FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHERS EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA.

FACTORS
INFLUENCING TEACHERS EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA.
CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Teachers’
role in any educational system cannot be over-emphasized.  Teachers are
the executors and implementers of the educational policies and
curriculum. 
Hence
whether there are loopholes in the educational processes and outcome, teachers
tend to receive more blame for these shortcomings than any other agent
connected with educational activities.
       
Adesina (2014) recognized teachers as the heart of Nigeria’s educational system
at all levels.  The teachers continue to be the major determinants of
quality of education, be it at primary, secondary or tertiary level.  The
revised National Policy on Education (1998) confirms that, “No educational
system can rise above the quality of its teachers”
        
Similarly, the National Curriculum Association conference held in 1969
described the teacher as the “Keyman in the entire educational
programme”.  The implication of the foregoing for educational policy
makers in particular and the society at large is that, adequate attention
should be paid to teachers’ welfare in all its ramifications.  This should
be the case as point out by Edem (1987):
The curriculum however well developed
and however properly interpreted, will come for short of our hopes unless it is
applied by teachers who are themselves the product of its philosophy.
       
In a situation where teachers are left to their fate to face the rigours of
academic and in some cases administration work, there is the high tendency that
they would decline both in efficiency and effectiveness.  Worst still,
inspite of these rigours they are being poorly motivated in terms of salary remunerations. 
According to Borton (2011) “Education is not just for personal survival or to
increase one’s income or power over others, but it is for enriching one’s life
for personal growth beyond survival and income”.  While agreeing with his
view, the question is will it also be justifiable for teachers to use their
meager income for the provision of school facilities, materials and equipment
needed for effective school work to progress?  If the answer to this
question is positive, according to Byme (1981) there is a danger that the
teacher will lose his initial keenness in teaching for something better.
       
Moreover, the nature of teachers earns them the regards as experts who know
more than their students.  This may involve answering questions, correcting
or validating the students’ work or what they have said.  For the teacher
to remain as an expert, there must be a continuous in-service training
programme for him and the urge to expand his breadth of understanding.
       
In a situation where there is little or no in-service training programmes and
other opportunities for the teachers to widen their knowledge, it is obvious
that they will become incompetent.  This is further buttressed by Wilbert
(2008) when he said that the teacher’s ability to remain well informed on new
developments in his ability to make creative and critical judgments concerning
the main trends in his field bear directly upon his competence as an
expert.   In other words, if teachers are behind time and obsolete in
their disciplines, their effectiveness becomes questionable.
Education
is very important for every nation of the world. It is important because the
transmission of cultural heritage and technological advancement of any nation
depends on it. In recognition of the importance of education, every nation
including Nigeria earmarks huge budgetary allocations for it yearly (Nwosu,
2008). Similarly, parents and guardians spend huge amount of money yearly to
finance their children’s/wards’ education. They see the education of their
children or wards as a worthwhile investment for future social and economic
security of their families. Parents and guardians usually expect accountability
from the schools to which they pay huge school fees for the education of their
children. In other words, the school proprietors have to justify the money they
collect from parents as school fees by ensuring that effective teaching and
learning take place in their schools, otherwise, they may risk low patronage as
parents may withdraw their children to better schools.
To
account for the school fees collected and to maintain appreciable number of
students in their schools, the school proprietors strive to provide enabling
environment for effective teaching and learning to thrive. A high quality
assurance in schools entails providing most of the factors that enhance
effective teaching and learning which ultimately affect students’ academic
achievement. These factors as enumerated by Postlethwaite (2007) include but
not limited to teacher-variables, environment/family-variables and
school-variables. Of all these factors, the ones that are touted to exact most
influence on the learning outcome are the “teacher-variables” as the teacher is
the ultimate implementer of the curriculum (Postlethwaite, 2007). One of the
teacher-variables which contributes immensely to enhance students’ academic
achievement is the teaching (teacher) effectiveness. Effective teaching is a
term synonymous with teaching (teacher) effectiveness and was defined by Afe
(2003) as the type of teaching characterized by the exhibition of intellectual,
social and emotional stability, love for children and positive disposition
towards the teaching profession and ability to inspire good qualities in
students. It was also defined by Vogt (1984) as the ability of instruction to
inspire students of different abilities while incorporating instructional
objectives and assessing the effective learning mode of the students. According
to Evans (2006) teaching effectiveness is a measure of the extent of realization
of the instructional objectives. It is a net growth in intellectual aptitude
and skills as measured by students’ achievements. Sanders’ (1999) and
Wenglinsky’s (2000) work asserted that teacher effectiveness is the single
biggest contributor to students’ success. Teacher effectiveness outweighs other
factors which influence students’ performance such as class size, gender and
socio-economic background of the students.
Statement of the problem
Teachers ineffective in the schools
system could be as a result of the factors such as the lack of instructional
materials, inadequate fund, lack of teachers motivation, inadequate qualified
teacher which equally brings about poor academic performance of the students
and others problem in the schools system like teachers laziness, stress and
high tension when teachers are not well motivated, contribute to effective
teaching, and if it can be eliminated, then we can have what we called
effective teaching in public secondary schools in Ekiti State.
Objective of the Study
The
general objective of this study is to find out the factors influencing teachers
effectiveness in public secondary schools in IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
The
specific objectives of the study were to:
1)    The
major factors that influencing teachers’ 
effectiveness in Public secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area
2) Determine if teachers qualification affect
teachers effectiveness in public secondary schools
3) Investigate if 
teachers method of teaching have effect on teachers effectiveness
4) Investigate if 
teachers attitude affect teachers effectiveness in public secondary
school
5) To suggest the strategies to
improve teachers’ effectiveness schools
Research questions
1.     What
were the major factors that influencing teachers’  effectiveness in Public secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area
2.  Does teachers qualification affect teachers
effectiveness in public secondary schools
3.  Does teachers method of teaching have effect on
teachers effectiveness
4.  To what extend does teachers attitude affect
teachers effectiveness in public secondary schools
5.   What
should be suggested/ done to improve teachers’ effectiveness schools



Research
Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis were foumulated to guide
the study
1.  
 Factors that influence teachers effectiveness
in teaching does not have significant effect on their performance in schools
2.  
Teachers qualification does not have
significant different on teachers effectiveness in schools
 Significance of the Study
The
significance of the study will be of benefit and useful to the students,
teachers, corporate union, and government who have desire to invest in
secondary schools. Among the benefits to the benefactors above are as follow
1. If there is teachers effectiveness in the classroom, it will bring about the
student effective academic performance
2. If those factors influencing teacher effectiveness such as regular salary,
motivation, trainings etc are properly attempt to, then teachers will be of
immense benefit.
3. It will be of benefit to the government in order to know the factors
influencing teachers effectiveness in the classroom.
4. It will be of benefit to the corporate union in order to apply the knowledge
obtainable to acquainted with secondary schools system
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study covers the factors influencing
teachers effectiveness in public secondary schools in Nigeria. The study will
covers five public secondary schools in IKERE
LOCAL GOVERNMENT.
Limitation
of the Study
The
researcher comes across unwillingness of a few respondents to fill in the
questionnaire and return on time. However, the researcher selected enumerators
and repeatedly persuade  the respondents
to genuinely participate in responding to items at the time of data collection.
The
study was limited to identify financial and material resources.
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