EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study examined the effects of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of Physics in Secondary Schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Three research questions were raised to guide the study;Experimental research was conducted to obtain information from two selected senior secondary schools. This requires teaching of Physics in both schools; Group A which involved fifty (50) students, twenty-five (25) from each school and test was conducted after teaching. Relevant instructional materials was used during teaching and learning in Group A, while there is no use of instructional materials while teaching in Group B classroom. The data collected were analysed using the percentage frequency with t-test. It was discovered from the study thatthe use of instructional materials can better complement the traditional method of teaching physics as it boosts the performance of students taught physics in senior secondary schools. Also, gender factor does not affect the academic performance of students taught physics with the use of instructional materials because both male and female students were given equal chances to succeed when taught physics with the use of instructional materials in senior secondary schools. It was thus further recommended that instructional materials should be incorporated into the teaching of Physics at the secondary school level since it stimulate students to effectively learn and retain the concepts presented to them. Also, Physics teachers should ensure they plan their lessons with equal learning chances for both male and female students in senior secondary schools and Physics teachers should consider the school location when planning for the instructional materials in senior secondary schools as students from public schools tends to perform better in the project activities.
Background of the Study
Science has been regarded as the bedrock of modern day technological breakthrough is built. Nowadays, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning Scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on Science. According to Ogunleye (2012), Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. Without the applications of science, it would have been difficult for man to explore the other planets of the universe.
Science comprises the basic disciplines such a Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. Many investigations have shown that secondary school students are exhibiting dwindling interest in Science (Esiobu, 2015). Besides, Physics as one of the Science subjects remains one of the most difficult subjects in the school curriculum according to the Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) (Isola, 2010). Studies have revealed that the performance of Nigerian students in Ordinary Level Physics was generally and consistently poor over the years. Poor academic achievement in Physics could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of Physics concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. The teaching of Physics without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement.
Bassey (2010) opined that Science is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching of Physics in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally.
Instructional materials are all the things teachers use to aid the learners in their learning process. They are the means being used to enhance effective teaching and learning. Obaru and Okoh (2009) regard instructional strategies and materials as “all the things the teachers utilize to interactively enhance, motivate and facilitate teaching and learning in an attempt to ensuring the achievement of a set objectives.”
The impacts of instructional materials and strategies depend upon the manner and degree to which they meet the needs of the teachers and students. Instructional strategies and materials are selected based on the provision of accurate materials that will enrich and support the curriculum, taking into consideration the interest, abilities and maturity levels of Physics students. Physics teachers should be encouraged in every way to use instructional materials as it makes learning more concrete and meaningful (Buseri and Dorgu, 2011).
Teaching brings about understanding which involves a teacher, a learner and subject matter and teaching materials. Therefore, to bring about learning, the teachers need to engage in certain activities such as talking, demonstration, and give instruction etc. All these are the various strategies to bring about learning (Adediran, 2014). Physics teachers need to use different instructional strategies to ensure that students’ centered method is used in the classroom for creativity, innovative and critical thinking purpose in students. Classroom teaching is likely to be more effective when it is formed by an understanding of how students learn. It is therefore important that, the major implications of instructional strategies be reflected in classroom practice. In recent times, emerging research findings seem to show that oriented instructional strategies are becoming increasingly popular in the teaching of Physics subjects in the secondary school level of education in Nigeria (Osakwe, 2009).
Instructional strategies involve resolution of problems, active practice participations of learners in the teaching process and emphasis on process rather than products of learning. Some of these strategies and approaches according to Osakwe (2009) are categorized under conventional and innovative appraises, instructional strategies which are classified under conventional are mostly those routine, well-knowing ones which teachers use predominantly. They are usually teacher-centered with little or no activities for students. These include teaching method like lecture, story-telling, recitation, etc. On the other hand, the innovative strategies include those ones that are much more recent which are predominantly learner-centered. These include questioning, inquiry/problem solving, role-play and dramatization (Adediran, 2014).
According to Buseri and Dorgu, (2011) who defined instructional materials as the process of providing or constructing adequate and necessary learning resources for effective teaching in the school system. The purpose of teaching is to facilitate positive changes in behaviour and this is the best way by which Physics students’ could be helped to learn effectively is to make the teaching learning process a pleasurable activity through the use of appropriate learning resources. Teaching resources is the judicious arrangement of teaching process to achieve the desired goals and objectives. Adeboye and Afolabi (2009) assert that assessment of teaching resources as a crucial issue which must be carefully examined by the teachers depending on the form of teaching resources, the teacher must determine whether such resources will be used on individual or group basis. Since poorly organized teaching resources can cause disorderliness in the classroom, the teacher must organize the resources in such a way that it will enhance optimum learning. The level of instructional materials in Nigeria are lacking behind, particularly in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. In many secondary schools, instructional materials are not available while resources available in some secondary schools are poorly utilized. Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of Physics in secondary schools in other to promote the efficiency of Physics teachers and improve students’ performance. It makes learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. It also enables both the teachers and students to participate actively and effectively during lesson sessions. It gives room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and develops self- confidence and self- actualization.
Agina-Obu (2009) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning. Isola (2010) also described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials are such used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to students during teaching-learning process.
