THE EFFECTS OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This research is carried out to know the effect of instructional materials on student performance in junior secondary level in Ikere Local Government Area.A well structured questionnaire was used to gathered information from the respondence.The questionnaire is subjected to four points Henry Linker scale.The mean of any factor of 2.5 and above is said to be agreed upon as factor affecting performance and therefore acceptable. The mean below 2.5 is unacceptable as a factors. Upon the whole, it was agreed that instructional material promote effective teaching, understanding and therefore play a vital role in teaching and learning process.
TABLES OF CONTENTS
Background to the study
Purpose of the study
Statement of the problem
Significance of the study
Delimitation of the study
Definition of term
Review of Related literature
Sample and sampling procedure
Procedure for data analysis
Result and discussion
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.0 Background of the study
This study was carried out to find out the effect of instructional resource on the academic achievement of secondary school students. Many authors have written on the use and effectives of instructional materials or teaching aid to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioural change. More specifically, it was emphasized that the use of instructional material is a sine qua-no in effecting behavior of learners of every field. ie. Prerequisite requirement or an essential condition.
However, it is note worthy that teaching aids are important catalysts for social re-engineering and change in learners. It is obvious that effective learning cannot be well accomplished without the use of instructional materials.
Instructional materials possess some inherent advantages that make them unique in teaching. For one thing, they provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platform for conveying information since they motivate learning to have interest in learning process. Also, by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the learner’s interest and curiosity are increasing stimulated.
Instructional material/media resources that help to make teaching more meaningful and understandable. These include audio-visual, auditory materials and a host of others.
There is no gain saying that a good teacher will perform better in a situation where he/she had various materials to make his task easier.
Kolade etal (2003) optioned that these teaching aids help to develop communication ability by reducing ambiguity, More so, they observed that about 94% of what is seen is remembered when the sense have been involved.
However, the absences of instructional materials do make teaching, not only time consuming; energy sapping, but a difficult task. Therefore, instructional materials have come to assume, not only and enviable position, but have bee increasingly recognized as a integral and essential part of teaching.
Wales (1966) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students.
Savoury (1958) also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy supplement in adequacy of book as well as arouse student interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves.
In his own contributions, Ogunmilade C.A (2002) has this to say, “the teacher can use instructional materials in various way to make his effort more effective in producing learners student who are agile, well-groomed and adequately informed”. He went further to say that “instructional materials can help to present factors and information”. It can engender interest and raise the enthusiasm of learners.
It can also help in picture and image vividly in minds and memory of learner. He concluded that instructional materials have effectively proved a useful comparison in the pursuit of aspiration, knowledge and growth.
In order to raise the quality of education, it efficiency and productivity, better learning materials are needed. Knezewich (1975) also stressed the importance of having appropriate personnel plan and adequate physical facilities to support educational effort. To this end, this project attempts to find out the adequacy or non-adequacy of instructional materials for the teaching of business education in junior secondary school.
- Statement of the Problem
The absence of innovation in the instructional material mode used in the Junior Secondary School to implement the innovative and broad junior secondary curriculum has created a gap in the educational system at the Junior Secondary School level.
This may have contributed the non-attainment of some of the Junior Secondary education objective slated in the national policy on education. The problem on the effectiveness of instructional material in teaching business study vis-à-vis team teaching instructional mode.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate factors associated with the effect of using instructional materials in teaching business study in Junior secondary in Ikere-Ekiti State. To be able to achieve this objective, the following specific objective shall be considered.
- To find out if there can be difference in the scores, on the test of business study of students in schools with adequate supply of qualified business study teachers and the score of students in schools with inadequate supply of qualified teachers.
- To highlight the extent of the availability of instructional materials in schools.
- To identify the role which instructional materials play in learning process.
- The study will identify the role which instructional materials play in bringing about effective teaching of business studies.
- The attention of school administrator and teacher will be drawn to the dearth of instructional materials the problem with the use of procurement of instructional materials will be brought to the fore-front.
- Research Question
This study is to find out whether the effect of instructional materials can contribute to development of education in our junior secondary schools.
The study would answer question like:
- What role did instructional materials play in ensuring the understanding of the concept of business study?
- What is the state of availability of instructional materials?
- To what extent is the provision of instructional materials important to effective teaching of business studies?
- What effect are instructional materials on teaching?
- What are the factors that militate against the procurement of instructional materials for business studies schools?
- Significant of the Study
This is very significant as it would provide an index in the contribution of instructional materials to the attainment of the national policy on education objectives as it relate to business studies.
It will also expose some specific areas where more is required to be done in order to achieve the slated objective of secondary education in respect of vocational subjects.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
The study looked at the effect of using instructional materials in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary Schools. This study is delimited to the Junior Secondary School in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. This is due to the fact that many offices exist all over the local government which could not be reached due to logistic problem.
1.7 Definition of Terms
- Instructional Materials: these are the various material used to promote teaching and learning.
These also make teaching and learning more effective especially when used.
- Audio-Visual Aids: these are the materials that appeal to both sense of heaving and seeing. These include sound motion picture, television and s host of others.
- Visual-Aids: these aids have one thing in common, that is, no sound is provided with them, and these are materials concerned with the sense of seeing
- Auditory-Aids: these are material that appeals to the sense of hearing. These material have one thing in common that is only sound is provided to the learners.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter deals with the review of related literature. The main aim is to find out other peoples views as related to the study.
In this review, attention would be focused on the following areas:
- Teaching and instructional materials
- Selection of instructional materials.
- Type and effect of instructional materials
- Problems of instructional materials