INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

INFLUENCE
OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE; A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ADO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
         
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
to the Study
The importance of school environment in to of
students in secondary schools today in particular cannot be overemphasized.
This is because, school environment has tremendous influence in the quality of
teaching students receives and the extent of attention they pay to lesson in
school. This implies that schools that fail to provide the necessary learning
facilities and create a conducive atmosphere for teaching and learning may
hardly put in the best in their students especially in the area of academic
achievement. This scenario has been among the reason for poor academic
achievement of students in many primary schools in the study area.
The
school environment, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical
workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching
methods, peers, etc are variables that affect students’ academic achievement
(Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000).  Hence, the school environment remains
an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’
academic performance.
         
The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much
concern to the government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The
quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the
performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the
school environment (Ajao 2001)
School
environment which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places
planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning,
accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are
essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which student
learning  could be enhanced depends on their location within the school
compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional
facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear
up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political
and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic
performance of the students.
         
Relating this study to international
occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud, and Turner (2008), quoting
Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment
(aspect of instructional space), School facilities (accessories) were
significantly related to students’ academic performance in schools. The three
researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and
caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students`
academic performance.
The
physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers,
students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon
dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning
difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor
health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and
higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These
factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of
frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.
Beyond
the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the
combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting
workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students
including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a
stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job
dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is
possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an
effect upon the academic performance of students.
Previous
studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including
problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population,
classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent
temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior,
and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson,
2001; Lyons, 2001;Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement
these studies, the present research will examine the aforementioned areas of
school environment as it affect students performance in Nigerian schools.
Statement
of the Problem
Emphasizing
the importance of school environment to students academic performance,
Oluchukwu, (2000) asserted school environment is an essential aspect of
educational planning, he went further to explain that “unless schools are well
suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and
maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.
The
high levels of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where
instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and
laboratories are structurally defective. However, little is known on the impact
of school environment on students’ academic performance in an urban city like
Ado State.
Objectives
of the Study
The
purposes of this study are:
1.      To examine the relationship
between school environment and the student academic performance
2.      To examine the impact of
school facilities on the academic performance of  students  in the
secondary school
3.      To explore factors such as
class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning in
the academic process of students in secondary school
4.      To investigate the extent to
which school location affects the academic achievement of secondary school
students.
Research
Questions

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Research
Hypothesis
Ho1     
There is no significant difference between school environment and the
student academic performance
Ho2     
There is no significant difference between school facilities and academic
performance  of students
Ho3     
There is no significant difference between class size and academic
performance  of students
Ho4     
There is no significant difference between school location and academic
performance  of students
 Significance of the Study
It
is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and
school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in
achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the
possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may
consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In
addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares
quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this
connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to
reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of
student in secondary school.
 Scope of the Study
This
research work focuses on influence of school environment on academic
performance of secondary school students in some selected secondary schools
in Ado Local Government Area Of Ekiti State. This research work 
covers all public secondary schools students in Ado Local Government Area Of
Ekiti State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.
 Definition of Terms
School:
A school is an institution
designed for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of
teachers
School
Environment: A

school’s physical environment includes the school building
and the surrounding.
Academic
Achievement –

Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by  test scores.
Secondary
school

(also”high school”)is a term used to describe an educational institution where
the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually
compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary
education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education

INFLUENCE
OF SCHOOL ENVIROMENT ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE; A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ADO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
         
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
to the Study
The importance of school environment in to of
students in secondary schools today in particular cannot be overemphasized.
This is because, school environment has tremendous influence in the quality of
teaching students receives and the extent of attention they pay to lesson in
school. This implies that schools that fail to provide the necessary learning
facilities and create a conducive atmosphere for teaching and learning may
hardly put in the best in their students especially in the area of academic
achievement. This scenario has been among the reason for poor academic
achievement of students in many primary schools in the study area.
The
school environment, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical
workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching
methods, peers, etc are variables that affect students’ academic achievement
(Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000).  Hence, the school environment remains
an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’
academic performance.
         
The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much
concern to the government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The
quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the
performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the
school environment (Ajao 2001)
School
environment which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places
planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning,
accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are
essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which student
learning  could be enhanced depends on their location within the school
compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional
facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear
up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political
and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic
performance of the students.
         
Relating this study to international
occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud, and Turner (2008), quoting
Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment
(aspect of instructional space), School facilities (accessories) were
significantly related to students’ academic performance in schools. The three
researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and
caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students`
academic performance.
The
physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers,
students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon
dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning
difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor
health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and
higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These
factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of
frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.
Beyond
the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the
combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting
workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students
including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a
stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job
dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is
possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an
effect upon the academic performance of students.
Previous
studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including
problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population,
classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent
temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behavior,
and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson,
2001; Lyons, 2001;Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement
these studies, the present research will examine the aforementioned areas of
school environment as it affect students performance in Nigerian schools.
Statement
of the Problem
Emphasizing
the importance of school environment to students academic performance,
Oluchukwu, (2000) asserted school environment is an essential aspect of
educational planning, he went further to explain that “unless schools are well
suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and
maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.
The
high levels of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where
instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and
laboratories are structurally defective. However, little is known on the impact
of school environment on students’ academic performance in an urban city like
Ado State.
Objectives
of the Study
The
purposes of this study are:
1.      To examine the relationship
between school environment and the student academic performance
2.      To examine the impact of
school facilities on the academic performance of  students  in the
secondary school
3.      To explore factors such as
class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning in
the academic process of students in secondary school
4.      To investigate the extent to
which school location affects the academic achievement of secondary school
students.
Research
Questions
1.      Is there any relationship
between school environment and the student academic performance?
2.      To what extent do school
facilities affect student performance in secondary school?
3.      What effect does class size
has on the academic performance of students in secondary school?
4.      To what extent does school
location has on the achievement of secondary school students?
Research
Hypothesis
Ho1     
There is no significant difference between school environment and the
student academic performance
Ho2     
There is no significant difference between school facilities and academic
performance  of students
Ho3     
There is no significant difference between class size and academic
performance  of students
Ho4     
There is no significant difference between school location and academic
performance  of students
 Significance of the Study
It
is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and
school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in
achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the
possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may
consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. In
addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares
quite a lot of similarities with  many other counterparts. In this
connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to
reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of
student in secondary school.
 Scope of the Study
This
research work focuses on influence of school environment on academic
performance of secondary school students in some selected secondary schools
in Ado Local Government Area Of Ekiti State. This research work 
covers all public secondary schools students in Ado Local Government Area Of
Ekiti State. However, four public secondary schools will be used as case study.
 Definition of Terms
School:
A school is an institution
designed for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of
teachers
School
Environment: A

school’s physical environment includes the school building
and the surrounding.
Academic
Achievement –

Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by  test scores.
Secondary
school

(also”high school”)is a term used to describe an educational institution where
the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually
compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary
education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education
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