THE IMPACT OF I.C.T IN THE TEACHING OF HEALTH EDUCATION AMONG THE HEALTH STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.

THE IMPACT
OF I.C.T IN THE TEACHING OF HEALTH EDUCATION AMONG THE HEALTH STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY
OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.
ABSTRACT
As Nigeria is striving
hard to play a leadership role in Africa, particularly in the period of
pragmatic and competitive science and technology, there is an urgent need to
pay more prominent attention to the improvement of teaching and learning
particularly in Nigerian educational sectors. This entails the adoption of
information, communication technology (ICT) in the institution. The ICT is an
invaluable intervention of this modern time. Its inherent attributes such as
accuracy, high speed performance, reliability and capability to store very
large amount of data have made it possible for its applicability to all human
endeavours including teaching, learning and research in educational
institutions. This study is specifically set out to critically appraise the
role of information, communication technology as a change agent for teaching
and learning of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere-Ekiti
Campus in Ekiti State,

CHAPTER ONE
Background
of the Study
Teaching and learning in the 21st
Century is becoming increasingly reliant on new technologies. Information and
communication technologies (ICT) provide an excellent vehicle for engaging
students in learning, it have become key tool and had a revolutionary impact on
how we see the world and how we live. ICT’s impacts on education (e-learning)
in general have been established.
Information and communication technology
means different things to different educators and researchers hence there are
various views and definitions of ICT. Yusuf (2007) described ICT as an
electronic technology used for accessing, processing, gathering, manipulating,
presenting and communicating information. He emphasized that when ICTs are
employed in education, they can accelerate, enrich and deepen basic skills in
reading, writing, arithmetic and the sciences beside motivating and encouraging
students to learn as they become more independent and responsible for their
learning. According to Obanya (2002) information and communication technology
is a broad concept that has to do with the harnessing of the process, the
methods and the product of electronic and communication related technologies
(and other related resources in today’s knowledge – driven society), for
enhancing the availability, the spread and efficiency of a set of programmed
activities geared towards the achievement of clearly defined goals. Nwakundo,
Oguejiofor and Nwankwo (2006) views ICT as a tool that comprises electronic
devices which are utilized for the information and communication needs of
institutions, organizations, students and individuals. Such electronic devices
include computers (software and hardware), networking, telephone, video,
multimedia and internet.
Information communication technology
(ICT) is a programme that has changed many aspects of the way people manage
information and communication. If one is to compare such fields as medicine,
tourism, business, law, banking, engineering and architecture with ICT, The
roles of information Communication technology during the past two or three
decades have been enormous. The way these fields operate before is different
from the ways they operate at present. According to Kennedy and M.E Naught
(2000) that when one looks at education there seems to have been less influence
and change than other fields have experienced.
The use of information technology in
classrooms allows schools to expand their markets, respond to the business and
environmental requirements, support cross cultural and cross functional teams
of students to engage and work together and allows faster and more practical
cooperation between lecturers from various nations while maintaining the
targeted level of quality delivery of knowledge in education.
The use of information technology in the
classroom can allow more time and space flexibility for lecturers and students
to use the educational materials. It can also allow for continuous testing of
students of the contents of such materials, and allow the students more freedom
in taking initiatives, learn on their own, be more creative, and individually
study at their own pace.
According to Ubogu and Ossai (2007), the
introduction of ICT usage, integration and diffusion has initiated a new age in
educational methodologies, thus it has radically changed traditional method of
information delivery and usage patterns in the domain as well as offering
contemporary learning experience for both lecturers and students.
As
a tool for addressing challenges in teaching and learning, technology has the
capabilities for delivery, management and support of effective teaching and
learning. As a change agent, it is capable of changing the content, methods and
overall quality and quantity of teaching and learning, thereby reducing
teachers’ workload and ensuring constructivist inquiry-oriented classroom.
Moreover, ICT a central force in economic and social shifts that has technology
skill critical to future employment of today’s students. Thierer (2000) pointed
out that the role of technology in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming
one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education
policy. Experts in the fields of education have agreed that, if ICT is properly
used, it holds great promise to improve teaching and learning in addition to shaping
work-force opportunities.    Thus, this
study set out to critically appraise the role of information communication
technology as a change agent for teaching health education in University of Nigeria,
Nsukka.
Statement of the
Problem
Information Communication Technology
(ICT) roles as instructional resource for the teaching of Health Education in University
of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere-Ekiti Campus is a noticeable improvement among the
institutions and academic output. It is noted that uses of ICT equipment in
teaching of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere-Ekiti
Campus does not only assist the Lecturers in carrying out their job effectively
but also render qualitative service output to the entire academic
community  of the Nation.
Purpose of the Study
In spite the introduction of modern ICT
equipment, this research work will look deeply in the impacts of ICT on the
teaching and learning of Health Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
Ikere-Ekiti Campus. Finally, it is the objectives of this research work to fish
both the relevance and problems of ICT in the teaching and learning of Health
Education in UNN, Nsukka in the Era of modern Information communication
Technology.
The
General Purpose of the Study
The major aim of this study is to:
      
i.           
Study the relevance of ICT in the
effective teaching and learning of Health Education among students of Health
Education in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 
    
ii.           
To find out the problems of ICT in the
teaching and learning of Health Education in University of Nigeria,
Nsukka. 
 
