Background of the study
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Limitation of the study
Research questions
Definition of terms
Review of related literature
Research design and methodology
Research design
Population of the study
Instrument for data collection
Validation of data collection
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Presentation and discussion of result
Summary of findings, conclusion and
In every
human society where there is interaction between opposite sex, some levels of
sexual attraction is expected. When this occurs, mutual interest and reciprocal
response defines a civilized and socially acceptable sexual behaviour. However,
the increasing manifestation of social vices in higher institutions in Nigeria
can be attributed to the poor quality of graduates being produced. One of such
is sexual harassment that has continued to attract the attention of researchers
and the media as a common phenomenon in the Higher education Institutions. This
abnormal, antisocial behaviour has been accepted as a norm within the higher
education institutions Nigeria and overseas. Previous studies on this subject
have provided various definitions of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is
defined as unsolicited, unwelcome and unreciprocated sexual overture from a
person to elicit unwanted sexual relations from another person
Aluede, (2000). This includes any
inappropriate sexual overture, subtle and unsubtle persistent behaviour,
assault and actual sexual abuse that may be expressed physically, verbally or
non-verbally, usually from someone with a higher power or at a vantage position
to less a privileged person. Sexua lharassment in schools has also been described
as an unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that makes you feel uncomfortable,
fearful or powerless, and interferes with your schoolwork Scheffer, (2000).
harassment is a global issue that has permeated the fabrics of higher education
institutions and many workplaces as long as humans (males and females) have
reasons to interact. Sexual harassment in universities and other higher
education institutions is not limited to Africa Morley and Lussier (2009). As a
global challenge, sexual harassment deserves to be mainstreamed into academic
curriculum, particularly for reducing vulnerability among students and
increasing access to restorative care of victims. Universities in Ghana and
Tanzania have already integrated sexual harassment into course modules on
Gender, Power and Sex to address the challenge of male lecturers demanding sex
from female students in exchange for grades as a right.
A study among psychology
students in the US revealed a higher prevalence of sexual harassment and
unethical intimacy between postgraduate students and their supervisors than
undergraduate students due to frequent face-to-face interaction when seeking
advice on their research studies Glaser and Thorpe (1986). Higher education
institutions in Nigeria are not left out of this saga, for instance, it has
been affirmed that, in Nigeria sex for grades in the tertiary institutions is a
reality and the male lecturers in particular, perceived themselves as thin gods
and such unprofessional behaviour can be perpetuated unchecked Gaba and
Imonikhe (2012). A similar study Adetunji (2008)  reported a high prevalence of sexual
harassment both in the education institution and in the workplace. Sexual
harassment takes on various trends and nature, but most importantly, it
emanates from unequal power relation that is also associated with gender based
violence and violation of human rights. In most cases, the harasser is usually
older, powerful and poses something of value that is beneficial to the harassed
Schuffer, (2000).
The trend of occurrence was
reported to take several forms: from male lecturer to female student, from male
students to female students, from male lecturers to female lecturers and
non-academic staff and so on. In most cases, female students are most at risk
as victims while the male lecturers are more likely to be the perpetuators
American Associaotn of Univeristy Women. (2006). This trend presents an amazing
and disturbing scene in an environment that is often believed to be a center of
excellence for molding and developing virile leadership skills, high moral
qualities and intellectual capacity for human capital for future leadership.
A number of factors have
been enumerated as motivation for perpetuation of sexual harassment to include:
lust, pursuit of happiness, lack of norm of morality, lack of conscience,
pursuit of pleasure, lack of temperance, passion, habit, value, personality
disorder, inferiority complex, immaturity, cheapness, abuse of power, and
suffering from demonology Ogunbameru (2006). In addition, indecent dressing
pattern among female students who almost go naked in their appearance can also
be driving factors for continued incidence of sexual harassment. Many female
students are so morally bankrupt that they rely absolutely on their womanhood
for high grades without due preparation.
Sexual harassment is a
serious problem for all student at all educational levels. Students in
elementary and secondary schools as well as vocational schools, apprenticeship
programmes, colleges and universities can be victims of sexual harassment. This
problem is more common than you might think because many students are scared or
too embarrassed to report sexual harassment. Harassment can include unwelcome
sexual advances, requests for sexual favours and other verbal or physical
harassment of a sexual nature. Sexual harassment also include, intimidation,
bullying or coercion of a sexual nature or the unwelcome or inappropriate
promises of rewards in exchange for sexual favours. In most modem legal contexts,
sexual harassment is illegal.
Harassment does not have to
be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a
person’s sex. For example, it is illegal to harass a woman by making offensive
comments about women in general. Both victims and the harasser can either be a
woman or a man, and the victim and the harasser can also be of the same se.
although the law doesn’t prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated
incidents that are not very serious, harassment is illegal when it is so
frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work environment or
when it results in an adverse employment decision (such as the victims being
fired or demoted).
The harasser can be the
victim’s supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a coworker or someone who is
not an employee of the employer such as client or customer, it includes a range
of behavior from seemingly mind (dubious discuss) transgressions and annoyances
to actual sexual abuse or sexual assault. Sexual harassment is a form of
illegal employment discrimination in many countries and is a form of abuse
(sexual and psychological) and bullying for many businesses and other
organization, preventing sexual harassment and defending employees from sexual
harassment charges, have become key goals of legal decision-making.
