to the study
Attendance in school is important
because students are more likely to succeed in academics when they attend
school consistently. It is difficult for teachers and students to build skills
and progress if large numbers of students are frequently absent. In addition to
falling behind in academics, students who are not in school on a regular basis
are more likely to get into trouble with the law and cause problems in their
communities. What factors lead to student absenteeism and would the
implementation of an incentive program motivate students to come to Campus
In Nigeria, it is commonly assumed
that College of education students benefit from attending lectures. This
assumption, however, needs to be tested, as developments in information
technology are increasingly calling for a reassessment of the traditional
approach to university education, largely based on physical attendance of
lectures and classes, and a number of alternative weightless educational
models, based on distance learning, are being introduced (Stanca, 2004).
In the past decade, a number of
studies have examined the relationship between students’ attendance (or
absenteeism) and academic performance, generally finding that attendance does
matter for academic achievement (e.g. Durden and Ellis (2002), Devadoss and
Foltz (2006), Chan et al. (2007),). This kind of evidence has led some authors
to call for measures to increase student attendance and even to consider the
possibility of making attendance mandatory in some undergraduate courses. The
main problem in assessing the effects of attendance on academic performance is
that attendance levels are not exogenous, given that Internal controls is the
whole system of controls financial and otherwise established by management in
order to carry on business of an organization in an orderly manner to ensure
adherence to management policies, safeguard the assets and secure as possible
the completeness and accuracy of records (Ramaswany, 2004).
The study of
determinants of a college students’ academic performance is an important issue
in higher education, among all factors, whether or not attending lectures and
classroom discussions affects a students’ exam performance has received
considerable attention (Chen and Lin, 2006). It is commonly assumed that
university students benefit from attending lectures (Stanca, 2004). Lectures
and other class meetings are a primary means of instructions in almost all
undergraduate courses (Romer, 2003).
Class attendance is likely to be
substantially influenced by contextual factors (Credé, Roch, & Kieszczynka,
2010), such as attendance norms at the university, perceived difficulty of the
class, characteristics of the instructor, and whether students can obtain lecture
material online. It is also true that individual difference factors such as motivation,
conscientiousness, and intelligence increase the likelihood of a student attending
class (Devadoss & Foltz, 1996; Arulampalam, Naylor, & Smith, 2012). As stressed
by Barlow and Fleischer (2011: 234), “[s]hortcomings of teaching are acknowledged
as a potential factor [for class absenteeism], but poorly motivated students
may not even give themselves the opportunity to find out how inspiring their teachers
may be.”
Moreover, one can argue
that students do not attend class because they are missing the least productive
classes (Stephenson, 1994), effective analytical abilities are not being properly
developed in undergraduate classrooms (Hartman, 1979), and students would learn
relatively little if they attend it (Romer, 1993; Hunter & Tetley, 1999).
The reasons may have to do factors such as the instruction is of low quality,
students have already mastered the material, or they can learn the material
better by spending the same time studying in other ways.
Regardless of the
reason for student absenteeism, a key issue in why it matters is that class
attendance is likely to be beneficial for learning, irrespective of the
specific teaching mode or modes used by the instructor (Credé et al., 2010).
In an earlier, quite
revealing study, published in the American Economic Review, Schmidt (1983)
measured the impact of time commitments by students to various course
activities on the students’ performance in a given class. The author found
that, by far, the most valuable and important time commitment in a course was
the time actually spent in the classroom.2 Time spent studying for any or all
exams was not a statistically significant determinant affecting student
performance in that class, which reinforced the idea that the most important
learning in a course takes place in the classroom and that students who do a
conscientious job on a daily basis preparing for and participating in class
outperform those students who skip class and try to cram for exams.
Although acknowledging that attendance
per se does not ensure that learning will take place, a reasonable number of
studies analyzing the impact of students’ attendance on their academic
performance (e.g., Romer, 1993; Park & Kerr, 1990; Chen & Lin, 2008) found
a positive and significant relation between attendance and academic
performance, with the effect being larger in high absenteeism contexts.
Recently, Schmulian and Coetzee (2011) contended that such a positive relation
will most likely not be as meaningful in distinct cultural and economic
environments, other than the US, and for large classes. Moreover, Triadó-Ivern,
Aparicio-Chueca, Guàrdia-Olmos, Peró- Cebollero and Jaría-Chacón (2013: 2282)
recognized that despite student absenteeism being “a current feature of all
university classrooms”,
Statement of the problem
Research has revealed
significant relationships between attendance and grades which concluded that
initial attendance is a lair predictor of future academic performance (Gunn,
2015). The total amount of time that students report studying has often been
examined as a potential predictor of success in school. It might seem that the
more time that students spend studying, the better grades they should receive
(Plant, Ericsson, Hill and Asberg, 2005). In the context the students’
attendance and academic performance seem to be more important points in
educational institutions for students’ evaluation.
In this research, Attendance is the
amount of time that students participate in class activities, and is measured
hours per day, days per week, sessions per month and percentage of time.
Academic performance is measured as student’s exam performance, student’s GPA
and class discussions of the student. In tertiary institution most  expecially, college of education, most
students find it difficult to attend classes as a result of one form of social activities,
this has affect their academic performance in one way or the other, as a result
of this, the research intend to find out the effect of class attendance on
studnts academic performance  in federal college
of education Yola.
Objective of the study
The major objective of this study
is to find out the effect of class attendance on students academic performance
of NCE II students in Biology, in federal college of education yola
The specific objective is
To investigate the relationship between class
attendance and students academic performance in biology
To determine the factors that affects the
attendance of students in biollgy department in College of education yola
To find out the
effect of class absenteeism on undergraduate academic performance in biology
The following research question will guide
the study
What are the
relationship between class attendance and students academic performance in
2.     What are the factors affecting the attendance
of students in biology department
in College of education yola
 What are the effect of class absenteeism on
undergraduate academic performance in biology
of the study
A major concern in schools is to increase student achievement. One
way to do this is to focus on how students attend class daily with the teacher
at the centre which will
influence student
achievement and create the best environment in which to facilitate learning and
engage students. The study is therefore significant for the following reasons:
This study will be useful to both teachers and students who may
want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance.
Understanding how class attendance can influence their performance
 Lastly, understanding the
importance of class attendance and their impact on student performance will
help school administrators at higher institution to know the effect of class
attendance on students performance.
Therefore, the study may  improve attendance so that a student can
expand the social experiences, lessons, and acceptable behavior that help with
fitting in and succeeding in school and life.
of the Study
This study centers on
the effects of class attendance on students academic performance in Biology in
federal government college Yola, one hundred and twenty NCE II students will be
selected for the study In Biology Department, federal college of education



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