THE ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS’ FAILURE IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION COURSES IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN EKITI STATE

THE ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS’ FAILURE IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION  COURSES IN TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN  EKITI STATE
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                      Page
TITLE PAGE                                                                                 
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                            CERTIFICATION                                                                   
DEDICATION                                                                            
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                            
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                
ABSTRACT                                                                                 
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study                                                                          
Statement
of the Problem                                                                          
Purpose of the
Study                                                                       
Delimitation of the Study                                                                         
Significance of the Study                                                                          
Research Questions                                                                          
Definition
of Terms                                                                          
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Historical Background                                                                    
Factors Influencing Students’
Performance or Failure in Schools.   
Summary of the Review of Literature                                                       
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction                                                                                               
Design of
the Study                                                                         
Area of the
Study                                                                   
Population
of the Study                                                         
Sample Size                                                                                     
Instrument
for Data Collection                                                        
Validity of
the Instrument                                                      
Reliability
of the Instrument                                                   
Method of
Data Collection                                                     
Method of
Data Analysis                                                                
CHAPTER FOUR:
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS   OF DATA
Analysis of
Research Questions                                                        
Research
Question 1                                                               
Research Question 2                                                               
Research Question 3                                                               
Research Question 4                                                               
Findings of the Study                                                             
Discussion of Findings                                                           
CHAPTER FIVE :
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusion                                                                              
Recommendations                                                                           
Suggestion For Further                                                          
References                                                                              
Appendices                                                                            
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ABSTRACT
          Vocational
and technical education has been identified as a tool for the realization of
the proposed vision 20:20 by the federal government of Nigeria. The vision is
for Nigeria to become one of the top twenty economics in the world by the year
2020. In this research work, it is necessary to look into the causes of failure
in vocational and technical courses in technical colleges in Ekiti state and
juxtapose with what was obtainable on ground in our institution where technical
education learning takes place.
          Questionnaires
were rolled out and accessed in four (4) technical colleges within Ekiti State
of Nigeria and a total of two hundred and ten (210) questionnaires were
assessed by students randomly selected in this four colleges. The reliability
of this research instrument was conducted using the mean method of 3.50, which
is enough for this work. It was discovered through assessment the level of
technical tools, equipment and drawing materials are not adequate. They needed
effective maintenance of the equipment make effective teaching and acquisition
of skills. The research work also revealed that the personality of the students
towards National Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB) is
encouraging. This will go a long way in motivating the students and teachers in
the discharge of their duties.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
          Technical
education plays a significant role in providing middle level manpower needed
for work in various industries for development and economic growth of every
nation. Sarfo (2011) stated that there is the need for technical education to
provide students with expertise to cope with the changing industrial demands in
the present knowledge and technological economy. The expertise for the economic
growth of a nation can best be provided in Technical Colleges. Technical
Colleges are formal institutions where vocational and technical courses are
offered by students in order to acquire skills, knowledge and attitudes. The
aim of Technical Colleges according to the report of National Board for
Technical Education (NBTE) (2001) is to give training and impart the necessary
skills in various occupation leading to the production of craftsman,
technicians and other skilled personnel who will be enterprising and
self-reliant among others. Okpara (2003) added that Technical Colleges are
designed to prepare individuals to acquire practical skills, basic scientific
knowledge and attitude required as craftsman and technician at sub professional
level.
          Technical colleges are set up by
Federal or state government as principal vocational training institutions
intended to prepare individuals without gender bias for entry into various
occupation, as artisans and craftsmen. Okoro (2006) stated that Technical
College are regarded as principal vocational institutions in Nigeria that give
full vocational training intended to prepare students for entry into various
occupation as operatives or artisans are craftsmen. Various technical trades
such as Woodwork, Metalwork, Electrical and Maintenance, Electrical/Electronic,
Automobile Craft, Furniture Craft, Building construction, Painting and
Decorating are offered. 
          These technical trades learned by
students in technical colleges are listed in National Policy on Education to
equip students with skills, knowledge and altitude (Federal Government of
Nigeria, 2004). These trades expose students to various skills, knowledge and
altitude.
          A teacher is an individual that have
been trained pedagogically and in the subject matter to teach skills, knowledge
and attitude to students. Obanewa (1994) stated that a teacher is someone who
has undergone the necessary and recommended training in a teacher preparation
programme and in charged with the full responsibility of managing the classroom
in such away as to enhance the learning behaviour of the students. According to
Ede and Olaitan (2009) a teacher is a person who communicates knowledge, skills
and attitude to someone in a school. A teacher according Miller, Balceave and
Ikatunde (2010) is an individual who is trained in pedagogy and technical area
of a particular subject to impact knowledge, skills and attitude to students in
an institution. Teachers in this study are individuals who have been trained
professionally in this art of teaching technical curriculum to students in
Technical Colleges. These individuals are also called technical teachers. Okoro
(2005) described a technical teacher as an individual who has acquired adequate
skills and knowledge in an occupational area and fully trained to impact skill
and knowledge to others. The teaching of technical teachers is effective when
they are knowledgeable in subject matter and skilled in using various tools and
equipment related to the subject. Effective teaching is the act of imparting planned
knowledge and skills in a subject to students step to step in order to achieve
objective of the lesson technical teachers therefore needed to be equipped the
more for effective teaching.
