Alfred Binet define
intelligence as judgment , otherwise called “good sense” “practical sense”
“initiative”, the faculty of adapting one’s self to circumstance… auto
Legg &Hutter define
intelligence as a synthesis of 70+ definitions from psychology, and Al
researcher. “Intelligence measures an agent’s ability to achieve goals in a
wide range of environments, which has been mathematically formalized.
Intelligence has been
defined in many different ways including one’s  
capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self –awareness,
communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memor0py, planning, creativity
and problem solving. It can be more generally describe as the ability to
perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive
behaviors within an environment.
Intelligence derives
from the Latin verb, intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. A form of this
verb, intellectus became the medieval technical term for understanding, and a
translation for the Greek philosophical terms nous. This term was however
strongly linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological
scholasticism, including theories of the immorality of the soul, and the
concept of the Active intellect (also known as the Active intelligence). This
entire approach to the study of nature was strongly rejected by the early
modern philosopher such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and David
Hume, all of whom preferred the word “understanding in their English
philosophy, but it has later been taken up (with the scholastics theories which
it now implies in more contemporary psychological
Human Intelligence is
the intellectual capacity of humans, which is characterized by perception,
consciousness, self –awareness, and volition. Through their intelligence,
humans possess the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts, understand,
apply logic and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns comprehend
ideas plan, problem solve make decisions, retain information , and use language
to communicate. Intelligence enables humans to experience and think.
There is no universally
accepted definition of intelligence, one definition is the “ability to reason
plan, solve problems think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language and
learn”. The evolution of hominid intelligence can be traced over its course for
the past 10 million years and attributed to specific environmental challenges.
It is a
misunderstanding of evolutionary theory, however to see this as a necessary
process, and an even greater misunderstanding to see it as one directed to a
particular outcome.
There are primate
species which have not evolved any greater degree of intelligence than they had
10 million years ago this is because their particular environment has not
demanded this particular adaptation of them
Intelligence as
adaption to the challenge of natural selection is no better no worse than any
other adaptation, such as the speed of the cheetan or the venomous bite of the
lebra. It is however, the only adaptation which has allowed a species to
establish complete domination over the rest of the natural world, whether our
species has yet acquired sufficient intelligent to image this responsibility is
a matter for debate.
Theories of intelligence as is the case
with most scientific theories, have evolved through a succession of models four
of the most influential paradigms have been psychological measurement, also
known as a psychometric, cognitive psychology which concerns itself with the
process by which the mid functions, Cognitivism and Contextualism a combined
approach that studies the interaction between the environment  and mental process and biological science
which consider the neural bases of intelligence. What follows is a discussion
of development within these four areas.
Psychometric theories are based on a
model that portrays intelligence as a composite of abilities measured by mental
test. This model can be quantified. For example, performance on a number series
test might represent a weighted composite of number, reasoning and memory
abilities for a complex series. Mathematical models allow for weakness in one
area to be offset by strong ability. In another area of test performance in this
way, superior ability in reasoning can compensate for a deficiency in a number
One of the earliest of the psychometric
theories came from the British psychologist Charles E. Spearman who published
is first major articles in intelligence. He noticed what may seem obvious now
that people who did on metal-ability test tended to do well on others, while
people who performed poorly on one them also tended to perform poorly on
During the era dominated by psychometric
theories, the study of intelligence was influced most by those investigating of
intelligence was influced most by those investigating individual different in
people’s test scores. In an address to the American Psychological Association,
the American researcher lee croncbach, a leader in the testing field, decried
the lack of common ground between psychologists who studied individual
difference and those who studied commonalities in human behavior. Cronbach’s
plea to unite “two discipline of scientific psychology” led in part to the
development of cognitive theories.
Fair assement of performance require an
understanding of the process underlying intelligence, otherwise there is a risk
of arriving at conclusions that are misleading. If not simply wrong when evaluating
overall test scores or other assement of performance. Suppose for example that
a student performs poorly on the verb analogies question in a psychometric
test. One possible solution conclusion is that the student does not understand
the words or is unable to read them in the first place. A student who fails to
solve the analogy ‘audacious is to pusillanimous as mitigate is to might be an
excellent reasoner but have only a modest vocabulary, or vice vera. By using
cognitive analysis the test interpreter is able to determine the degree for
which the poor score stems from low reasoning ability and the degree to which
it results from net understanding the words.
theories discussed above seek to understand intelligence in terms of
hypothetical mental constructs, whether there are factors, cognitive processes
or cognitive process in interaction with context. Biological theories represent
a radically different approach that dispense with mental construct altogether.
Adureate of such theories, usually called reductionists, believe that a true
Understanding intelligence is possible only be identifying its biological
basis. Some world argue that there is no alternative to reductionism if in fact
the god is to explain rather than merely to describe behavior, But the case is
not an open and shut one especially if intelligence is viewed as something more
than the mere processing of information As Howard Gardner pointedly asked in
the article “What we do and Don’t know About learning” [2004].    
Intelligence is broken
down into nine different types, also called the nine domains of intelligence.
