CULTURAL FACTORS INFLUENCING FEMALE STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN RECREATION SPORT IN LAGOS STATE

CULTURAL
FACTORS INFLUENCING FEMALE STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN RECREATION SPORT IN LAGOS
STATE
ABSTRACT
The
study examined the cultural factors influencing female participation in recreation
sports in secondary schools in Alimosh Local Government Area, Lagos State. The
objective of this study was to investigate the cultural factors influencing
female participation in recreation sports. A descriptive research design of the
survey type was employed for this study. Simple random sampling technique was
used to select all the 300 hundred (300) female students consisting of 134
female students in JSS classes and 166 female students in SSS classes
representing
50% of the total population.
Researcher’s designed
questionnaire was
used to elicit data. The questionnaire was validated by three experts from the
Department of Physical and health Education which was tested for reliability; a
co-efficient of 1was obtained through test-retest method using Pearson
’s Product Moment Correlation. Questionnaire was
administrated and collected by the researchers. The null hypotheses were
analyzed using of Chi-square statistics at 0.05 alpha level. The findings of
this study revealed that; that there was significant influence of religious
practice, gender constraints and cultural practice on sports participation
among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho LGA, Lagos State. With
cal,v (70.160) > crit.v (16.92), calc.value (39.347) > crit.value (16.92)
and calc. value (99.200) > crit. value (16.92) at 0.05 alpha level and 9
degree of freedom respectively.
It was concluded that; there is significant influence of religion, gender
constraints and cultural practice on sports participation among female students
in secondary schools in Alimosho LGA of Lagos State. It was recommended that,
school
administrators should not allow
religious and cultural practices to influence sports
participation among female students in
secondary schools in Lagos  state
CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
to the study
Recreational
sports
are competitive
physical games such as basketball or baseball that are played for fun as
opposed to professionally. Basketball and football games you play with your
friends or as part of a intramural league are examples of recreational
sports
. 
Recreational sports are those
activities where the primary purpose of the activity is participation, with the
related goals of improved physical fitness, fun, and social involvement often
prominent. Recreational sports are usually perceived as being less stressful,
both physically and mentally, on the participants.
Recreational sport is a universal
phenomenon that encompasses all the facets of human endeavour, which appeal to
men and women of all ages, gender, religion, culture or creed. Albueku
(2011)  defined sport as a dynamic social
force, an institutionalized physical activity usually requiring the
demonstration of physical process and involving competition between individuals
or groups, who play to win under certain predetermined rules. Sports is the
activities involving power and skills, competition, strategy, and (or) chance,
and engaged in for the enjoyment, satisfaction and (or) personal gain (Öcal,
2006). Sports play very important roles in
educational institutions in
virtually all
parts of the world, and the
contribution of sports to the educational
process in institutions cannot be
overemphasized (Ongonga, Okwara, & Okello, 2010).
Smoll and Smith, (2002) believed that
involvement in organized Recreational sports activities allows young people to
learn many of life lessons and develop desired attributes within the mainstream
society. Engagement in school sports programmes is supposed to promote boys’
and girls’ moral
functioning,
self-discipline, ability to work with others, and capacity to compete and
effectively cope with success as well as failure (Mahoney, Eccles, &
Larson, 2005). Adedeji (2005) explained that sports participation is a means of
correcting physical illness, a medium for cultural change. Also, Recreational sports
is wholesome, mentally stimulating and socially sound. Sport as a social agent brings  people 
of  different  sexes, 
ages,  cultures  and 
religious  settings  together 
as participating athletes and spectators alike make use of their free
time to entertain themselves being an instrument of promoting unity,
understanding and fostering peace among people.
Empowerment of girls is often overlooked
because sport is not universally perceived as a suitable  or 
desirable  pursuit  for 
girls.  Existing  social 
constructs  of  masculinity 
or  socially accepted ways of expressing
what it means to be a man or woman in a particular socio-cultural context play
a key role in determining access, levels of participation, and benefits from
sport. It is true in all countries that girls are less likely than boys and men
to participate in sports, and
sport continues to be dominated by males. Kjonniksen
and Wold (2008) explained that through structured sport programmes, girls can
become more physically active, benefiting their physical and mental health,
including the reduced risk they will suffer from chronic diseases, depression and  anxiety, 
and  engaging  in 
health  risk  behaviours. 
Sport  can  also 
be  a  powerful 
health information and education platform, connecting girls with the
information, skills and strategies they need to reduce health risks in their
lives, particularly in connection with their sexual and reproductive health.
Sport can help increase self-esteem by giving female the opportunities to learn
new skills, engage in positive relationships, engage in volunteer service and
receive public recognition. In contrast to the expectation of sport for all,
most female experience role conflict and this is reflected in the attitude of
the general public regarding female participation in sports in Nigeria.
Female’s participation in recreational sporting activities has for a long time
been relatively low compared  with  men 
due  to  differential 
treatment  based  on 
socialized  gender  roles 
and expectations. Consequently, the traditional images of gender in
Nigeria have often worked against women’s participation in sport. This perhaps,
extensively reduces already existing opportunities available for women to be
involved in sports (Adesoye, 2012).
Klun and Mala (2009)
reported that women in Nigerian communities were not active recreational sport
participants and not regard sport as conducive to their physical wellbeing.
Also, most communities in Nigeria especially rural ones, cultural beliefs and
attitudes have strong influence on low participation of women in sports.
Besides, organization of sporting activities in most communities is usually
focused on combative sports, such as boxing, wrestling, archery and shooting.
