AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION POLICY (6-3-3-4) ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
This study investigates the effect of 6-3-3-4 system
of education on Nigeria students’ academy performance. This study was a survey
research type which comprises of selected secondary schools in Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State. Questionnaire was used as a research instrument
for data collection from one hundred (100) sampled respondents and the data was
analysed with the use of frequency and simple percentage. The result shows that
the curriculum of 6-3-3-4 system of education is not well developed to help
students’ to realize their potentials as the Ministry of Education do not fully
provide the materials needed to help the students with their academic
performance. It was therefore recommended that the 6-3-3-4 system of education
(UBE) should be improved the upheld as the education system in Nigeria. Also,
the fact that the government has committed a huge sum of money to the 6-3-34 of
education without yielding any appreciation result show that there is needs for
moral, spiritual and financial support of religious, social and political
organisation, teachers, parent and students, educators and educationist,
including all well – meaning Nigerians to reach out to National Education
goals.
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TABLE OF CONTENT
                                                                                               Page
Title
Page…………………………………………………             
Certification………………………………………………                      
Dedication…………………………………………………                       
Acknowledgement………………………..………………                       
Abstract……………………………………………………                       
Table
of content…………………………………………..                       
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1     Background of the study….………………………………       
1.2     Statement of the Problem..……….……………………….             
1.3     Objective of the Study…………………………………….        
1.4     Research Questions ……………………………………….          
1.5     Research Methodology……………………………………          
1.6     Significance of the Study………………………………..            
1.7     Justification of the Study ………………………………..           
1.8     Scope of the Study………..………………………………..         
1.9     Definition of Terms ……………………………………….        
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review and Theoretical
Framework
2.1     The Definition of 6-3-3-4System of
Education ………….          
2.2     Challenges of Curriculum Development in
Nigeria………               
2.3     The Poor State of the Nations’
Economy:                                
 Impact on Education Policies …………………………….                
2.4     Conceptualizing Education Policy ……………………….          
2.3     Method of Educational Planning …………………………         
2.6     Theoretical Framework ……………………………………       
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1     Research Design…………………………………………             
3.2     Population of the Study ……………………………………                  
3.3     Sample and Sampling Technique .………………………..        
3.4     Instrument for Data Collection …………….………….…          
3.5     Source of Data Collection …….………………………..…        
3.6     Validation of the Instrument…….…………………………              
3.7     Administration of the Instrument .…………………….…        
3.8     Data Analysis Technique …….……………………………                  
CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation and Analysis
of Data
4.1     Presentation of Results..………….………………………            
4.2     Discussion of Findings……………………………………          
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and
Recommendations
5.1     Summary …………………………………..……………..           
5.2     Conclusion ….………..………………………………..…..                 
5.3     Recommendation ……………………………………..……                  
5.4     Suggestion for Further Study ……………………….…….                  
REFERENCES ……………………………………………..……         
APPENDIX…………………………………………………….…         
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background
of the Study
Education is an age long phenomenon is all
societies, although itmay take various forms from one society to another. In
Nigeria, two forms of education were in existence before the advent of
colonialism. They were indigenous education and Islamic education. Traditional
education was practiced in the Southern part, and middle belt area, consisted
essentially of general but informal training in character, norms, agriculture,
fishing, intellectuals and other ways of life as approved by the society.
Islamic education on the other hand was practiced mainly in the Northern part
of Nigeria. It was based on Quran teachings. Both form of education preceded
the western education which was introduced in Nigeria in the 19th
century by the European Christian Missionaries. The advert of colonial brought
about informal education in Nigeria. This subsequently led by Policy Formation
in Education Sector.
Educational system is defined by dictionary of
education, (2008) as the system of formalized transmission of knowledge and
value, within a given society. Educational system is the way the people in a
given society carry out all activities relating to education (Abati, 2010). To
this end, educational system is a system which embraces teachers, students,
contents and contexts to achieve set goals. Nigeria has established several
educational systems and each of them had laid huge financial, material and
labour costs on the country. It is pathetic that each of these very expensive
programmes had supposedly failed leading to establishment of a new one. Even
the most recent one being the 9-3-4 system has been viewed to have failed as
observed by Abati (2010). Nigeria cannot continue to gamble with the future of
her younger generations over various ineffective and inefficient educational
systems.
Adaralegbe in Adeyinka (1991) stated that the
6-3-3-4 system of education is an educational system which administers a six
year primary school course followed by six years of secondary schooling,
divided into three year of junior secondary and a three year senior secondary
education and lastly a four -year university programme. Anieto (2011)
commenting on the ineffectiveness of the 6-3-3-4 system of education stated
that; there is a general worry about the poor quality of education output in Nigeria.
Researchers have pointed to the declining performance of graduates from the
education system relative to what obtained in the past education
system.–(Ugochukwu, 2009, Duze, 2011, Aladejana, 2013).          
