FLOOD GENERATING STRUCTURES IN KUBWA URBAN LANDSCAPE

FLOOD GENERATING STRUCTURES IN KUBWA URBAN LANDSCAPE
ABSTRACT
This research work examined flood generating structures on Kubwa urban
landscape Bwari Area Council. It is a combination of field observation through
the distribution of questionnaire to the residents of the area and library
research. Background for the study was discussed as well as problems were
identified such as the causes and devastating effects of flooding in Kubwa
which necessitated the need for this study. Research objectives were stated
among which is to identify the flood generating structures and the areas
vulnerable to flooding. Research questions and hypotheses were formulated to
guide in achieving the objectives. The study reviewed both theoretical and
related empirical literatures under headings such as the concept of flood,
types of floods, effects of flood, pattern of floods among others. The study
adopted the quasi-experimental research design which is a combination of both
survey and field work. 170 respondents were selected using the stratified
random sampling technique from each of the study areas; structured
questionnaires were distributed to them. The researcher used both descriptive
and inferential statistics to analyze the data obtained from the respondents
and field work. The questionnaires were analyzed and presented in tables using
frequency and simple percentages; while the data about the generating
structures were analyzed using the standard multiple regression technique to
estimate how the parameters (i.e. ponds, drainage, polythene, vegetation and
house clustering) affect the rate of flooding. Some of the findings of the
study revealed that the major cause of flooding in the area is rainfall and
lack of sufficient drainage system, which occur mostly from July to September
annually to high amount of rainfall within that period. The residents close to
the drainage or blocked surfaces experience higher rate of destruction than
those far away from the drainage. It was among other things recommended that
there should also be regular and periodic sanitation exercise to clear refuse
in drainages as this will go a long way in averting possible incidences of
flooding; ponds should be well taken care to avoid escalation of floods in
addition to construction of dry dams/levees for the purpose of flood control as
well as flood-mapping of vulnerable areas as these will go a long way in
reducing the incidence of flooding in the study area.
.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page    –       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
–       
Declaration –       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
–       
Certification        
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
–       
Dedication  –       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
–       
Acknowledgement        
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
–       
Abstract     
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
Table of Contents –       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background to the
Study       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
1.2     Statement of Research
Problem                 
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
1.3     Aim and
Objectives      
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
1.4     Research Questions      
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
1.5     Research Hypotheses    
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
1.6     Significance of the
Study        
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
1.6     Scope and Limitations of the Study
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1    
Introduction                  
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.2     Conceptual Framework
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.3     Examples of Some Flood
Events     
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.4     Flood Patterns     
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.4.1  Normal Flood Pattern   
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
2.4.2  Abnormal Flood
Pattern        
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5     Flood
Types        
–        –       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.1  Riverine Flood    
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.2  Coastal Flood      
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.3 Urban Flood        
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.4  Flash Floods       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.5  Dam-Break Floods       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.6  Groundwater Flooding 
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.7 Sewage Flood      
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
2.5     Causes of Flood  
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.1  Meteorological
Processes       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.2  Geological Processes     
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.3  Hydrological Factors    
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.5.4  Anthropogenic Factors 
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.6     Effects of Flood    –       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.6.1 Negative Effects   
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.6.2 Positive Effects of
Flood         
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
2.7     The Roles Geographical Information System (GIS)
in
Environment Studies    
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
2.8     Empirical Review of Related
Literature      –       
–       
–       
–       
CHAPTER THRE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0    
Introduction        
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.1     Area of the Study
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.1.1  Location    
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.1.2  Climate      
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.1.2  Soils  –       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
