AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF BROKEN HOMES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STAT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                                              i
CERTIFICATION                                                                                                ii
DEDICATION                                                                                            iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                        iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                     vi
ABSTRACT                                                                                               ix
CHAPTER
ONE                                                                                      
1.0 Introduction                                                                                          1
1.1 Background of the Study                                                                      1       
1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                     10
1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                        12
1.4
Research Questions                                                                              12
1.5 Research Hypotheses                                                                                     12
1.6
Significance of the Study                                                                      13
1.7 Scope
of the Study                                                                               13
1.8 Limitation to the Study                                                                        13
1.9
Definition of the Terms                                                                        14
1.10
Organization of Chapters
                                                                            15
CHAPTER
TWO
2.0 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework                                              16
2.1 Introduction                                                                                          16
2.2 Effects of Broken Marriage on children’s Academic Performance                 17
2.3 Effects of Broken Marriage on School Going Children                        19
2.4 Perceptions of Children with Single Parents                                         23
2.5 Academic Achievement among Pupils of Divorced Families                24
2.6 Comparisons of Children from Divorced and Two-Parent Families     25
2.7 Factors Affecting the Children’s Academic Performance and
Socialization Processes in the Family                                                                                     26
2.7.1 Types of Family and Students’ Academic Performance                              26
2.7.2 Family Size and Position in the Family                                             26
2.7.3 Family Educational Background and Socio-Economic Status                    27
2.8 Factors
Affecting the Children’s Academic Performance and Socialization Processes in
the Family                                                                                     27
2.8.1 Types
of Family and Students’ Academic Performance                              28
2.8.2 Family Size and Position in the Family                                             28
2.8.3 Family Educational Background and Socio-Economic Status                    28
2.8.4 Parents’ Marital Quality, Parent-child Relations, and School
Adjustment
2.8 Family Disruption and Children’s Academic Functioning                             29
2.9 The Long-term Effects of Divorce                                                        30
2.10 Importance of the Home                                                                     31
2.10.1 Socialization of a Child                                                                             31
2.10.2 Child’s Care and Protection                                                            32
2.10.3 Emotional and Social Support                                                                  32
2.10.4 The Need for Love and Security                                                      33
2.10.5 The Need for New Experience                                                                   33
2.10.6 The Need for Praise and Recognition                                                        34
2.11 Conceptual Framework of the Study                                                  34
2.12 Summary                                                                                            35
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology                                                                         37
3.1
Introduction                                                                                          37
3.2
Research Design                                                                                   37
3.2 Area of Study                                                                                                 38
3.3 Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques                                              38
3.3.1 Target Population                                                                              38
3.3.2 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques                                             38
3.3.3 Sample Schools                                                                                 38
3.3.4 Primary School Low Academic Achievers Sample                                      39
3.4 Data Collection Techniques                                                                  39
3.4.1 Documentary Review                                                                        39
3.4.2 Questionnaires                                                                                   40
3.4.3 Interview                                                                                           40
3.5 Validation of the Study Instruments                                                    41
3.6 Data Analysis Techniques                                                                              41
3.7 Ethical Consideration                                                                           42
3.8 Summary                                                                                              42
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Presentation of Findings, Analysis and Interpretation                                   43
4.1 Introduction                                                                                          43
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents                                                      43
4.2.1 Sex of Respondents                                                                           43
4.2.3
Education level of Respondents                                                                  44
4.3 The
Teachers’ Perceptions on the Effects of Broken home on Children’s Academic
Performance                                                                                      45
4.3.1
Awareness on the Effects of Broken home on Children’s Academic Performance                                                                                               42
4.4 The Perception of Children on Broken home Effects of their Status on
their Academic Performance                                                                                      45
Table 4.6: The Perception of Children on broken home
on Academic Performance
4.5 The Community Members’ Views on their Role in Minimizing the Effects
of Broken home on Pupils’ Academic Performance                                          53
4.6 Summary                                                                                              55
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations                          57
5.1 Summary of Findings                                                                           57
5.2.1 Recommendations                                                                                       58
5.2.2 Recommendation for Further Study                                                  59
REFERENCES                                                                                         60
APPENDICES                                                                                           68
 ABSTRACT
          This study investigated the influence of broken homes on academic
performance and personality development of the adolescents in Ekiti state with particular
focus on the Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. In carrying out the
study, three null hypotheses were tested. The sample for the study consisted of
two hundred (200) adolescents randomly selected from four public senior
secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The instrument
used for data collection was a self – developed questionnaire. The data
collected were analyzed using both independent t-test and Pearson Product
Moment Correlation statistical methods. The results were held significant at
0.05 alpha levels. The results revealed that there is a significant difference
between single- parenting and academic performance of the adolescents, there is
a significant difference between parental socio- economic status and academic
performance, there is significant relationship between adolescents from broken
homes and academic performance.