          However graduates of the Technical
Colleges acquire insufficient skills and knowledge for employment, which
requires competent teachers to impact appropriate skills to enable them be
employable in the world of work. Moreover, the students performance in
technical courses (NABTEB) result released in 2011 was poor. NABTEB boss
revealed a comparative analysis of the results showed a 26.12 percent failure,
reflecting an increases of 0.30 percent against 25.85 percent in the previous
year, the failure of these students may be as a result of ineffectiveness of
the teachers in the technical colleges. Graduates of this field demonstrates
can not practice what they learnt in the school which makes them roaming the
street for non existing white scholar jobs.
          The level of competence of a nation’s
skilled workers and technicians is certainly important for the flexibility and
productivity of its labour force. The skilled workers and technicians enhance
the quality and efficiency of product development, production and maintenance.
The rapid changes of technology and knowledge in the present world are
expanding the cognitive and practical knowledge required for productivity in
technicians. Technical Education enables technicians to flexibly adjust to
rapid changes in their environment (Van merrienbeer and Kirschnnir, 2007).
Teachers need the necessary knowledge and skills in their areas of craft in
order to turn out quality graduates who will serve as skilled workers and
technicians for the nation.
Statement of the Problem
          Technical Colleges are established by
government to equip individuals with skills, knowledge and attitudes in
different occupations. This crafts is expected to expose students to skills and
knowledge in areas such as surface preparation, tools and equipment. To achieve
this much qualities is needed from the teachers. The competencies of these
teachers have been tagged with the low performance of graduates in the field.
Graduates in all fields of technical education in Technical Colleges acquire
insufficient skills and knowledge for employment. Cross (2004) explained that
there is urgent need for competent teachers to teach both the skills and
knowledge in technical education curriculum of Technical Colleges to students
who will be the future technicians. This will promote the development of expert
in technical education students in order to cope with complex demands in the
world of work (Vogatzki, 2002).
          It was discovered that most of the
equipment in some technical colleges were found in a bad condition in the
school workshops. A major problem in some technical schools is the adequacy of
tools and equipments.
          It is also discovered by the
researcher that maintenances work are not done on this machines to enhance the
frequent use. Fafunwa (1999) also observed that a lot of equipment procured to
accelerate technological education in this country have remain  under-utilized and unmaintained. As a result
of all these, students may not receive the training that meets the employers
demands due to insufficient equipment and well-trained technical instructors to
manage, operate and maintain availability workshop.
          These above problems have prompt the
researcher to undertakes this study, which is set out to ascertain the failure
of students in vocational and technical education courses in Technical Colleges
in Ekiti State.
Purpose of the Study
          The general
purpose of the study was to determine the causes of students failure in
vocational and technical education in Technical Colleges in Ekiti State.
          Specifically, this study will
determine.
1.    
The extent that the present curriculum affects
students’ performance.
2.    
The influence of availability of tools, equipment and
training materials on the student’s performance.
3.    
The teachers that will facilitate performance of the
students.
4.    
The causes of poor performance of students in National
Business and Technical Education Board.
Delimitation of the Study
          The study is limited to technical
colleges in Ekiti State. The study will focus on all students of vocational and
technical education in all the four technical colleges in Ekiti State.
Significance of the Study
          The study
will provide useful information to the ministry of education on the causes of
failure of students in Technical Colleges.
          It is also hoped that this study will
provide information which will be useful during planning for the ministry of
education (Science and Technology Division) and all these concerned with the
planning and preparation of students for the National Business and Technical
Examination Board.
          It is also hoped that this study will
provide bases for employment of staff into Ekiti State Technical Colleges in
terms of qualifications and skills.
Research Questions
          In this study answers were sought for
the following research questions:
1.    
To what extent does the present curriculum affect
student’s performance?
2.    
What is the influence of availability of tools,
equipment and training materials on the students’ performance in vocational and
technical education?
3.    
What are the factors that facilitate performance of
the students in vocational and technical education in technical college in
Ekiti State?
4.    
What are the causes of poor performance in National
Business and Technical examination Board?
Definition of Terms
Vocational and Technical Education: This is
defined as vocational/technical training or retraining which is designed to
prepare individuals for gainful employment, semi-skilled workers, technicians
or sub-professionals in recognized occupation (Encyclopedia of education 1971).
Technical College: These are schools designated
as senior secondary schools offering mainly technical subjects. They also train
students in the skills that makes them craftsmen and self-reliant.
National Business and Technical Examination Board
(NABTEB):
 This is an examination
body set up by Federal Government of Nigeria to administer examinations to
generate education and all vocational trade in the technical colleges’
nationwide at the end of the three years programme.
Failure: This is the inability of an
individual to meet up with the stated standard of any programme.

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