EFFECT OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY ON SECRETARIAL PROFESSION: FOCUS ON SOME TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN EKITI STATE.

EFFECT OF MODERN
TECHNOLOGY ON SECRETARIAL PROFESSION: FOCUS ON SOME TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN
EKITI STATE.
 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study
The emergence of
information and communication technology (ICT) has totally revolutionized the
way we access, process, and store, retrieve and disseminate information within
organizations or across the globe. Information and communication technology
encompasses a range of technologies and application systems of microprocessors
that have had profound impact on society and its way of life. The impact of ICT
is becoming pronounced worldwide in such a way that there is nothing that would
be mentioned in any area of human endeavour without reference to it.
The task of a secretary
in the acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination of
information depends on the availability of relevant office technologies such as
computer, cell-phone, reprography, micrograph, the skills and competencies. The
dissemination of the information can be effectively accomplished through the
application of requisite technology. Today’s government offices, and modern
business organizations have come to appreciate the role and importance of the
secretary as well as the need to provide the needed and necessary office
machines and equipment for the efficiency of the secretarial functions.
Information is power, it is a critical element for decision-making and it is
the baseline of every great success in life. Information can be said to be the
backbone of any organization. Information is the link that ties all branches or
components of an organization for better operation and co-ordination.
Information is a processed data endowed with meaning and purpose (Armstrong,
2004 and Bamidele, 2006).
Teaching of secretarial
studies entails the use of visual aids in lessons, using a catalogue of useful
visual aids that are good for teaching secretarial studies that is pictures,
graphs, diagrams, charts and tables, as well as awaken students’ interest by
giving them something practical works that broaden their knowledge.
More importantly,
secretarial studies prepare students to contribute positively to the rapid
economic development of their nation through scientific innovations. In other
words, it inculcates the spirit of inquiry so that students can base their
decision on facts rather than more sentiment. The popularity of this subject
among vocational technical students is evidenced by the increasing number of
those who offer it in senior secondary school certificate examination of both
WAEC and NECO. For student to reap the benefit of studying secretarial studies
at school, they should be able to organize their learning efficiently. It has
been observed that in their bid to do this, teachers must use the best method
in imparting knowledge into the students using various teaching techniques and
facilities in the like of modern information technology (ICT).
The use of information
technology in the classroom can allow more time and space flexibility for
lecturers and students to use the educational materials. It can also allow for
continuous testing of students of the contents of such materials, and allow the
students more freedom in taking initiatives, learn on their own, be more
creative, and individually study at their own pace.
Information and
communication technology (ICT) is an indispensable part of the contemporary
world. In fact, culture and society have to be adjusted to meet the challenges
of the information age. Information and communication technology (ICT) is a
force that has changed many aspects of people’s ways of life. Considering such
fields as medicine, tourism, travel, business, law, banking, engineering and
architecture, the impact of ICT in the past two or three decades has been
enormous.
ICT encompasses a range
of applications, communications and technologies which aid information
retrieval and research communication and administration. These include:
Internet access, electronic mail, CD-ROMS, telephone, on line databases,
library services and fax machines. It has become a global phenomenon of great
importance and concern in all aspects of human endeavour, spanning across
education, governance, business, labour, market, shares, productivity, trade,
agriculture, commerce and others. Haddad and Draxier (2002) indicated that ICT
contributed to effective learning through expanding access, promoting
efficiency, improving the quality of learning and improving management systems.
According to Obeng (2004), ICT is now regarded as a utility such as water and
electricity and hence has become a major role in education, learning and
research in general, agriculture, health, commerce and even in poverty
alleviation by generating or creating new jobs and investment opportunities.
ICT is an indispensable part of the contemporary world. The field of education
has certainly been affected by the penetrating influence of ICT worldwide and
in particular developed countries. ICT has made an impact on the quality and
quantity of teaching, learning and research in the tradition and/or distance
education institutions using it (Kwacha, 2007). According to Ololube, Ubogu and
Ossai (2007), the introduction of ICT usage, integration and diffusion has initiated
a new age in educational methodologies, thus it has radically changed
traditional method of information delivery and usage patterns in the domain as
well as offering contemporary learning experience for both teachers and
students.