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CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                            INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The family is the child’s first place of
contact with the world. The child as a result, acquires initial education and
socialization from parents and other significant persons in the family. Agulana
(2000) pointed out that the family lays the psychological, moral, and spiritual
foundation in the overall development of the child. Structurally, family/homes
is either broken or intact. A broken home in this context is one that is not
structurally intact, as a result of divorce, separation, death of one of parent
and illegitimacy. According to Frazer (2004), psychological home conditions
arise mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken
homes, divorce and parental deprivation. Such abnormal conditions of the home,
are likely to have a detrimental effect on school performance of the child he
asserts.
Life, in a single parent family or
broken home can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Such families
are faced with challenges of inadequate financial resources (children defense
find 2004). Schults (2006) noted that if adolescents from unstable homes are to
be compared with those from stable homes, it would be seen that the former have
more social, academic and emotional problems. Rochlke (2003) is of the opinion
that the family and its structure play a great role in children’s academic
performance. Levin (2001) states that parents are probably the actor with the
clearest undimentionals interest in a high level of their children’s academic
performance. To some extent, there is simple evidence to show the marital
instability brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation and frustration
obviously, these manifestations act negatively on a child’s academic
performance.
Johnson (2005) asserts that children of
unmarried parents separated families often fail and are at risk emotionally.
However, this may not be completely applicable in all cases of broken homes.
Some children irrespective of home background or structure may work hard and
become successful in life. Moreover, Ayodele (2007) stated that the environment
where a child finds himself/herself goes a long way in determining his learning
ability and ultimately his academic performance in school. The influence of sex
(gender) on academic performance has also been an issue of concern to most
researchers. This is because ‘gender’ appears to have some powerful effect on
learning.
According to Fauto-Sterling(2005) and
Friedman(2005) suggest no significant difference in cognitive ability between
males and females. Although research results vary widely the following
conclusions have been drawn. Males are more abstract learners, females have
more anxiety about study success, males are more instructive, and females are
more analytical and organized (Bielinskia & Davison 2003). Okoye(2008)
postulated that sex differences may have little or no effect on academic
performance, rather, he submits that eventual achievement by learners is
predicted more on personal effort than sex variable.
However, the overall picture suggests
that males and females may learn differently. In the same vein, socio-economic
background is another factor that may affect academic performance of students.
This background refers to the parent’s educational attainment, occupation,
level of income and social class placement. When a child’s needs are not
properly addressed, his learning ability could be affected due to lack of
motivation.
Generally, the home has been identified
as an overwhelming factor affecting students’ performance academically. It
would appear, then, that broken homes may present a very serious danger to the
emotional, personality, and mental adjustment of the young adolescent. This
impinges on students’ academic achievement. Other variable to consider in this
study is the personality development of the child. We define personality as the
sum total of the man or woman, as he or she impresses other men and women. We
must learn what part personality plays in the three main areas of human life
activities: love and marriage, career, and social relations. According to
Freud, the personality is a trinity consisting of  ego and superego. The id is a reservoir of
psychic energy and the source of the human instincts. It furnishes the power
that sustains a person’s activities.
 The ego is a special part of the id which
keeps the individual in touch with the outside world, and finds outlets for the
expression of his instincts. The superego is a kind of moral censor which
passes judgment on the individual’s strivings according to the standards which
he has acquired from his parents. It makes him feel guilty when he goes against
those standards, and proud of himself when he lives up to them. According to
Jung, the personality consists of six parts: the ego, the personal unconscious,
the collective unconscious, the persona, the anima, and the shadow.
The ego requires little explanation. It
is what is more generally known as the conscious mind. It is made up of
conscious perceptions, memories, thoughts and feelings. The personal
unconscious consists of experiences which have been repressed or forgotten, but
which can under certain circumstances be recalled. The collective unconscious
is a storehouse of ancestral memories which is common to the whole race. The
personal is that side of ourselves which we choose to display to society.
The personal is thus a mask which often
hides the true nature of the personality. The anima is the feminine side of a
man’s personality. Its counterpart is the masculine side of a woman’s
personality, which is known as the animus. The shadow is the animal side of
man’s nature. In Jung’s view the personality looks not only backwards to its
racial past, but also forwards to a goal, which is the development of a unified
whole known as the self. The self or psyche, according to Jung, has four basic
functions, which are present in every individual. These are thought, feeling,
sensation and intuition. Thought seeks to understand the world on the basis of
a true-false evaluation; feeling apprehends it on the basis of a
pleasant-unpleasant evaluation; sensation perceives things through the senses;
intuition perceives them through an inner awareness. Jung (1900) says that the
personality reveals two attitudes. They are introversion and extraversion.