3.1.3  Vegetation  –       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.1.4  Drainage    
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.1.5  Settlement and Population     
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.2     Research Design  
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
3.3     Population of the Study
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.4     Sample Size and Sampling
Technique       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.5     Sources of Data
Collection     
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
3.6     Method of Gathering
Data      –       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
3.7     Method Data Analysis  
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0    
Introduction                  
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
4.1     Data Presentation
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
4.2     Data Analysis     
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
4.3     Test of
Hypothesis       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–       
–       
4.4     Summary of Findings   
–       
–       
–       
–       
–       
–       
–       
4.5     Discussion of Findings 
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–          
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1     Summary   
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
–          
5.2     Conclusion
–       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–       
–          
5.3    
Recommendations                  
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
–          
References  –       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–        –       
–       
–          
Appendix I –       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
–          
Appendix II         
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–       
–        –       
–       
–          
Appendix III       
–       
–       
–       
–        –       
–        –       
–       
–          
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background to the Study
The world at large has in the recent past developed great concern over
environmental issues such as global warming and its effect; flood which
constitute a great problem to man, is both human-induced (anthropogenic) and
natural disasters. Global warming is as a result of human activities such as
deforestation, the release of carbon monoxide into the atmosphere in various
ways and thereby creating hole in the ozone layer. The Intergovernmental Panel
for Climate Change (IPCC, 2007), fourth assessment report reveals that the
frequency of heavy precipitation has increased over most land areas that appear
to be consistent with the global warming phenomenon. The impact of global
warming on specific regions of the world has been estimated and predicted that
“heavy precipitation events which are very likely to increase in frequency will
augment flood risk”. This means that floods will get more severe in areas that
are already prone to such disaster. They also observed increase in atmospheric
water vapour, extreme temperature and increase in intense tropical cyclones in
some regions.
Natural and Anthropogenic disasters had from prehistoric periods had serious
impact on man and his environment. Natural disasters and anthropogenic
disasters could come in form of earthquakes, cyclones, volcanic eruptions,
landslides and floods. Impact of disasters on men are exacerbated by a number
of factors which include poor land use planning, population growth,
environmental mismanagement, increasing levels of vulnerability, poor
governance and climatic change.
The loss of human lies, loss of assets and rise in the cost of
reconstruction efforts as a result of flooding has placed Disaster Risk
Reduction (DRR) on the policy agenda of many countries especially those areas
prone to flooding. The hope of realizing the International Strategy in Disaster
Reduction (ISDR)’s aim in reducing disaster is to mobilize the governments of
different countries, United Nations (UN) agencies, Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGOs), multi and bilateral agencies, regional bodies, private
sector and civil societies to unit efforts in building a resilient societies by
developing a culture of prevention, preparedness against and managing disaster
(UN-ISDR, 2003).
Floods accounted for about 30 percent of all the natural disasters and 40
percent of the fatalities (Schecham & Hewitt, 1969). Flood is the outcome
of a rainfall events or cumulative effects of episodic events, that comes
man-induced disaster because of violation of the sanctity of the hydrologic
cycle through man’s quest to control nature,(Adefolalu, 2008). Flood incidents
are becoming annual events in all parts of Nigeria with varying degrees of
impacts on man and his environment. The yearly report in various parts of
Nigeria has been that of flood causing destruction and the death of many people
and rendering people homeless. The destructions of scores of houses and many
social infrastructures such as schools, roads and bridges are n the increase.
Human factors responsible for flood in many areas are the improper operation of
water resources infrastructure such as dams, and reservoirs, which were
constructed to contain water and provide means of livelihood in times of need.
Such structures introduce elements of risk to people upstream and downstream.
These risks include destruction of unique habitats and biodiversity therein.
There is also the possibility of levee and drain breakage, improper refuse
disposal habit and occupation of the floodplain and imperviousness caused by
trampling, roads and bridges constructions.
The need to reduce the effects of flood hazards or disaster becomes very
imperative because it is difficult to control basic atmospheric processes which
produce floods. The first step attempt by man in the process flood disaster
reduction is to identify the factors responsible for flood in any flood prone
areas. The occurrence of flood in Kubwa satellite town of the Federal Capital
