15 and 19 years while for males, the peak age group for
HIV/AIDS realized Nigeria later than many African countries, it is now a major
health problem and a serious threat to sustainable development, because this
epidemic mainly affects productive young adults. 
HIV/AIDS
RECORD FOR EKITI STATE
In Ekiti State, the
available medical record for 2001 alone show that out of the 112 patients
examines for HIV/AIDS infection 41 patients were positive of which 30% were
adolescent. However it is noted that they are also many suspects/patients who
have the disease and are neither diagnosed or referred due to their ignorance.
The epidemic has become very wide spread among teenagers and young people
little time and attention are paid to the crucial issue of sex education in the
secondary schools of Ekiti State to educate the adolescent on the disease.
Statement
of the Problem
With the HIV/AIDS
scourage there seems to be no class distinctions as to who it inflicts. It
appear youth/adolescents, and even teenagers who are sexually involved have no
idea of their being in danger for this HIV/AIDS seen for now a major health
problem.
In the light of the
above, one is prompted to investigate the attitude of adolescent towards
HIV/AIDS infections. This is because this age group are majorly in danger of
falling victim of this epidemic. Having a knowledge of the attitudes is very
important as it is related to their sexual adjustment.
Significance
of the Study
This study will help
high-light or ascertain the attitudes of the adolescents towards HIV/AIDS
infections so that the school health education programme can be prepared to
cope with such attitudes effectively through the guidance and counseling
services in schools.
The administrators of
clinic and health institution as well as social workers could be better
informed of the social and psychological problems facing the adolescents
concerning HIV/Aids infections, and their attitude towards this disease. The
study will also throw lake in light on some steps to be take in stemming the
spread of this epidemic among the adolescent as well as its total eradication
in our society.
At times, parents and
teachers are party responsible for the prejudice and mis-conceptions about
HIV/AIDS because they are reluctant to study this disease and gives young
children the necessary information they need to protect themselves as grow-ups.
Thus this study is needed to educate not only the youth and adolescents but the
general public about deadly effect of HIV/AIDS and how to prevent it among the
adolescents who are most prone to its attack in our schools.
It is hoped also that
the study will help to promote positive changes in the sexual behavior of our
adolescents that could reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS infections among the
group.
Research
Question
In order to accomplish
the objectives of this study/research work, the researcher posed the following
research questions.
1.    
What are the attitudes of their
adolescents towards HIV/AIDS infections?
2.    
What are the factors militating against
sexual activities by the adolescent?
3.    
To what extent has the attitude of the
adolescent towards HIV/AIDS infections influenced their sexual activity or
sexual abuse?
4.    
To what extent has the attitude of the adolescents
towards HIV/AIDS infections influenced sex education in our schools as well as
government health care programme in our society generally?
Research
Hypothesis
The major hypothesis
formulated for this study are:
Ho: Would there be a significant
difference in the attitude of the adolescents living in the urban and rural
areas towards HIV/AIDS infection?
Ho: Would there be a significant
difference in the attitudes of the male and female adolescent towards HIV/AIDS
infection?
Assumption
of Study
It is believed that a
study/research work like this is necessary in order to understand the attitude
of the adolescents toward HIV/AIDS in the society and also whether there are
significant difference in their attitude as to their sex towards this epidemic.
There is also the
assumption that each of us some kind of responsibility to reduce the spread of
HIV/AIDS among the adolescents though sex education, guidance and counseling
services that will help reduce sex abuse among these young people and instill
in them a sense of sexual responsibility.
Delimitation
of the Study
This is a research that
would have been wide in scope and range, but would have been wide in scope and
range, but would be limited to the post primary schools in Ado Local Government
Area of Ekiti State as a case study because there has been much research work
done there especially on HIV/AIDS, the millennium global moster stirring all
nations of the world in the face as no reasonable or appreciable cure for it
has been know or discovered.
It should be noted that
all the contributing factors or variable that can dampen or enhance the
attitude of the secondary school adolescents towards HIV/AIDS infections cannot
be exhausted in this study. Therefore the researcher would limit the scope of
this research to be following areas in the literature review.
1.    
The pandemic global epidemic HIV/AIDS
2.    
Modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS
iv/aids infections.
3.    
Public reactions to the problem of
HIV/AIDS infection.
4.    
Causes of HIV/AIDS infection among
adolescent
5.    
Symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection
6.    
False belief on HIV/AIDS infection among
teenagers
7.    
Prevention of HIV/AIDS infection
8.    
The adolescent age and its developmental
tasks
9.    
Adolescent as a period of “storm and
stress” and summary of the chapter.
Thus (1-9) above would
be used to discuss the results obtained from the administered instrument. The
result obtained would be used to either accept or reject the working
hypothesis. Then the implication of findings and recommendations for further
research will be given.
Limitation
of the study
This study is basically
designed for finding out the attitude of secondary school adolescent towards
HIV/AIDS infections that the study is limited only to some selected secondary
schools in Ado-Local Government area of Ekiti State. This is because no
researcher can treat all the local government area of the state within the
limited time under a research of this type.
It should be noted that
all the contributing factors that hindered the researcher from carrying out the
research work into detail include: financial attitude of the people to research
work of this type based on their ignorance and lukewarm attitude to the
importance of research finding.
The instrument used
through tested and validated properly, there could still be some response
biases arising from the origin and nature of HIV/AIDS in the opinion of the
researcher that might influence this study should be over-looked.
Definition
of Terms
Below are some term
used in this study:
1.    
Adolescent:
This is an individual undergoing development and transition to sexual maturity
the time span in term of age is 13-21 years.
2.    
HIV:
Human
Immune Deficiency Virus it is a disease or the virus that cause AIDS.
3.    
AIDS:
Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndrome, it is a disease that could result in a break down
of the defense mechanism of the body against various infections. It can
eventually result in death.
4.    
ATTITUDE:
Way of thinking of behavior.      
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