The introvert is influenced by what he
finds within himself. The extravert takes his bearings from what lies outside
himself. The essence of Adler’s theory (1998) of personality is the doctrine of
a creative self, which asserts that man makes his own personality out of the
raw materials of heredity and experience. Adler’s conception of the nature of
personality thus coincides with the popular idea that man can be the master,
and not the victim, of his fate. Alder says that the individual’s style of life
or law of movement is an expression of his total personality. The style of life
is the individual’s characteristic way of reacting to the situations that
confront him in life. It is pertinent therefore, to understand the basic
principles of development and personality development. Personality development
is the developing a personality cult so as to create a strong positive
impression about self with the targeted group, or in general; and more
pertinent aspect of such personality are to maintain and prove in a long run.
The basic principles of development
according to Lawes and Eddy (2006) have outlined four basic principles of child
development. These are:
1. Children differ greatly in their rate of development, one may
develop rapidly another much slowly.
2. A child may vary in his own rate of growth: at some time during
his childhood, he may develop rapidly; at others he may be making little
progress.
3. Different aspects of growth may proceed at different rates, for
example, mental growth may not be as rapid as physical growth.
4. Despite the different rates of growth, each child passes
through the same stages in the same order, for example, each crawls before he
walks, speaks before reading, etc.
It therefore, calls for social
development of the children in school. Children need to be helped to achieve
satisfying social relations with their peers and adult members of the
community. Piaget (2000) has distinguished three stages of social development
in children- Egocentric. (This is the first stage where the child is impervious
to social stimulation from without), Social communication (at this stage the
child makes a conscious effort to enter into real social communication) and the
Reciprocity and mutual respect between persons. Piaget observed that in the
children he studied, the sequence of these stages of social development varies
with different socio- economic groups, cultures and sometimes gender. The
school and the home must provide conditions favorable for social development of
children to excel in their academic pursuit.
Children should be assisted to achieve
socially acceptable pattern rather than the repression of their emotion for
emotional feelings and expression in life. So far the researcher has examined
the influence of broken homes on academic performance and personality
development of adolescence, but who is an adolescent?
It could recall that adolescence is a
transitory period between childhood and adulthood. During this period, an
individual is seen neither as a child nor as an adult. Hall(1904) claimed that
adolescents are characterized by emotional instabilities and hyper-activities,
which cause them to experience storms and stress. Erickson (1965), opined that
identity formation creates tension in the
adolescents to the extent that some of them become confused about
their personality. According to Brown, Berriel and Russel (2006). Adolescence
refers to the period of growth between the ages 12 and 21 years which shows
very rapid social expansion. It is the era of peer group when the child spends
most of his days with others of his age.
It is the “transition period” from
childhood to adulthood. It can be likened to “a bridge” which children have to
cross in order to get to the final stage of human development because it is
often characterized by significant physical and physiological changes. The
period of adolescence between two extremes in the continuum of human growth
and, developmental stages (childhood and adulthood) often puts the youngsters
in dilemma of how to meet the society’s expectations. Coping with adolescents
in Nigerian schools demand a thorough understanding of the peculiarities of this
age group which according to Durojaiye (1972) is an era of identity crises when
the young person begins to ask such question as “Who am I? Where am I?
Crow and Crow (1962) on the other hand
refer to children at adolescence as the “terrible teens”. They need the help of
understanding adults in coping with the various physiological and psychological
changes that they experience which give rise to a host of other problems. The
period of adolescence is very important to the development of an individual. Any
laxity on the part of parents’ in assisting and guiding the adolescents may
result in academic backwardness and development of unwholesome behavous, the
foundation of what a person becomes in the society is laid in the home and at
the initial stage of life.
Parents therefore have important roles
to play in ensuring that the youths acquire the appropriate social,
psychological, moral and academic development. They are required to be alive to
their responsibility in providing sex education for their children at home.
However, the school through the Parents Teachers Association could assist in
enlightening parents on their roles in helping adolescents experience a smooth
transition into adulthood.
Academic performance is the seen as the knowledge attained or skills,
shown in the school subject. To indicate such achievement, test scores or marks
are assigned by the teachers. It is the school evaluation of the classroom work
on the basis of the grades awarded.
Academic performance according to
Akinboye(2004) is of two types i.e positive and negative (poor) performance.