These sports are mainly participated by men and tend to discriminate against
women. While some cultures strengthen the practice and propagate sporting
programmes in their communities, others do not for reasons they considered
against their religious inclinations. Islam and Christianity are religions that
are alien to African cultures especially the stoppage of the killing of twins
that was in practice in Africa before the coming of Mary Slessor to Nigeria and
the introduction of Western Education to Africa and abolition of slave trade
(Zakus & Daniel, 2007).
Babatunde (2005) define
religion as a cultural universal with a unified system of beliefs and practices
relative to sacred things, uniting into a single moral community all those who
adhere to those beliefs, values and practices. Religion is an institutionalized
system of symbols, beliefs, values and practices that focuses on questions or
ultimate meaning. Religion as a cultural heritage is evident as it often seems
out of culture of a given society. Religion, as a belief and the practicing of
particular system of faith coupled with the social attributes of organizations
and relations between people and communities, play great roles in determining
acceptable standards, customs, traditions, religious practices and beliefs have
modelled the woman’s image worldwide and the suitability of activities they
engage in. Ikulayo & Adekoya, (2006) viewed female participation in sport
as anti-religious. Sports wears are often smart-looking and could be offensive
to some religious faithful, Oworu (2005) stressed further to agree with the
earlier statement that in some parts of the Nigeria, women are forbidden to
expose themselves beyond the knees and elbows. Such women find it difficult to
participate in sports which would require
them to wear shorts,
skirts and sleeveless vests. Example of such cases can be viewed in Sokoto
state in 2000, in Zanfara and some Northern part of Nigeria.
Ogunleye (2009) further
stressed that female especially, the adults is expected to cover all ther body
from head to the legs. So the type of dress used by sports women which expose
them from the “top to the bottom” are not acceptable by come
religion. According to Ogunleye (2009) religious belief of an individual has a
strong influence on his attitude toward issues. The implication of this is that
various religious doctrines might have strong influence on women’s
participation in
sports. In contrast to the expectation of sport for all, women experience role
conflict and this is reflected in the attitude of the general public regarding
female participation in sports in Nigeria. Women’s participation has for a long
time been relatively low compared with men due to differential treatment based
on socialized gender roles and expectations.
Consequently, the
traditional images of gender in Nigeria have often worked against women’s
participation in sport. This perhaps, extensively reduces already existing
opportunities
available for women to
be involved in sports (Adesoye, 2012). Klun and Mala (2009) reported that most
women in Nigerian communities were not active sport participants. According to
them these women did not regard sport as conducive to their physical wellbeing.
Klun further showed that in most communities in Nigeria, especially rural ones,
cultural beliefs and attitudes had strong influences on low participation of
women in recreational sports. Besides, organisation of sporting activities in
most communities is usually focused on combative sports, such as boxing,
wrestling, archery and shooting. These sports are mainly participated in by
male and tend to discriminate against female.
Statement
of the problem
However in spite of the importance of
recrational sports and physical activities to the female secondary school
students, many factors seem to be hindering their participation. These include
cultural factors, parental influence, availability of standard facilities and
equipment, coping with academic stress. At times many parents frown at their
children’s participation in sports while some encourage them.  In Nigeria, many  secondary school lack standard facilities and
equipment needed for sports participation either for competition or for
recreational purposes.
Despites all the
benefits listed in participating in sports, it is observed that majority of the
female secondary school students in Alimosho Local government area of Lagos  State are not participating in recreational sports.
This worrisome situation has kindled the researcher’s interest in investigating
the cultural factors affecting female students’ participation in recreational
sports in secondary schools in Lagos
Objective
of the study
The major objective of
this study is to find out cultural factors affecting female secondary school
students participation in recreational sport in Alimosho local government area
of Lagos State.
          The specific
objective is
1.     To find out the influence of
religion on recreational sports participation among female students in
secondary schools in Alimosho Local government area of Lagos State
2.     To investigate the influence of
gender constraints on recreation sport participation among female students in
secondary schools in Alimosho Local government area of Lagos State
3.     To
determine the effect of Cultural difference on recreation sports participation
among female students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area,
Lagos State?
4.     To find out if parental influence
inhabitating factors to female participation in recreation sports in Alimosho
local government area
Research Questions
The following researcher questions were formulated
to guide the study;
1.     What
is the influence of religion on sports participation among female students in
secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos State?
2.     What
is the influence of Gender constraints on sports participation among female
students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos State?
3.     What
is the influence of Cultural difference on sports participation among female
students in secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos State?
Research
Hypothesis
The following research
questions were formulated to guide the study
1.     Influence
of religion does not have significant different on female students
participation in  recreation sport
2.     Gender
constraints does not have significant different on students participation in
recreational sport in Alimosho local government Area of Lagos State
3.     Cultural
factors does not have significant different on female student participation in
recreational sport
Significant of the study
The study provides valuable knowledge in the field of gender and
sport and especially in the Ministry of Education Science and Technology in
achieving equality for all as recommended by the Gender Policy in Education
(2007). It further sets to help the government while formulating policies aimed
at achieving the millennium goals on promotion of gender equality and
empowerment of women, and in realizing the constitutional bills of rights which
calls for equal treatment for both men and women 8
in all social spheres.
The study provides information to other researchers and other readers in
general on gender participation and leadership in teacher training colleges in
Eastern Zone, Kenya.
Scope of the study
This study is aimed at investigating cultural factors affecting
female secondary schools students participation in recreational activities in
Alimosho local government area of Lagos state. The study covers five selected
secondary schools in the local government area.

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