A critical examination of the type of formal education
in Nigeria before and after independence shows that this education was
inadequate and unsatisfactory to the nation’s yearnings and aspirations. In the
opinion of many scholars like Nduka, (1965); Fafunwa (1974); Obayan (1982); the
education was parochial, elitist, regurgitate and irresponsive to the need and
aspirations of the Nigerian society.
In a bid to check this abnormality, therefore, the
then Federal Government of Nigeria adopted education as an instrument par
excellence for effective national development. Plan it is stated: education goals in
terms of its relevance to the need of the individual as well as in terms of the
kind of society desired in relation to the environment and realities of the
modern world and rapid social changes should be clearly set out (National
policy on Education, F.R.N. 1981).
Abati (2010), stated that it is a common knowledge
that the 6-3-3-4 system of education is the major reform in Nigeria’s education
system and is generally regarded as fafunwa’s baby. Also, the 6-3-3-4 did not
produce the expected technician class because of the emergent culture of
automatic promotion, and the situation that almost every family’s insistence on
university education.
The 9-3-4 system of education was introduced to
replace the 6-3-3-4 system. The system merged the six years of primary
education and the first three years of the secondary education. Concerning
this, Uwaifor and Uddin (2009) stated that the new system has its first nine
years of basic and compulsory education up to the Junior Secondary School
level, three years in the senior secondary school, and four years in the
tertiary institution. They further noted that it was designed to streamline the
overcrowded nature of then the 6-3-3-4 system of education was seen as a
laudable programme capable of ushering in an educational revolution in Nigeria;
hence step in the right direction, towards the technological development of the
nation.
However, the current situation on ground is far from
this ideal. This system seems to be suffering from poor and shoddy
implementation. This work thus examines the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of
education in students’ academic performance a case study of some selected
secondary schools in Ikere local government.
1.2       Statement
of the Problem
Education in Nigeria is currently in crisis. There is less
money to spend on Primary, Secondary and Tertiary education. Education sector
complains of under-funding while the government accuses the sector of
inefficient utilization of available resources. The donors argue that public
spending on education should be reduced. At the same time there are growing
changes at the education level. Moreover, there are increasing complaints about
poor standard of education at a period when globalization demands much from the
educational system in terms of preparation of skillful labour force.
            Another problem battling with this
educational sector in Nigeria is the incompetence of employed teachers. This is
found rampant in private schools, for the simple fact that such schools are
owned by private individuals that can employ staff on their own without
verifying their educational background, standard and qualification. Owners of
such schools tend to be profit oriented (capitalist). With this, their target
on payment of salary will be lesser unlike public school which is anchored by
the government. The gaps that this study waits to fill is that several study(ies)
has been conducted by the researchers on the study, using content analysis as
the method of analyzing the identifying variables, but this study employ the
descriptive analysis to investigate the relationship between the independent
and dependent variables.
There is a rampant notion which is generally felt in the
Nigeria’s education sector. The academic performance of students at the various
levels of educational system, the incessant strikes embarked by the
Academic Staff Union of
Universities
(ASUU)
and
Non-Academics
Staff Union (NASU
), teachers in the secondary and primary schools etc. have
really affected the education sector and performance of the students. Owing to
this, the academic calendar have been disrupted, pupils and students have
stayed more than required in their studies. To the employed staff in the
academic institutions, their agitations boil down to the inability by
government to meet up the new salary scheme. More so, it is attributed to the
poor state of the learning institutions, which the attention of the government
is drawn on. These have prompted the researcher to embark on the study to
investigate the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education on Nigeria students’
academic performance.
1.3       Objective
of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to ascertain the effect of
6.-3-3-4 system of education on Nigeria students’ academic performance in some
selected secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti – State.   Specifically, the objectives of the study
are:
1.      Examining the academic performance
of students in secondary schools in other to ascertain the benefits of 6-3-3-4
system of education.
2.      Identifying factors that contribute
to the poor performance of the students in secondary schools.
3.      To determine the policy implementation
and the problems challenges associated with the policy.
4.      To examine the relevance of the
policy, its introduction into Nigeria education system.
1.4       Research Questions
            The following
research questions were formulated for the study.
1.      Does
6-3-3-4 system of education help students’ in achieving their academic
performance?
2.      What
are the factors affecting students’ performance at secondary school levels?
3.      What
are the problems facing the implementation of 6-3-3-4 system of education at
secondary school level?
4.      What
are the relevance of 6-3-3-4 system of education to Nigerian education system?
1.5       Research
Methodology
            The study
employs the descriptive statistics as a survey design. Both primary and
secondary data will be used as a source of data collection for the study. A
qualitative approach is used to highlight the specific phenomena and to
identify phenomena through how they are perceived by the actors in the
situation. The primary data involves the data that is collected from source
through interview and questionnaire, while secondary data involves the
information collected from the prepared sources such as newspaper, magazine and
academic journals. The method of data analysis would be based on simple
percentage analysis
1.6       Signification of the Study
            The
work of this nature when completed may help the school authorities to be aware
of the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education on students’ level academic
attainment and how such affect the students’ positively or negatively in
relation to their academic performance. From the available recommendations,
they will be able to adopt measures of following proper curriculum
implementation there in such a way that they will perform well academically. More
so, educational and curriculum planners could be guided in planning the
curriculum without rigidity to suit diverse cultural environments. In addition,
the teachers would be aware that a cordial teacher/student relationship may in
a way improve the influence of academic background on the academic performance
of students’ in school.                       