ICTs are composed of
hardware, software, storage technology and other digital communication
technologies. According to Zimmermann and Finger (2005) ICT leads to a
redistribution of skills and redefinition of the operating modes by creating
new opportunities and making obsolete old practices. It is generally considered
that ICT has brought about considerable changes to systems and processes of
working and that new method of working would be developed, and different skills
would be required in work performance in dedicated offices. Before the
emergence of modern information and communication technology (ICT)
correspondences and some office jobs were done by secretaries, using manual
typewriters that had no storage, editing or correcting devices.
Records management was
totally manual with documents maintained neatly in file jackets and stocked in
cabinets. Most of the jobs and functions were manually performed by secretaries
in the civil service, however, in the ICT era, office tasks are now performed
electronically. In general, secretaries are being equipped with skills in
information and communication technology gadgets that never existed in the
past. Retrieval of information is faster, neater and more reliable than the
traditional filing system. Computerized planning of the diaries of many
executives is now the rule than the exception. In terms of records management,
ICT has taken over. On this basis, these secretaries are in a good position to
champion the acquisition of computer and internet skills required for
information and communication services (Nwogwugwu, 2006).
Idowu (2003) affirmed
that ICT is a vehicle with the potential to improve the quality and quantity of
productivity as well as the efficiency of the worker.  Information and communication technologies
have changed the phase of the world we live in. According to Adeniyi (2005),
ICT has brought revolutionary changes that have ever affected the performance
of secretaries. Technology in the view of Mohan (2007) simplifies human work,
changes life-style and creates new civilization. Schaefer (2005) described
technology as information about how to use the material resources of the
environment to satisfy human needs and desires. The performance of a secretary
depends on the output of her work using the new ICT equipment and facilities in
the office; hence training is of paramount importance if she must perform
effectively.
Secretaries cannot
perform effectively without adequate provision of ICT equipment like computer,
fax machines, addressing machines, shredding machines, decimate or
multifunction machines that can copy, scan, fax and print.
All these modern
technologies are essential to be incorporated into the teaching and learning of
Secretarial Studies in our colleges of education, most especially, College of
Education, Ikere-Ekiti.
Statement of the Problem
As Nigeria is striving
hard to play a leadership role in Africa, particularly in the period of
pragmatic and competitive science and technology, there is an urgent need to
pay more prominent attention to the improvement of teaching and learning
particularly in Nigerian educational sectors. This entails the adoption of
information, communication technology (ICT) in the institution. The ICT is an
invaluable intervention of this modern time. Its inherent attributes such as
accuracy, high speed performance, reliability and capability to store very
large amount of data have made it possible for its applicability to all human
endeavours including teaching, learning and research in educational institutions.
This study is specifically set out to critically appraise the role of
information, communication technology as a change agent for teaching of secretarial
studies in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti. It also examines the implication
and challenges of ICT on the development of Secretarial Studies in College of
Education in Nigeria as a whole.
As a tool for
addressing challenges in teaching and learning, technology has the capabilities
for delivery, management and support of effective teaching and learning. As a
change agent, it is capable of changing the content, methods and overall
quality and quantity of teaching and learning, thereby reducing teachers’
workload and ensuring constructivist inquiry-oriented classroom. Moreover, ICT
a central force in economic and social shifts that has technology skill
critical to future employment of today’s students. Thierer (2000) pointed out
that the role of technology in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming one of
the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education
policy. Experts in the fields of education have agreed that, if ICT is properly
used, it holds great promise to improve teaching and learning in addition to
shaping work-force opportunities. Thus, this research is specifically set out
to critically appraise the role played by information, communication technology
(ICT) as a catalyst in the effective learning and teaching of Secretarial
Studies in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of
Ekiti State. 
