USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL AS A TOOL IN ENHANCING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS

USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIAL AS A TOOL IN ENHANCING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1           
Background
of the Study
Instructional materials play an important role in teaching Mathematics
. The teaching and even the learning process would never be complete without
full utilization of instructional materials in whatever form. The teacher uses
instructional materials suited for the level of understanding of the students.
Instructional materials are based on the topics to be discussed by the teacher.
Teachers should plan for the instructional materials to be used in the class
and prepare all important or necessary things to use and make sure that the
instructional materials are neatly done and an eye catching for the students.
The instructional materials serve as a simple motivation not only for the
students but also for the teachers in their learning process. It can help the
students in reinforcing in their new learning.  The teacher uses
instructional materials that help the students to improve their knowledge,
abilities and skill from the information in using the instructional materials.
It can help the students in their development in learning Mathematics  and to their upbringing. Teachers use
instructional materials to transfer new ideas or information from one student
to another. Some of the instructional materials that can be use are power point
presentation, books, Articles, SIM, visual aids and other materials for subject
development. Some of the teachers use books as their way of imparting knowledge
to their students. Some of the teachers use games as the medium of instruction
in their classroom setting. In Mathematics , games are more effective for the
students to learn the subject matter. Games are informal way of teaching. It
includes goals, rules and reward for the students to learn. Most of the time,
students are interested in learning when the teacher uses games as their
instructional materials. With the use of instructional materials, the teacher
has less talk when it comes to discussion of the lesson. The students learn the
subject matter in Mathematics  on their
own understanding with the help of the instructional materials together with
the supervision of the teacher in charge. With the use of certain instructional
materials the students uplift their confidence in learning the topics in Mathematics
. Most of the students learn Mathematics  topic with the use of instructional material
like the power point presentation. Since we are now in the internet world, the
students are engaged with the computer in their everyday life situation. When
the lessons in Mathematics  are introduced
with the help of our technology, the students have an extra interest with the
subject matter. Students are active in participating in the lesson since the
lesson is presented in computer. One of the commonly used instructional
materials is the modules. Modules are made for the students to understand Mathematics
 with the use of examples given in the
modules. The students will have a guide in the modules on how to execute the
given task. It can help the students to familiarize with terminologies and
process involved in Mathematics . Modules can be done in anywhere, anytime as
long as it engaged the interest of the students. With the help of the
instructional materials, students can be exposed with the different methods of
learning Mathematics . It is rest assures that the students will acquire new
ideas or knowledge about the topics in Mathematics  with the use of instructional materials.
Mathematics   is one of the core subjects offered at all
level of education
Mathematics   is a very important subject and a requirement
for higher learning in a number of science-related professional courses like
medicine, agriculture, pharmacy. Mathematics   is a natural science that deals with the living
world: How the world is structured, how it functions and what these functions
are, how it develops, how living things came into existence, and how they interact
to one another and with their environment (Umar, 2011). It is a prerequisite
subject for many fields of learning that contributes immensely to the
technological growth of the nation (Ahmed, 2008). This includes medicines,
pharmacy, nursing, agriculture, forestry, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and
many other areas (Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011).
In contemporary
Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development.
As a result students are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects
and one subject that most students opt for is Mathematics   Today, Mathematics   pervades literally every field of human
endeavour and it plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. Nigeria’s
need for an effective scientific and technological development appears to be
overwhelming as she is going through hard times in her history especially with
regard to her economy. This hard condition has partly resulted to a poor living
standard of the people. Agommuoh and Nzewi (2003) acknowledged that science and
technology have always been recognized as critical factors in the process of
development. Science and Technology can provide the basis for Nigeria’s social,
economic and political well-being. Therefore, many people in Nigeria have come
to realize that  Mathematics   can be applied to solve many problems facing
the nation, especially as a result of the technological breakthrough in the
advanced countries. Eno (2005) predicted that in a short time to come, only
people with appropriate and appreciable knowledge and skills in science and
technology disciplines would be required in the job market.
The implication of this
is that economic survival, relevance and social mobility will depend
considerably on the level and appropriateness of the knowledge and skills an
individual has acquired through science education. Science education is needed
to dispel ignorance, poor cultural practices and beliefs in the society.
Nigerians are still enslaved by diseases, poverty and ignorance and these calls
for effective science education that is relevant to the improvement of the
society. Instructional materials are essential and
significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote
teachers’ efficiency and improve students’ performance. They make learning more
interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the
teachers and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson
sessions. They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development
of self- confidence and self- actualization. Ibeneme (2000) defined instructional
materials as those materials used for practical and demonstration in the class
situation by students and teachers. Ikerionwu (2000) saw instructional
materials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present a less
on to the learners in a
logical and manner.
Mathematics   as a science subject is practical based.
Therefore, to effectively implement the new curriculum it requires that both
the teachers and students should extensively carry out many activities using
modern, current, and suitable instructional materials. The importance of
instructional materials to the successful implementation of the new Mathematics
  curriculum cannot be overemphasized. This is
because the use of instructional materials is essential for effective behaviour
change in learners (Jimoh, 2009). Okobia (2011), noted that when the students
are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn
faster and easier. Iherionwu (2000) referred to instructional materials as
objects or devices which help the teacher make learning meaningful to the
learner. They are materials used to aid the transfering of information from one
person to another (Adeoye, 2012).
Poor achievement in Mathematics
  can be attributed to many factors such as: poor
method of teaching, unavailability of laboratory facilities, lack of
instructional materials, inadequate time allocation and large class size.