The
research of this nature is likely to help the state, nation, educational
sectors and the world in general benefit from as adherence to the
recommendations and implementation will help produce youths who would be better
leaders of tomorrow.         
Finally,
the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage
further research on the topic.         
1.7       Justification of the Study
            The
needs for the study is very important at this point in time, as the nation is
experiencing several reforms, policy and programme in education sector aimed at
putting the education in appropriate position. The study looks at the
reflection and influence of management and administrative styles of education
sectors in the management and development of education sector in Nigeria with a
reference to selected schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
The selected schools will incorporate the elements of research and respondent
that will be appropriate as the population of the study.  In the same vein, the study will draw the
attention of government and stakeholders in the country to the effectiveness of
curriculum implementation and using fund allocated to them and policy,
instruments for education recovery from both national and global practice.
1.8       Scope
of the Study
            The study is design to examine the
effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education in students’ academic performance case
study of some selected secondary schools in Ikere local government area of
Ekiti State. It will also look at management and administrative style of
selected schools.
1.9       Definition of Terms
Education:
Education as an activity is as old as man across cultures. It is therefore a
concept that people have severally defined according to their own perceptions.
According to Emenike (2004), education is the acquisition of knowledge that
tends to train and develop individual. Education embraces not only school
experiences but also in direct or incidental influences which helps us to
learn, such influences and activities affect our character, behaviors and
perceptions. Education is a process of learning to live as useful and
acceptable members of society.
Development:
Is the
process
of
developing
something new, Cambridge Dictionary (2016):
development
related to this research work can be described as the overall development or a
collective of education advancement of a nation. This is best achieved through
curriculum planning, which can be described as the country’s collection of
strategies mapped out by the government.
Policy: A
course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization,
government or individual.
System: A
system
is a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common
purpose. The word sometimes describes the government or organization plan
itself and is similar in meaning to method.
1.10    Organization of Chapters
            The
study were divided into five chapters, chapter one of this research deals with
introduction to the study which include the general background of the study,
statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, research
methodology, significance of the study, justification of the study, scope of
the study, organization of chapters and definition of terms.
            Chapter two contain literature
review and theoretical framework which include definition of 6-3-3-4 system of
education, challenges of curriculum development in Nigeria, the poor state of
the Nation’s economy: impact on educational policies in Nigeria, dealings and
other areas.  Chapter three is concerned
with the methodology which include research design, population of the study,
sample and sampling technique, instrument for the collection, source of data
collection, administration of the instrument and data analysis technique.
            Chapter four contains presentation
and analysis of data. Chapter five which is the concluding chapter contains
summary, recommendation and conclusion.

References
Abati, I. R. (2010).
Reforming Nigeria’s Educational System- 6-3-3-4 or 6-5-4. Online Journal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reuben_Abati.Retrieved
27th of January, 2013.
Adeyinka, A.A. (1991).
The 6-3-3-4 Education Systems and the Drive for self-employment in Nigeria.
Education Research Journal. (3) 22-328
Aladejana, F.O. (2013).
Secondary Education in Ekiti State:
The Functional Perspective. Government of Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Anieto, U. (2009).
The 9-3-4 System: how formidable?. Online Article, retrieved from: http://www.focus
Nigeria.com/934- system.html.
Cambridge Dictionary (2016). Meaning
of “development” in the English Dictionary
Retrieved from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/development
Duze, C.O. (2011).
Falling Sta
ndard
in Nigeria Education: Traceable to proper skills-acquisition in schools?
Florida. Flap Height Press (ISSN: 2141-5161) Vol. 2(1).
Emenike, O. B. (2004). “Private
Returns to Higher Education in Nigeria” African Economic Research Consortium
Research Paper 139. Nairobi, March. 
Fafunwa A.B. (1974).
History of Education in Nigeria.  London,
George Alien & Unwin Press.
Nduka O. (1965).
Western Education and Nigerian Cultural Background. Ibadan. University Press.
Obayan F.O.B. (1982).
The New National Policy on Education in Nigeria:  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
31(5), 937-943
Ugochukwu, A. (2009).
The 9-3-4 System: How Formidable?. Florida. Journal of Educational Studies.
(2) (3) pp 70-74
Uwaifo, V.O. and Uddin, P.S.O.
(2012).
Transition from the 6-3-3-4 to the 9-3-4 System of
Education in Nigeria: An Assessment of its Implantation on Technology subjects.
Journal of Applied Education and Vocational Technology 3(6) 33-47

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