Territory in 2012 is one of the most recent severe flood disasters in the
Federal Capital Territory (FCT). There are no records of flood disaster
reported in the Federal Capital Territory before 2012, which indicates that
flooding in the area can be attributed to the influx of people into the FCT
which led to the emergence of various human activities in the area in recent
time. Hence there is need to examine the phenomenon and proffer solution.
1.2     Statement of Research Problem
Flood has been an old time disaster that had plagued man and his environment
in the world at large. In the recent past, most parts of the states in Nigeria
had witnessed flood especially during high rainfall frequency and intensity.
In the past four decades, economic losses due to natural hazards such as,
floods disasters have increased in folds and have also resulted in major loss
of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social
infrastructure, as well as environmental damages during this period (Munich Re,
2002). Recurring floods and other disasters have been identified as a serious
threat to sustainable development. Floods cause about one third of all deaths,
one third of all injuries and one third of all damage from natural disasters
(Askew, 1999).
Nigeria has suffered immeasurable losses to flood disaster – ranging the Imo
State flood of (1988, 1989) which left over 50 people dead, 10,000 rendered
homeless, oil and power infrastructures submerged; Ilorin also suffered a heavy
casualty following the 1988 flood which left over 100 villages destroyed,
10,000 families displayed, over 70 km of farmland and 440 hectares of sugarcane
plantation destroyed (Akintola & Williams, 2006).
In 2012, Nigeria was hit by a large wave of flood which was probably the
biggest and most deadly flood disaster in Nigeria’s history, which affected
about 2/3 of the federation, leaving scores of people dead and properties worth
billions destroyed, with Kubwa District in the FCT having more than a fair
share of the disaster.
One important point to note about flooding in this part of the world is that
they are mostly human induced as a result of some harmful environment practices
such as dumping of refuse in drainages, building on water ways, failure to
adhere to building regulations among others.
Despite the obvious adverse effects of flooding, little has been done to
savage the situation or correct the abnormalities, and hence, flood continues
to threaten Nigeria’s wellbeing as well as the lives and properties of the
citizens.
In the past, many works have been done on assessment of flood vulnerability
risk but majorities of this work do not provide a reasonable solution to this
devastating disaster and also lack of proper techniques to assess the flood
risk, this is a major gap which this research intends to fill.
It is in the light of the above problem, that the researcher embarked on
this study to determine the flood generating structures in Kubwa Urban
landscape as well as suggest mitigating measures to curb the menace of
flooding.
1.3     Aim and Objectives
The general aim of this research work is to examine the flood generating
structures in Kubwa urban landscape. The specific objectives are outlined thus:
i)                  
To identify areas vulnerable to flooding in Kubwa
ii)               
Examine the urban structures responsible for flooding in Kubwa
iii)             
To determine the magnitude of flooding in Kubwa from 2012 – 2014.
iv)             
To examine the consequences of flood in Kubwa
1.4     Research Questions
          The following
questions are designed to guide the study:
i)                  
What are the areas vulnerable to flooding in Kubwa?
ii)               
What are the urban structures responsible for flooding in Kubwa?
iii)             
What is the magnitude of flooding in Kubwa from 2012 – 2014?
iv)             
What are the consequences of flooding in Kubwa?
1.5     Research Hypotheses
          The hypotheses
formulated for this study are:
          H01:  
Polythene deposit has not significant effect on flooding in Kubwa.
          H02:  
Ponds do not have any significant impact on flooding in Kubwa.
          H03:  
Drainage has not significant impact on flooding in Kubwa.
          H04:  
Vegetation has not significantly affect flooding in Kubwa
          H05:  
House clustering does not significantly impact flooding in Kubwa
These hypotheses will be tested using multiple Regression technique at the
5% (p<0.05) level of significance.
1.6     Significance of the Study
Flood in Kubwa area of the Federal Capital Territory is a recurrent
phenomenon. It occurred in the year 2012 and 2013 when this research was in
progress. Both floods resulted in loss of lives and destruction of properties.
The findings and recommendations of this research can be a very useful
information to government agencies, corporate estate managers, individuals, flood
disaster managers and other stakeholders in environmental management and
monitoring in the research area and other parts of the world faced with the
problem of flooding.
The outcome of the research could serve as a tool towards public awareness
on the rate of loss of lives and properties, where the environmental hazards
occur, barren land and the pre-disposing risk for proper environmental
planning.
FOR COMPLETE PROJECT CALL 07064961036

online payment nigeria HOW TO ORDER FOR COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

STEP 1

Complete Project Price: ₦3,000 (We accept mobile tranfer)

» Bank Branch Deposits, ATM/online transfers (Amount: ₦3,000 NGN)

Bank: FIRST BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 3116913871 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 OR Click Here

Bank: ACCESS BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 0766765735 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here

Bank: HERITAGE BANK Account Name: OMOOGUN TAIYE Account Number: 1909068248 Account Type: SAVINGS Amount: ₦3,000 AFTER PAYMENT, TEXT YOUR TOPIC AND VALID EMAIL ADDRESS TO 07064961036 OR 08068355992 Click Here

STEP 2.

Send Your Details and Project topic To us by filling this form.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*


58 − 49 =