Statement
of the Problem
Undoubtedly, education
is bedrock of any society, regardless of its discipline. Information
Communication Technology (ICT) relevance and positive effects as instructional
resource for the teaching and learning of Secretarial Studies in College of
Education, Ikere-Ekiti is a noticeable improvement among the various
institutions and academic output. It is noted that uses of ICT equipment in
teaching and learning of Secretarial Studies in College of Education,
Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State, does not only assist
the lecturers in carrying out their job effectively but also render qualitative
service output to the entire academic community 
of the Nation.
          In
view of this, the researcher tends to shed more lights on the actual impact of
ICT and hindrances’ to the effective usage of ICT in the teaching and learning
of Secretarial Studies in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State.  
Purpose
of the Study
Despite the
introduction of modern ICT equipment, this research work will investigate into
the effects (both positives and negatives) of ICT on the teaching and learning
of Secretarial Studies in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State. The major aim of this study is to:
       i.           
Study the relevance of ICT in the
effective teaching and learning of Secretarial Studies in College of Education
Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. 
     ii.           
To find out the problems of ICT in the
teaching and learning of Secretarial Studies in College of Education
Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. 
  iii.           
To suggest an improve channels to
effective utilization of ICT in the teaching and learning of Secretarial
Studies in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of
Ekiti State. 
Research
Questions
In view of this study, the following
research questions have been formulated to ascertain how ICT could have been a
catalyst to effective use of information by Secretarial Studies lecturers and
students:
1.     Is
ICT relevant in the effective teaching and learning of Secretarial Studies in College
of Education Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
2.     Is
there any significant difference between the usage of ICT and the academic
performance of Secretarial Studies in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere
Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
3.     Is
there any significant difference between the effective utilization of ICT and
student’s academic performance in Secretarial Studies in College of Education
Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
Research
Hypothesis
1.    
H01. Modern ICT facilities
are relevant to the teaching-learning process of Secretarial Studies in College
of Education Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
2.    
H02 . There is no
significant relationship between usage of Modern ICT facilities and Lecturer’s
productivity as reflected in students’ academic results.
3.    
H03: There are no
significant differences in the effective utilization of ICT and student’s
academic performance in Secretarial Studies in secondary schools in Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State
Significant of the Study
This study Shed light
on the importance of information communication technology on the teaching of Secretarial
Studies in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of
Ekiti State. The following benefits are also considered:  
(i)    Effectiveness
of information technology communication will develop ability to reason formerly
to solve problem, to communicate effectively.
(ii) It
will also help the teachers to realize the importance of ICT in teaching and
learning of Secretarial Studies subjects.
(iii)          
It contributes to the fields of
knowledge researchers in the area of Secretarial Studies subjects and
information communication technology will find it useful in their research.
(iv)          
It will help the Governments, Ministry
of Education in Nigeria, Students and readers to understand those benefits that
Information Communication Technology embodies which we have neglected with in
the past.
(v) It
will go a long way to create an avenue for more academic research.
Haven known this, it is
worthy to conclude that the main benef

iciaries of this study lies on the
government and other readers respectively.

Scope
of the Study
The scope of this
research work focused strictly on the added advantages of information
communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning of Secretarial Studies
in College of Education Ikere-Ekiti in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti
State. This work will lead us to the evolution of ICT in Nigeria and also
examine how the academic field of Secretarial Studies Education is matching its
challenges in this Era of Information Communication Technology.
Definition
of Terms
1.    
Information Communication
Technology (ICT):
is
generally refers to ‘computers and computing related activities’. Computers and
their application play a significant role in modern information management,
other technologies and/or systems also comprise of the phenomenon that is
commonly regarded as ICTs.
2.    
INFORMATION:
facts or details that tell you something about situation person events.
3.    
COMMUNICATION:
It is the transmission of information or idea from one source to another using
various channels.
4.    
EDUCATION:
Is what prepares an individual to accommodate and to contribute positively to
the development of his/her society.
5.    
COMPUTER:
It is an electronic device that accepts data as to give information as an
output.
6.    
I.C.T:
Information Communication Technology.
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