THE RELEVANCE AND LIMITATIONS OF MAPS AND DIAGRAMS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHY IN SECONDARY EDUCATION

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page…………………………………………………………………
Certification…………………………………………………………
Approval
Page…………………………………………………….
Dedication……………………………………………………………
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………
Table of  Content……………………………………………….
Abstract……………………………………………………………
Chapter One :
Introduction
Background to the
Study…………………………………………….
Statement of Problem…………………………………………………
Purpose of the Study………………………………………………..
Significance of the Study……………………………………………
Scope of the
study…………………………………………………..
Research Questions…………………………………………………
Research Hypothesis………………………………………………..
Definition of
terms…………………………………………………..
Chapter Two:  Literature Review………………………………….
Chapter Three: Methodology
Research Design……………………………………………………
Study Area…………………………………………………………
Population of the study …………………………………………..
Sample of the
study……………………………………………….
 Research Instrument………………………………………………
Validation of the
instrument…………………………………………
 Reliability of the instrument………………………………………
Administration the
instrument…………………………………….
Data Analysis………………………………………………………
CHAPTER FOUR : PRESENTATION AND DATA
ANALYSIS
CHAPTER FIVE : Summary Concussion and
Recommendation……………………………………………………
Summary……………………………………………………………
Conclusion…………………………………………………………..
Recommendation……………………………………………………
Suggestion for further research
studies…………………………….
References…………………………………………………………
Appendix…………………………………………………………
 ABSTRACT
        This research was carried out purposely
to identify the relevance and limitations of maps and diagrams in teaching and
learning of geography in Akure South Local Government Secondary Schools.
        In order to obtain valid information
that would help this study, the research instruments are the students’
questionnaire and the teachers’ questionnaire. The data collected were analysed
using Chi-square. The results were then interpreted and discussed. It was
discovered that the attitude and the interest of students towards map work was
not encouraging which was caused mainly by insufficient teaching resources i.e
both human and material resources. Some of their teachers do not teach them
using maps due to their incompetence. Based on these findings, it was then
recommended that competent teachers vast in map work and diagram
interpretations should be employed to make learning easy for students. Also,
school library should be well equipped with current geography textbooks that
contain maps and diagrams as learning aids. Finally, ministry of education
should make sure that they always employ qualified teachers that will give
effective teaching and enable the students to have effective learning.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0                                                                          
 Background to the Study
                 The recent happening in the
country and other parts of the world have shown how little we understand
ourselves. It has also shown how little we understand interdependence which
forms the basis of our existence as effective human beings constantly
struggling to change the face of the planet on which we live. In the past, the
world was spatially a narrow one. It remains so for many especially in
traditional societies. In the words of Wooldridge and East (1967) “It was
necessary to cultivate a certain practical awareness of environment. In order
to live and survive on any part of our planet earth”. It is useful however, to
recall that man as an observing, caring and reflecting animal has always been a
geographer.
 Many scholars have criticized the subject of
geography. The search for the best way or method of teaching geography, to
enhance good performance of students and the best convenient way for teachers
to teach without sweating to this end the Association of Nigeria Geographers has
commissioned a committee of school geography to re-examine the content and the
method of teaching geography. (Majasan 1971).
             In the opinion of Faniran (1980)
the problems facing geographers are related to lack of teachers, that is,
experienced teachers especially those that are trained to teach, instructional
materials such as textbooks, lack of practicals and fieldwork as teaching aids.
He went further to describe maps, models and diagrams as providing stimulus for
students to find out things themselves and assimilate according to their own
interpretation.
Students often see geography as a
tough subject which requires an extra effort in order to make success out of it
because of its maps and diagrams. This however, serves as a means of
discouragement or at times even prevent student from offering geography at a
senior class level. This believe however according to Udo (1970) is a
misconception which if left uncorrected can impede the development of the
discipline.
 Materials such as maps and diagrams can be
identified as helping to link abstract symbols to real objects. They appeal to
the sense of touch, sight thereby getting students participation and engagement
in lessons, it makes materials and objects in class real in life situation.
From the above it can be said that it is through diagrams that the
conceptualized models can be visualized. Diagrams also make possible the
modeling of equipment by using locally available materials for instance, raingauge
can be built with the aid of bottles, measuring cylinder and funnels.