Habits, family background, perseverance, attitudes, interest all these affect
academic achievement in school. He concluded that if these variables are
modified and attitude changed positively, then the level of individuals’
academic performance would improve.
The
home is the primary institution for children, home as perceived by Abdulganiyu
(1997), Christe (2009), defined home as a place in which an individual or a
family can rest and store personal property. The family can therefore, be
looked at as a social group characterized by common resident, economic,
cooperation and production. When a child is born, the family is the first
primary group with which they come into contact. Transmission of social values
of right and wrong, what is morally and religiously accepted or condemned by
the family, it follows therefore that by the time a child attained five to
seven years of age he must have learnt what are his rights, obligations and
roles within the society.
However, the background of a students go along way
to determine his/her individuality. As the child enters schools, he/she will
start manifesting different attitudes and expectations. In addition they may be
of the same age group, developed at different rates and so may be able to cope
with the intellectual and social task of the school in varying extent. However,
a home can either be stable or broken. A stable home is one in which both
parent (mother and father) lives together with their children, while a broken
home is the one in which one or both of the parents are not living together
with the children. It is the level at which the home operates that determine
the academic achievement of a science students in school. Broken homes been it
unstable can influence the achievement of a science students academically.
Also, children that have suffered from neglect or
lack of love ( in a broken homes) are known to be psychologically imbalanced to
face the realities of life. When there is disunity in the family, or a
difference between a mother and a father, the child is caught in the middle and
will be at disadvantage. According to Blackby (1999). Adequate research need to
be conducted in this direction to ensure smooth transition of children from
early stages to adulthood.
The
child’s home and his family offer the best education since his parents serve as
teachers. The parents lay the foundation for the desired social, moral,
emotional, spiritual and intellectual well-being of the child. The training received
from home is of greatest importance in his/her total personality formation and
his/her academic achievements as a primary school pupil. It can also be
observed that the pattern of life in the home (stable or broken), the economic
and social status of the family in the community and many other conditions that
give the home a distinctive character can influence the
achievement of student in school.
Abdulganiyu (1997), added that research have shown
that children differs in various ways as a result of variables of their home
background such as socio – economic status, parental attitude to school and
child rearing practices. These home background variables are also found to be
positively related to children’s academic achievement, more especially primary
school pupil that need care and love.
Similarly, Giwa (1997), have investigated the
factors within the students home background or family that affect their
performance s in school, variables such as socio – economic status, family
size, birth order, parental attitude, child rearing practices, parental absence
or presence have been found to affect social and intellectual learning
experiences of children in schools. This is so because children are born with
some psychological, emotional and intellectual needs such as need for love and
security, the need for new experiences, the need for praise and recognition and
the need for responsibility. Many of these needs are not offered to the
children of broken homes which will influence their performance in science. The
extent to which these needs are met during the formative years of children
between birth and the age of six or seven is the extent to which they enter
school. This equipped them or ready to deal with the social and emotional
aspects of schooling.
Based on the observation above and in line with the
assumption that economic and social future of many children in most localities
is being undermined by cultural practices that promotes widespread divorce
amongst couples and brought unnecessary hardship to the growing children.
It is pertinent at this juncture to point out in spite of all the needs
expressed as to be met by the students most especially primary school pupils,
this research also has intended to seek for how much primary school pupils is
affected in academic achievement, either as a result of his home been stable or
broken.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
While literature on the relationship
between broken homes has focused on school going children’s drop out, it is
silent on the role of teachers and community members in minimizing the negative
effects on off broken marriage on school going children. Because the increasing
rate of dropout has affected the government and family social economic
abilities, it is important to consider teachers and community members’ role in
minimizing the effects of broken marriages on school going children. This study
intended to fill this gap in the literature. Studies such as those of
Andrew1981; Harold et al., 2007;
Cummings & Davies 1994; Turner & Koplec, 2006) were done in USA with a
focus on nuclei family. Not much has been done in Nigeria where most families
still have the elements of communal and extended families.
          There is a global awareness of the Importance of the home
environment on pupil academic achievement. In Nigeria, most home are not intact
as a result of issues of incompatibility of the couples, death of a parent and
the quest for the oversea trips to make more money, and at times marital
infidelity. This has resulted in the separation of couples and children. In
some states in the federation, this is quite clear, in that most young ladies
abandon their homes, and embark on oversea trips with a view to making money.
Some men, who travel abroad, abandon their homes and would not communicate with
the families back-home so children from such homes are in dilemma, especially
in terms of adjustment. Chador (2008) notes that the environment in which the
students come from can greatly influence his performance in school. The effects
of broken homes may impact greatly on the internal organization of the family
and by extension; effect a child’s emotion, personality and academic
achievement. Bearing in mind the role of the family in a child’s education, the
failure of the family to perform its duties could hinder the child’s academic
achievement. Any nation that is desirous of advancing technologically will no
doubt ensure that the future of her future leaders (the pupils) is well guided,
protected and guaranteed.
