IMPACT OF HOME BACKGROUND ON PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN’S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

TABLE
OF CONTENT
Title
page                                                                                       
Certification                                                                                    
Dedication                                                                             
Acknowledgement                                                                            
Table of content                                                                     
Abstract                                                                                 
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the study                                                         
Statement
of the problem                                                      
Purpose
of the study                                                     
Objectives
of the study                                                
Research
question                                                                
Research
hypotheses                                                    
Significance
of the study                                                     
Definition
of the terms                                                  
CHAPTER TWO
          REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                    
 CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology:
Introduction                                                        
Research Design                                                                               
Population of the study
                                                                            
Sample and Sampling Technique                                                     
Instrument                                                                                       
Procedure for data
collection                                                           
Validity of the
Instruments                                                              
Procedure for Data
Analysis                                                           
CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND DATA
ANALYSIS                              
CHAPTER
FIVE
 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
Summary                                                                                
Conclusion                                                                             
Recommendations                                                                            
References                                                                              
Questionnaire                                                                         
ABSTRACT
          Pre-school
is the preparatory stage for the young children. They need proper attention at
home and outside the home for good academic performance and for the development
of the nation. This research was aimed to investigate if home background
influences academic performance of pre-school children in Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State.
          Self-developed
questionnaire was distributed to one hundred parents of preschool age pupils
from five (5) randomly selected Nursery/Primary schools in Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State.
          From the finding of this study shows
that, Parent/Family involvement influence children’s academic performance in pre-schools,  and number of children in family can not
affect the pre-school children’s academic performance and family composition
can affect  pre-school children’s
academic performance. Appropriate 
recommendations were made.
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 CHAPTER ONE
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
          Academic
performance is usually influenced by many conditions or characteristics in the
home and outside the home which need to be manipulated in order to ascertain
their relationship with children’s academic performance. Among the variables
that are significant in their interrelationship with academic achievement are;
distance of the school from the pre-school children’s homes, place of
residence, number of people in the household, father’s/guardian’s level of
education and attitude towards attainment in pre-school children’s academic
performance.
          Education
becomes a joint family venture, and siblings reside with older brothers and
sisters and other family members who are often better educated than them in
order to be more successful at school. The influence of the family in the
socialization process, family interests and support and the psychological
stimulation of the child’s academic development by parents and other
significant persons in the home environment are important influence on academic
achievement and motivation (Circere, 2004; Marjori-banks; 2006, Walberg and
Marjoribanks, 2006). This is true for this study; the better achieving children
usually reside with the better educated family members.
There are factors that are outside
the school’s control like the children’s home background and socio-economic
status, parent’s/guardian’s level of education and the family member’s attitude
towards achievement. The importance of home
background has been cited as a major factor
which influences performance. Talcott (2002), Bank (2006), Mirthungu (2007).
Moula (2009) in Niger state asserted that there is a positive relationship
between children’s academic performance and home background. There are home
environmental factors that have been seen for years as serious handicap to good
school progress. One of them is poverty, due to factors like low wage, large
families, retrenchment and loss of family breadwinner which exert pressure on
children’s academic performance.
          Waweru (2008) asserts that
malnutrition and poor living conditions are bound to have an influence on the
health of the child and directly or indirectly affect his/her ability to learn.
This shows that home background directly influences children’s academic
performance.
Statement of the Problem
          Academic
performance in pre-school is of great concern to government, public and
individuals. Information obtained from the school administrators indicate that
children’s performance is impacted by different factors such as heredity and
environment. First of all, influence of heredity is well established and plays
significant role in child’s development in general and academic performance as
well. Home background as one of environment factor also has the impact on the
school children academic. Academic performance in pre-school children indicates
the relationship between children’s residential area, number of people in the
household, distance of the school from the children’s homes, parent/guardian
level of education and attitude towards educational achievement and help for homework.
Purpose of the study
           This research aims at studying how home
background influences children’s academic performance especially in pre-school
in Ikere Local government area of Ekiti State.
Objectives of the
study
The specific
objectives of the study were:-
1. To find out how
the residential area impacts pre-school children’s academic performance.
2. To establish the
relationship between the number of people in the household and pre-school
children’s academic performance.
3. To determine
whether parent’s/ guardian’s education level influences pre-school children’s
academic performance.
Research questions                                           
          In order to investigate the above
statement of the problem and the objectives, the following questions are generated
to guide the study.
1. What is the
relationship between pre-school children’s residential area and their academic
performance?
2. Is there
relationship between the number of people in the household and the pre-school
children’s academic performance?
3. Does the
parent’s/guardian’s education level influence pre-school children’s academic
performance?
 Research hypotheses
i.                  
There
is no significant difference
between children’s performances in term of residential
area.
ii.                
There
is no significant relationship between
the number of people in the household and
the pre-school children’s academic performance.
Significance of the
study
          The parents/guardians of the
pre-school children will benefit from the research findings in understanding
their role in their children’s academic performance. They will be provided with
rich information as to why they are their children’s first teachers and the
pillars in their academic performance.
          The findings of the study may be
useful to the personnel in the ministry of education in understanding their
role in facilitating academic performance in pre-school education sub-sector
which is an important institution in the entire education system. Pre-school
education not only enables girls and boys to gain access to education but also
it gives them a bearing on their lives.
Ministry of
Education and other institutions involved in training of pre-school teachers
will also benefit. Ministry of Education will benefit by improving the quality
of training of teachers who handle children from different home backgrounds.
The findings will further benefit future researchers in identifying priority
areas in which to carry out more in-depth researches on homes and institutions
which partner with schools in pre-school children’s effective performance in
Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state.
Definition of Terms
Academic performance: The way in which one carries out an
activity successfully especially in academics.
Access to education: The way of teaching or entering a
place where teaching is done.
Level of Education:  A standard of academic ability or level of learning.
Environmental factors: The place in which people live
including all the physical condition that affect them. E.g. parents are
responsible for providing the right environment for their children to learn.
Household: All the number of people that live
in the same house.
Home background: The type of place where one lives
or feels he/she belongs.
Parent: a person’s mother
or father who is legally responsible for the care of a child.
Pre-school: school sub-sector
that prepares children for primary school. The children in this school
sub-sector are usually between zero to six years of age. 
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