Majasan (1967) stressed that the use
of teaching aids like maps and diagrams not only help to create correct
impression through the eyes and ears of the learner but also help students to
find out things themselves assimilate according to their own interpretation. In
essence, evaluation of available learning resources both human and material for
the teaching geography is pertinent. This will go a long way in determining
what could be done to rectify the situation.
 Inspite of all the changes that have visited
geography over the years. Its historical relationship with maps and diagrams
remain. The relationship between geography maps and diagrams was so tenacious
that laymen think that all what geography entail is the drawing of maps and
location of places on it. Diagrams have advantages of labeling which aid visual
and verbal recall. Models and maps also create correct impression through the
“eyes” and “ears” of pupils.
From the discussion so far maps and
diagrams and other graphic aids the explanation of geographic facts instead of
more verbal description, thus enhance students performance. This research
intends to find out the relevance and limitations of maps and diagrams in
teaching and learning of geography.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Researchers have carried out
researches on different aspect of geography.
Babalola (1992) carried out a
research work on the influence of instructional materials on students
performance in geography. The research was carried out in Irewole Local
Government Area of Osun State. The result Showed that schools that were rated
high in terms of possessionof instructional materials performed best.
Onyekpe (1985) carried out a research
survey on the resources of geography in Delta state secondary school Ika Local Government
Area. The research instrument used was Questionnaire which was administered to
both teachers and students. The result revealed that both human and material
resources were inadequate in the schools which had made it difficult for teachers
to cover the West Africa School Certificate Syllabus.
Harvna (1999) carried out a research
survey on the effects of maps and diagrams in geography on the performance of
Bishop Smith Memorial College students in Ilorin Kwara State. The result revealed
that those students that were exposed to the use of maps and diagrams. Although
various researchers have carried out research on different aspects of geography
none however has carried out a research on the relevance and limitation of maps
and diagrams in the teaching and learning of geography in secondary Education
in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. Thus the problem of this
study is to carry out a research on the relevance and limitations of maps and
diagrams in teaching and learning of geography in secondary Education in Akure
South Local Government.
1.2     Purpose of the Study
               The purpose of the study is to
investigate the relevance and limitation of maps and diagrams in teaching and
learning of geography. It was discovered that teaching with the aid of maps and
diagrams improved students retention of the topic learnt.
          Furthermore,
to determine the level of performance and how well student assimilated with
maps and diagrams in geography learning. The research aims at offering useful
recommendations considering its importance of the students in the area of
learning and suggests some possible solutions to the problems encountered by
both teachers and students in teaching and learning with the aid of maps and
diagrams.
1.3     Significance of the Study
         The research work will be of benefit
to the Ministry of Education, Inspectorate Division of School administrators.
As it will reveals the prospects of teaching and learning of Geography with the
aid of maps and diagrams in Akure South local Government Area.
          This
research work would also be useful to the government and teachers as it will
enable them to understand their roles in the teaching of geography using maps
and diagrams.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This study
would be limited to five secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area
of Ondo State. The investigation would cover only SS2students of Geography in
the five selected schools. The schools are;
1.     Fiwasaye
Girls Grammar School, Akure
2.     Oyemekun
Grammar School, Akure
3.     Estate
High School , Akure
4.     Winners
college School, Akure
5.     FUTA
secondary School, Akure
1.5 Research Questions
(1) Do
maps and diagrams  have usefulness in
geography teaching?
(2) What
are the perceptions of teachers on students’ attitude towards mapwork?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
(1) Is
there any significant difference in the learning outcome of students who are
exposed to maps and diagrams and those not exposed to maps and diagrams?
Definition of Terms
In the study of this nature, there
are technical terms that are technical terms that are to be encountered;
therefore it is often necessary to clarify some of these terms.
Education: Don Berg (2009) education is a process of cognitive cartography,
mapping your experiences and finding a variety of reliable routes to optional
states when you find yourself in non optional stage.
Geography: Graves (1982), sees geography as a subject that is concerned with
the environment within which human beings live as it is named the description
of the earth.
Teaching: Sokoya (1996) defined teaching as a system of activities intended
to induce learning, comprising the deliberate and methodical creation and
control of these conditions in which learning does occur.
Maps: Is visual representation of an area that aids the explanation of
geographical facts, thus enhance students’ performance Phillip (1960)
Diagrams: Hall’s (1996) words “diagrams
are simplified figures drawn in a way intended to convey essential meaning.

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