According to Etukudo (2009), poor achievement in Mathematics   is incontrovertibly attributed to poor
instructional delivery approach adopted by teachers in schools. To support this
assertion, Salau (2009) submitted that many researchers have adduced that poor
achievement in public examinations is traceable to instructional delivery
approaches adopted by teachers. The resultant effect is the low achievement and
low retention level in students outcome both in internal and external
examinations. This implies that the mastery of Mathematics   concept might not be fully achieved without
the use of a good instructional delivery approach that utilizes instructional
materials. West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiner’s report
(2005-2010) stated that the persistent poor achievement of students in Mathematics
  at Senior Schools Certificate Examination
leaves one in doubt about the effectiveness of instructional materials and
instructional delivery approaches popularly used by the Mathematics   teachers for the teaching and learning of Mathematics
 .
Poor teaching methods
adopted by teachers at senior secondary school level in Nigeria have been
identified as one of the major factors contributing to poor performance of
students in Mathematics   (Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011; Kareem, 2003;
Umar, 2011). The conventional teaching method is classroom-based and consists
of lectures and direct instructions conducted by the teacher. This
teacher-centered method emphasizes learning through the teacher’s guidance at
all times. Students are expected to listen to lectures and learn from them. The
persistent use of this method makes students passive rather than active
learners. It does not promote insightful learning and long–term retention of
some abstract concepts in Mathematics   (Ahmed, 2008; Ahmed & Abimbola, 2011;
Kareem, 2003; Umar, 2011). And the only way out of this ugly situation is for
the teacher to make the teaching of Mathematics   concept relevant through the use of necessary
and adequate instructional materials in the teaching and learning process of Mathematics
  in senior secondary schools.
1.2     Statement of the Problem
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1.3     Purpose of the Study
          The main purpose
of this study is to investigate the use of instructional to enhance teaching
and learning of Mathematics   secondary schools in Ilaje Local government Area of Ondo State.
          Specifically,
this study sought to:
1.    
Investigate the availability of
instructional materials for the teaching and learning of Mathematics   in the secondary schools in Ilaje Local
Government Area of Ondo State.
2.    
Determine how often Mathematics   teachers use instructional materials to teach Mathematics
  in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government
Area of Ondo State.
3.    
Investigate the reason why instructional
materials are not effectively used during Mathematics   teaching and learning in Ilaje Local
Government Area of Ondo State.
4.    
To determine the impact of instructional
materials on the attitude of Mathematics   students towards the teaching and learning of Mathematics
  in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government
Area of Ondo State.
1.4     Significance of the Study
This study which is
concerned with investigating the use of instructional materials in teaching and
learning of Mathematics   in secondary
schools in Ilaje Local government Area of Ondo State is bound to be of immense
benefits to students, teachers, school authorities, curriculum planner,
educational stakeholders and Ministries of Education at different level of
government.
 The finding from this study will be of immense
benefit because it will enhance the learning processes of the students and
thereby improve on their overall academic performance, since it will increase
the motivation of the students, add clarity to the topics taught and make
learning more interesting.
Also, the result from
this study will help to re-emphasis the need for Mathematics   teachers of secondary schools on importance of
making the use of instructional materials a factor to be considered in
promoting teaching and learning of Mathematics  . And this in no small
measure provides a basis that compliments and supports the use of teaching
skills and enhances effectiveness.
The findings will
further help to reveal and create awareness among the school authorities of the
importance or otherwise of the impact of instructional materials in teaching
and learning of Mathematics   in
secondary schools.
Furthermore,
finding from this study has much significance on the ministries of education at
all government level in Nigeria. This is because it will serve as a source of
information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials
to teaching and learning of Mathematics   is
one of the problems leading to poor academic performance in the subject.
1.5     Scope of the Study
The
study will be delimited to investigate the impact of instructional materials in
teaching and learning of Mathematics   secondary schools in Ilaje Local government
Area of Ondo State. The study will cover all the Mathematics   students in five (5) secondary schools within
Ilaje Local Government.
1.6     Research Questions
          The following
research questions are to guide this study:
1.    
Are instructional materials available
for the teaching and learning of Mathematics   in the secondary schools in Ilaje Local
Government Area of Ondo State?
2.    
How often do Mathematics   teachers use instructional materials to teach Mathematics
  in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government
Area of Ondo State?
3.    
What are the problems hindering
effective use of instructional materials during Mathematics   teaching and learning in Ilaje Local
Government Area of Ondo State?
4.    
Do instructional materials have impact on
the attitude of Mathematics   students towards the teaching and learning of Mathematics
  in secondary schools in Ilaje Local Government
Area of Ondo State?
1.7     Operational Definition of Terms
Academic
performance
: Is defined as successful completion, through effort, of the
acquisition of academic content and skills mostly determined by the grades or
scores that the student gets in a test.
Effective learning– is learning which develops
understanding of learning in the changing world. Effective learning involves
individuals moving beyond making connections of new ideas to old ones into
restructuring their thinking radically by changing the connections among the
things they already know or even discard some long-held beliefs about the
world.
Learning– is the act of acquiring new, or
modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviours, skills, values or
preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.
Teaching: Teaching is the concerted sharing of knowledge and
experience, which is usually organized within a discipline and more generally,
the provision of stimulus to the psychological and intellectual growth of
students by teachers.
Assumptions
of the study
          The researcher
assumes that there is lack of use of instructional material in teaching of Mathematics
  in secondary schools in Ilaje local government
area of Ondo State. Also, the researcher assumed that if instructional
materials are properly used in teaching and learning of Mathematics   in secondary schools in Ilaje local government
area of Ondo State, the academic performance of the students will become better
and improved.

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