This categorization of intelligence was first theorized by developmental
Howard Gardner in his
book Frames of mind: The Theory of Multiple intelligences. Since then, the
Multiple Intelligences theory been used that has gone on concerning human
cognition. Gardner argues that there is no true way to measure intelligence and
that the human brain is wired with a wide range of cognitive abilities. Framing
intelligence in the way Gardner does disrupts the old mold of thinking in which
intelligence was ultimately a measure of (what Gardner would call) Logical
mathematical intelligence. The premise of Gardner’s theory is that someone can
be extremely bad at math yet be the best of the best in another field, such as
music. Thus limiting the definition of intelligence is detrimental to our
understanding of how the human brain works. So without further ado, I present
to you the nine different types of intelligence:
Ever wonder why certain
people are able to connect with animals just like that? Have you ever encountered
someone that possess what is commonly referred to as a “green thumb” Well,
those people are great examples of “nature’s different features such as
animals, plants, rock configurations, cloud formation and other such things.
Today naturalistic intelligence remains a vital component of roles like being a
chef or botanist.
Musical intelligence is
the capacity to discern pitch, rhyme, timbre and tone. This intelligence
enables us to recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect on music as
demonstrated by composers, conductors, musicians, vocalist and sensitive
listeners. Interestingly, there is often an affective connection between music
and the emotions; and mathematical and musical intelligence may share common
thinking processes.
intelligence is the ability to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and
hypotheses, and carry out complete mathematical operations. It enables us to
perceive relationships and connections and to use abstract, symbolic thought;
sequential reasoning skills and inductive and deductive thinking patterns.
Logical intelligence is usually well developed in mathematicians, scientists
and detectives
Sensitivity and
capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of
life, why do we die, and how did we get here.
Intelligence is the ability to understand and interact effectively with others.
It involves effective verbal and nonverbal communication, the ability to note
distinctions among others, sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others,
and the ability to entertain multiple perspectives. Teachers, social workers,
actors and politicians all exhibit interpersonal intelligence.
Bodily kinesthetic
intelligence is the capacity to manipulate objects and use a variety of
physical skills. This intelligence also involves a sense of timing and
perfection of skills through mind body union. Athletes, dancers, surgeons and
craftspeople exhibit well developed bodily kinesthetic intelligences.
Linguistic intelligence
is the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate
complex meanings. Linguistic intelligence allows us to understand the order and
meaning of words and to apply meta- linguistic skills to reflect on our use of
intelligence is the capacity to understand oneself and one’s thoughts and
feelings, and to use such knowledge in planning and directioning one’s life.
Intra- personal intelligence involves not only an appreciation of the self, but
also of the human condition. It is evident in psychologist, spiritual leaders
and philosophers
Spatial intelligence is
the ability to think in three dimensions. Core capacities include mental
imagery, spatial reasoning, image manipulation, graphic and artistic skills and
an active imagination. Sailors pilots, sculptors, painters and architect all
exhibit spatial intelligence
An Intelligence
quotient (IQ) is a score derived from one several standardized tests designed
to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation “IQ” was coined by the
psychologist William Stern for the German term intelligenzquotient, his terms
for scoring method for intelligence tests he advocated in a 1912 book. When
current IQ tests are developed, the median raw score of the norming sample is
defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation (SD) up or down are
defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so
historically. By this definition, approximately two-thirds of the population
scores between IQ 85 and IQ 115. About 5 percent of the population scores above
125, and 5 percent below 75.
IQ scores have been
shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental,
social status and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the
heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still
debate about the significance of heritability estimate and the mechanisms of
IQ score are used for
educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, and evaluating
job applicants. Even when student improve their scores on standardized tests,
they don’t always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory, attention
and speed. In research contexts they have been studied as predictors of job
performance, and income. They are also used to study distributions of psychometric
intelligence in populations and the correlation between it and other variables.
Raw scores on IQ  tests for many
populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points
per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the
Flynn effect. Investigation of different patterns of increase in subtest scores
can also inform current research on human intelligence.
Sternberg, R.J (2003).
“A broad view of intelligence: The theory of successful intelligence”.
Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research 55 (3): 139-154
Das, J.P. (2002). “A
better look at intelligence”. Current Directions in psychological 11(1): 28-32
Shipstead, Zach; Redick
Thomas S; Randall W. (2010). Does Working Memory Training Generalize?
Psychological  Belgical 50 (3-4) 245-276
Hunt, Earl (2011).
Human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. ISBN  978-0-5221-70781-7. Lay summary (28 April
2013). First  edition of a comprehensive  textbook by a veteran  scholar of human intelligence
Amercian pschiatrics
Association (2013). Diadonstic  and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (First edition).
Strenberg, R.J
(2004,July). Culture and Intelligence
Mackintosh, N.J (2011).
IQ and Human Intelligence (second ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN
The cognitive
–psychology approach vs. psychometric approach to intelligence- American
Scientist Magazine
The Limits of
intelligence: The laws of physic may well prevent the human  brain from evolving into an ever more
powerful thinking  machine by Douglas Fox
in Scientific American, June 14, 2011.

Siegler, R.S &
Alibali, M.W (2005). Children’s Thinking (4th ed., pp.107-125).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Legg, S., & Hutter,
M (2007.June). A collection of Definitions of Intelligence. In: Advances in
Artificial General Intelligence: Concepts, Architectures and Algorithms, 157,
Trewavas, Anthony
(September 2002). “Mindless mastery”. Nature 415 (6874): 841


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