In addition, Enaigbe (2009) stressed the importance of availability of instructional materials to achieve effectiveness in educational delivery and supervision in the school system. Ogbondah (2008) alerted on the instructional materials necessary to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organs and to reinforce the capacity of dominant organs. He noted that school teachers should try their possible best in the provision of locally made materials in substitution for the standard ones to promote their lessons. Basic materials such as textbooks, chalkboard and essential equipment like computer, projector, bar chart, television and video are not readily available in many schools. Olumorin, Yusuf, Ajidagba and Jekayinfa (2010) observed that instructional materials help teachers to teach conveniently and the learners to learn easily without any problem. They asserted that instructional materials have direct contact with all sense-organs. Kochhar (2012) supported that instructional materials are very significant learning and teaching tools. He suggested the needs for teachers to find necessary materials for instruction to supplement what textbooks provide in order to broaden concepts and arouse students’ interests in Physics subject.
However, Akinleye (2010) attested that effective teaching and learning requires a teacher to teach the students with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more meaningful, logical, realistic and pragmatic. Instructional materials are indispensable to the effective teaching and learning activities. teaching aids are always useful in supporting the sense organs. Despite the fact that instructional materials are essential tools that can make learning practical and knowledge acquisition easier, they are not readily available in Nigerian secondary schools, leading to low level of performance of learners in government examinations (Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem 2014). He encouraged teachers to improvise teaching aids because they are in great measure enhance learners’ full participation in the lesson, gives room for inquiry, problem-solving, discussion and clarification of issues and ideas among students and the teacher.
Therefore, Ogbondah (2008) advocated for teachers’ resourcefulness and also encouraged them to search for necessary instructional materials through local means. Oso (2011) also agreed that the best way for teachers to make use of their manipulative skills is to improvise so as to achieve their lesson objectives at least to a reasonable extent. also identified the importance of instructional materials as making learning concrete and real, substitute one thing for another, allows the students’ to participate in the production of materials, economical and more teacher-students’ resource oriented. Improvisation of locally made teaching aids could assist to improve quality of graduates turn out from schools and standard of education generally. Abdu-Raheem and Oluwagbohunmi (2014) also asserted that the idea that resourceful and skillful teachers should improvise necessary instructional materials to promote academic standard in Nigerian secondary schools.
Statement of the Problem
Teaching and learning of Physics over the years have been faced with various problems such as;
- Absence of instructional materials that is relevant in the classroom to teaching and learning of Physics. Therefore, one can say that lack of instructional materials in secondary schools affects students’ academic or performances, interest and attitudes of students towards learning.
- Low level of the performance of secondary school students in both internal and external examinat This has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all education stakeholders over the years.
- Improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose for carrying out this study is to investigate the effect of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Physics in secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. Specifically the study set to;
- Examine the difference between the academic performances of students taught physics using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials in the selected senior secondary schools.
- Examine the extent to which gender difference affect the academic performance of students taught physics using instructional materials in the selected senior secondary schools.
- Examine the performance of students taught physics using instructional materials in the selected senior secondary schools.
- Examine the performance of students taught physics without using instructional materials in the selected senior secondary schools.
The following research questions are raised for the study:
- What is the difference between the performance of the physics students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials in the selected senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
- To what extent do gender differences affect the performance of physics students taught using instructional materials in the selected secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
- What differences exist in the performance of physics students taught without using instructional materials in the selected senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekit State?
The following null hypothetical statements are made with respect to the objectives of the study:
- There is no significant difference in the performance of physics students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials in the selected senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area in Ekiti State.
- There is no significant difference in the extent to which gender difference affect the performance of physics students taught using instructional materials in the selected senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area in Ekiti State.
- There is no significant differences that exist to which Male and Female affect the performance of physics students taught using Control method in secondary schools in Ikere LGA of Ekiti State.
Significance of the Study
The significant of this study will make Physics teachers to be aware of the importance of instructional materials not only to the state of approach but also the immense potentials interest in the use of instructional resources on the teaching and learning Physics in secondary schools in Ekiti State.
The findings will be relevant to the government of Ekiti State as means of enhancing better relationship between the teachers and students. The researcher’s result will furnish educators such as teachers and administrators with more reliable information on the impacts of teaching aids in teaching and learning of Physics with meaningful relevant and functional in the classroom.
Scope of the Study
This research work focuses on the impacts of instructional materials on teaching and learning of Physics in senior secondary schools in Ikere local government Area of Ekiti State. Due to the time limit for this research work, the research work would not be able to cover all public secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. However, five public secondary schools would be selected for research sample in the study area.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as it specifically applies to the study:
- Teaching Aids: They are materials that are used to communicate between the instructor and the learners for better understanding of the subject matter e.g. drawing board, television, computer system, projector, cardboard etc.
- Curriculum: curriculum is a body of value co-oriented learning contents existing as a reading discover or in the mind of the teachers’ taught when giving out an instruction result in change in pupil’s behaviors.
- Teaching: teaching is the conscious and deliberate efforts or matured or experienced person impact information and knowledge and experienced person with the intention that the later will learn or come to believe on whether he is being taught on ground.
- Syllabus: Syllabus is a context outline or statement of the main point of a course of study spring up from the board of curriculum of the school.
- Learning: Learning is a change of modification in behavior of organization as a result of experience or reaction to stimulus in this environment.
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