Finally, a single parent faces doubled
responsibilities requiring time, attention and money of the parent. Hence, less
attention is paid to the education of the child. The teachers commonly describe
children from single parent as more hostile, aggressive, anxious, fearful,
hyperactive and distractive than children from intact family (Nwachukwu, 1998).
A lot of scholars have beam their search light to investigate the effect of
broken homes on the academic performance of students in primary schools. What
makes this study unique is that the issue of broken homes are prevalent issue
in the study area, and this development has affected the performance of the
pupil in study area, most especially the primary schools. Thus, this study is
set out to find out whether the effect of broken homes on academic performance of
primary school pupils in Ekiti State, with particular reference to Ikere local
government area. Therefore, this study sought to provide answers to the
following questions:
(i) What is the primary school teacher’s perception on the effect
of broken homes on academic performance of pupils in primary schools?
(ii) What are the causes of broken home among parents in Nigerian
society? (iii) What are the strategies that can be employing in solving the
menace of broken homes in our society?
1.3 Objectives of the
Study
The objectives were to:
i.      
Examine
primary school teachers’ perceptions on the effects of broken homes on
children’s academic performance.
ii.    
explore
the causes of broken homes in Nigerian society and the effects on academic
performance of pupils in primary schools
iii.   Explore community members’ views on solving
the effects of broken homes on pupils’ academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
This study was guided by the
following research questions:
(i). what are the teachers’
perceptions on the effects of broken homes to children’s academic performance?
(ii) What are the causes of broken
home among parents in Nigerian society? (iii) What are the strategies that can
be employing in solving the menace of broken homes in our society?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following three hypotheses were generated for testing in this
study.
Hoi : There is no significant
difference between the teachers’ perceptions and the effects of broken homes on
children’s academic performance
Hoii: There is no significant
difference between the causes of broken home among parents and pupils academic performance.
Hoiii: There is no significant
relationship between the strategies that can be employing in solving the menace
of broken homes and the pupil academic performance in primary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The purpose of this study is to carry
out research on possible causes of broken home and its consequences on the academic
performance of  primary school pupil in
Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. This is with a view to suggest ways
of minimizing and overcoming the problem.
As known by all educators,  home play
very significant role in child personality formation and socialization, broken
homes are identified as one of the factor that undermined the socialization
process at home, which consequently affect the performance of student. If the
concern of education is to look after socialization process of the child as
well as his intellectual development, then this research work would be of great
importance to parents and educators that absence of one or both of the parents
affect children academic performance. The role of family  to come with solution of ensuring stability in
the homes for the betterment of growing children and the society at large is
very essential here.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope and time frame of this
research study encompasses the effect of broken homes on the academic
performance of pupils in primary schools. The study would be carried out in some
selected primary school in ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
1.8 Limitation to the Study
Factors contributed in affecting the
researcher’s comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out this study
includes, scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous
evolving nature, some questionnaire administered were not returned and most of
the respondents failed to respond to some important questions and other tasking
 engagements and the fact that the crisis
was still occurring at the period of research The above challenges would be
overcome through persistence and the need to excel in the course of carrying
out this study. Relevant stakeholders would be contacted to get relevant
information that are required to carry out the study
1.9 Definition of the Terms
Monogamous
marriage
: This is type of marriage where the norms
retractable individual to one spouse at a time.
Polygamous
marriage
: This is the type when the norms permit plural
father. This is a man marrying two or more, wives at a time. Polygamous on
other hand is on woman marrying two or more husband.
Family:
Family is a close and friendly community of people with common origin and
interest which are linked by blood relative (consequently) or by legal bound or
by marriage.
Marital
problem
: This is a situation whereby a couple cannot live
peacefully or does not have access to enjoy their matrimonial home for a period
of time due to some circumstance.
Broken
home
:
This is a separation of a couple as a result of inadequate behaviour to each
other.
1.10 Organization of Chapters
The study comprises of
five Chapters. The chapter one centers on the introduction, which includes
background to the study, statement of problem, significant of the study,
objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope of the study, definition of
terms and organization of chapters. Chapter two contains the literature review
and theoretical framework. Chapter three examines the research methodology,
where sampling method, study area, data analysis would be considered. Chapter
four looks at data presentation and interpretation. Lastly, chapter five deals
with the summary, recommendation and conclusion.



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