iii.           
To suggest an improve channels to
effective utilization of ICT in the teaching and learning of Health Education
in University of Nigeria, Nsukka.   
Significance
of the Study
This study Shed light on the roles of
information communication technology in teaching of health education students at
the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The following benefits are also
considered:  
i.                  
It will enhance student’s achievement.
The effectiveness in the use of information communication technology
will provide support for customized educational programs to meet the needs of
individual learners.
ii.                
Use of information technology
communication will develop ability of teachers to reason properly, to solve
problem, to communicate effectively, to be able to negotiate “outcome, to
manage time, project management and collaboration and team work.
iii.             
The
use of information technology has changed school administration in several
ways. Lecturers know how to type their own test. Now Lecturers are expected to
know how to use word processors and have their tests done in a proper format.
iv.             
Several
teachers noted that there is a move toward recording grades and attendance
electronically. Lecturers are expected to check their e-mail, and a lot of
things that used to be done at a staff meeting are now done via e-mail.
v.                
 It contributes to the fields of knowledge
researchers and Educational planners in the area of Health Education courses
and information communication technology will find it useful in their research.
vi.             
It will help the Governments, Ministry
of Education in Nigeria, Students and readers to understand those benefits that
Information Communication Technology embodies which we have neglected with in
the past.
vii.           
It will go a long way to create an
avenue for more academic research which will benefit the society in term of
producing competent Health graduates.
However, these advantages are hindered
by the presence of several challenges that arise from the use of various
information and communication technologies, including the need for expensive
infrastructure and large startup costs, finding qualified instructors, and the
lack of face to face instruction, which may diminish the students interpersonal,
social, and communication skills. These issues are further intensified in
developing countries due to the lack of a complete infrastructure including the
main building blocks such as financial resources, human resources, information
recourses and technological resources. The level of Health Education in
developing countries is rather low and Nigeria is not an exception.
Therefore, it is crucial to find ways to
speed up the educational process of its citizens and one of the venues could be
distance learning and computer based technologies, which could lead to a
cheaper process and yet as effective and as efficient. However, to date most of
the implementations took place in developed nations and there is an urgency to
test the environment in a developing setting (Rose and Straub, 1998, Dahawy et
al, 2002).
Furthermore, information now plays a
vital part in the lives of individuals, organizations and institutions and
information literacy is the key to the optimum use of information. The state of
education and skills emphasized the importance of ICT and information literacy
as vital components in the development of life skills, workplace skills and
citizenship.
          This
research work will help the Governments, Ministry of Education in Nigeria,
Students and readers to understand those benefits that Information
Communication Technology embodies which we have neglected with in the past. In
understanding this on the side of the government, it will allow them to rethink
and work towards real implementation of it thereby creating a room for the
rapid growth and development of the education sector of this country. At the
other hand, it will go a long way to create an avenue for more academic
research.
Research Questions
In view of this study, the following
research questions have been formulated to ascertain how ICT could have be a
catalyst to effective use of information by students.
1.             
What types of ICTs are available to
Health Education Students for use?
2.             
To what extent do Health Education L students
make use of ICT?
3.             
What are the reasons for Health
Education Students use of ICT in education?
4.             
What are the problems Health Education
Students face with the use of ICT?
5.             
What are the solutions preferred to the
problems face with the use of ICT by Health Education Students?
Research Hypotheses
1.     Modern
ICT facilities are not adequately available in Nigeria Colleges of Education.
2.     Lecturers
in Colleges of Education in Nigeria do use ICT facilities in teaching and
learning of Health Education.
3.     There
is a great significant relationship between usage of Modern ICT facilities and
Lecturers’ productivity as reflected in students’ academic results
Scope of the Study
The
scope of this research work focused strictly on the roles of information
communication technology (ICT) in teaching of Health Education among UNN
students in Nigeria. This work will lead us to the evolution of ICT in Nigeria
and also examine how the academic field (teaching and learning) is fairing in
this Era of Information Communication Technology.
Limitation
to the Study
On the course of this research, the
following problems were encountered, like short time frame. Financing problem,
scarcity of information or data, etc. this is due to mainly, the wide scope of
this study which emphasizes on a complexity of numbers of Universities of
education in Nigeria. Now, the implication is that the short time frame mapped
out for this research work posed a problem of assessing these programs as
whole, but that doesn’t threat the authentication and quality of this work.
Again, enough financing of the
accomplishment of this work became a problem in the sense that gathering
information was costly, the researcher needed enough money to gather them.
Assumption of the Study
By explaining how the Information Communication
Technology affects the students’ academic performance in Health Education
Courses, it’s important to note that many scholars had carried out significant
research work on the topic. It is assumed that the
validity
of the findings is based prominently on the following assumptions;
1.     That
everything used pertaining to the materials and information on this research is
obtained from the right sources.
2.     That
the respondents provide reliable information during the course of research investigation. 
Definition
of Terms
1.    
Information Communication
Technology (ICT):
is
generally refers to ‘computers and computing related activities’. Computers and
their application play a significant role in modern information management,
other technologies and/or systems also comprise of the phenomenon that is
commonly regarded as ICTs. According to UNESCO (2002) information and
communication technology (ICT) may be regarded as the combination of
‘Informatics technology’ with other related technology, specifically
communication technology. Informatics refers to the science dealing with the
design, realization, evaluation, use and maintenance of information processing
systems, including hardware, software, organizational and human aspects, and
the industrial, commercial, governmental and political implications of these.
2.    
Information:
facts or details that tell you something about situation person events.
3.    
Communication:
It is the transmission of information or idea. From it means the use of
mechanical arts and applied science e.g. Engineering.
4.    
Education:
Is what prepares an individual to accommodate and to contribute positively to
the development of his/her society.
5.    
Computer:
It is an electronic device that accepts data as to give information as an
output.
6.    
I.C.T:
Information Communication Technology.
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