TEACHING ARABLE CROPS PRODUCTION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OGORI/MAGONGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KOGI STATE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is the cultivation of the soil planting of crop and rearing of animals and marketing of produce for man’s use. Nigeria had experienced different socio-political regimes with diverse agricultural and educational systems. Nigeria for instance had practices without much success, the colonial system of education which British colonist installed for her before national independence in October, 1960.
The progress of any nation depends largely on the educational system. The overall fundamental objective of the policy was geared towards restructuring the farmer colonial system of education in order to make education relevant to the needs of Nigerians. Vocational technical equipment were supplied to secondary schools so that schools might become job oriented institution producing graduates who would become self-employed. Also, production effort was geared towards producing arable crops.
According to Jannings (1970), arable crops are annual crops cultivated on ploughed land. This include: cereals, root crop, fibre and legumes.
According to Martin (1977), define arable crops as any land that is suitable for cultivation such as is ploughing.
Arable crops are mainly used as food for both human beings and livestock. Some are processed for clothing, some provide raw materials for industries and also used as medicine. Example of some of these arable crops includes, Cereal crops, such as maize, rice, millet and guineacorn. It also includes legumes crops such as cowpea, soyabeans, groundnut, pigeonpea, fibre crops such as cotton, kenaf and jute.
Producing arable crops would involve some consideration and activities which include the following:
- selecting of site appropriate for the arable crops.
- determining soil climate requirement for such crop
- determining method of propagation best for its production
- preparing land for cropping ready as at when due.
- Planting the crop with predetermined method spacing between and along the rows.
- Maintenance of crops in the field such as disease control, weeding, mulching, staking and other maintenance culture.
- Harvesting, preservation and processing for future use.
The aims and objectives of National policy of Education (1981) revised version are:
- To provide students with the opportunity for developing manipulative skills that will enable teaching to function on activities needed for producing arable crops
- To provide basic tools and craft in agriculture. Basic tools like, thresher or combine harvester, ridger, plough, tractor, harrow e.g Disk harrow e.t.c.
- To inculcate in the students learning by doing.
- To cater for individual talents, opportunities after their course.
- To provide adequate staff and materials and other facilities for introducing the learner to be demand as aspiration.
- To inspire in students with a desire for achievement and self improvement both in the schools and later in life.
Statement of the problem
This study focuses on the ways of teaching arable crops production at the secondary school level. Observations have shown that most agricultural science teachers teach arable crops in schools theoretically without much attention to teaching for skill acquisition. Teachers teach the students for the purpose of passing examination and not for skill acquisition.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study is to examine and therefore improve the teaching of arable crops production in secondary schools in Ogori/Magongo Local Government Area of Kogi State. Specifically the study seeks to:
- find out the personal characteristics of the teachers e.g their qualifications.
- find out the methods being used hitherto to teach agricultural science.
- examine the facilities available for the teaching of arable crops.
- identify problems against the teaching of arable crops and suggest solutions.
Significance of the Study
The study will assist the education policy makers to know how best they can assist the school in improving the teaching of arable crop production.
The study will inculcate the right knowledge and necessary skills for producing arable crops. The acquisition of this can make the students self-employed.
The study can assist the teachers in adopting the correct methods of producing arable crop.
The study will provide useful information to future studies on related topic in the area.
Scope of the Study
The study covers the teaching of Arable crops in both junior and senior secondary schools within Ogori/Magongo Local Government Area of Kogi State.
This study answered these questions.
- What are the methods of teaching arable crops in secondary schools?
- What are the personal characteristics of the teachers?
- What facilities are available for teaching arable crop productions?
- What problems are encountered in teaching arable crop production?