Effects of sexual harassment
can vary depending on the individual, and severity and duration of the
harassment, often, sexual harassment incidents fall into the category of the
“merely annoying”. However, many situations can and do have life
altering effects particularly when they involve severe/chronic abuses and or
retaliation against a victim who complains about it openly. Indeed
psychologists and social workers report that severe/chronic sexual harassment
can have the same psychological effects as rape or sexual assault. (Koss,
1987). For example in 1995, Judith Coflin committed suicide after chronic
sexual harassment by her boss and co-workers.
   Moreover, every year, sexual harassment cost
hundreds of millions of dollars is lost educationally and professionally,
mostly for girls and women (Boland, 2002) However, the quantity of men implied
in these conflicts is significant. Sexual harassment has reduced many students
ability to participate in extracurricular activities or attend classes.
harassment has posed a tremendous challenge to African women both in the workplace
and educational setting, and this problem has affected their effectiveness in
their various academic fields. Literature reports that sexual harassment has
impacted women’s self esteem as well as their academic, social, and
psychological wellbeing (Ladebo, 2003; Mashingaidze 2006; Popovich, 1988). The
awareness of the impact of sexual harassment on women’s existence has led to
multiple approaches in the definition of sexual harassment across culture,
ethnicity, race, and settings.
harassment has been a challenge in all levels of education and across all
academic fields in Africa. Rossetti (2001) indicated that in Botswana 68% of
the sexual harassment experienced by girls in the secondary schools happened in
their junior year, 18% in senior years and 14% in primary schools years. Leach,
Machakanja, and Mandoga (2000) found that in a coeducation school in Zimbabwe
47% of girls experienced sexual harassment from male teachers and students.
Daily Champion (2007) reported that 5.7% of girls in Nigerian primary schools
of girls in secondary schools have experienced sexual harassment. Leach et al.
(2003) also found that 27% of girls in junior secondary schools in Ghana have
experienced forced sex and over 50% have also been sexually harassed. Human
Rights Watch Report (2001) also states that thousands of thousands of girls in
schools across South Africa encounter sexual violence and harassment.
Africa as well, teachers have been accused of making sexual demands in exchange
for good grades (Human Rights Watch Report, 200 1 ; Nwaogwugwu, 2007). Research
studies on different institutions of higher learning in many African countries
have revealed the trends and nature of sexual harassment experienced by women
students. These include degrading verbal remarks, unwanted touching, and other
types of gender-based violence (Adedokun, 2004; Abati, 2006; Ejiogu &
Onyene, 2006). High proportions of female students in colleges and universities
across the continent of Africa have experienced sexual harassment from male
faculty, staff and students. Banyu (2003) found that 37.7% of women students in
a university in Tanzania have been sexually harassed by male faculty members.
Haruhanga (2006) reported that 42% of women in Makerere University in Uganda
have been sexually harassed by male faculty and peers. Human Rights Watch
(2001) also indicated that one in four female students at the University of
Natal (Durban, South Africa) have experienced sexual harassment from male
faculty and peers.
The problem of sexual harassment in the continent of
Africa has received cold reactions from government and school authorities.
Human Rights Watch (2001) reported that the government and school authorities
in South Africa were found to be silent about the sexual harassment.
experienced by female students in the country. As a result of this neglect from
the government and school officials many female students have quit schooling
and many did not return to school due in part to fear of being harassed again
or violated. Other countries on the continent have acted in the same manner
such as Nigeria, Uganda, and Zimbabwe (CEDAW, 2008; Houreld, 2007; Human Rights
Watch, 2001; Nwaogwugwu, 2007). Studies found that educational institutions in
the continent have no policy initiatives on sexual harassment (Amnesty
International Report, 2005; Daily Champion, 2007; Ladebo, 2003).
To determine the Nature and
Trend of Sexual Harassment among Students in Higher Education in Nigeria
To ascertain the causes of
Sexual Harassment as perceived by students in higher Education Institution
To examine the Psychological
Consequences of Sexual Harassment on the victims
To recommend possible
institutional response to control occurrence of sexual harassment in higher
education institution
This study is out to answer some of the
following questions;
What is the nature and forms of sexual harassment in the higher
What are the causes of sexual harassment as perceived by the student in
higher education institution?
What are the psychological consequences of sexual harassment ?
4.     What is the way of
control occurrences of sexual harassment in higher education
The importance of this study is that it
helps to call for urgent research into the prevalence, and effect of sexual
harassment on the classroom interaction and performance of female students in
tertiary institutions of learning.
It is also hoped that this study will assist the university
management in making decision and mapping out strategic policies towards
cracking the ugly trend of sexual harassment among female students in the
This study is done within the premises
of University of Nigeria, Ikere Campus, This study is also limited to the investigation
of sexual harassment among female students of the University of Nigeria. The
findings of this study is limited to the College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti
Sexual: Connected with the physical activity of sex.
Harass: To annoy or worry someone
by putting pressure on them or saying or doing unpleasant things to them.
Sexual harassment is defined in this
study as unwelcomed sexually determined behavior, physical contact and
advances, sexually-colored remarks, showing of pornography and sexual demands,
whether by words or by actions that constitutes a health and safety problem,
which when objected could disadvantage the victim in her connection with her
studies, including recruitment or promotion, or creates a hostile study
environment (United
General Recommendation 19 to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination Against Women).
Prevalence: The act of existing or becoming very common at a particular time r
in a particular place.
The action of making somebody do something that they done want to do.



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