CLASS SIZE AS A CORRELATE OF EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PRINCIPLE OF ACCOUNTS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA.

CLASS SIZE AS A CORRELATE OF EFFICIENCY AND
EFFECTIVENESS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF PRINCIPLE OF ACCOUNTS IN SELECTED
SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT
This project analyzed the influence of class-size on
the quality of output in secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The
population of the study comprised all the 62 secondary schools that presented
students for the year 2003 SSCE examinations in the State. A sample of 5 schools was selected through
stratified random sampling technique.
Data were collected through an inventory and were analyzed with the
use of chi square test, correlation analysis
and t- test. Semi-structured interview was conducted with selected
principals and education officers. Their
responses were analyzed through the content analysis technique.
The
findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 35 and below
obtained better results in the Senior Secondary Certificate (SSC) examinations
than schools having more than 35 students per class. The mean scores were
higher in schools having an average class-size of 35 and below. The
interviewees’ responses supported the findings as they supported small
class-sizes in schools. It was therefore recommended that Government should
provide more classrooms in all secondary schools in the State to cater for
small class-sizes. An ex-post-factor design has been employed to investigate
the effects of class size on the academic achievement of Senior Secondary
Schools students in Principle of Accounts using 150 SS II students selected
from 5 secondary schools in
Ikere-Ekiti local government area of Ekiti State. The study was guided by two research
questions and the ensuing null hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of
significance. The results showed that Principle of Accounts students in small
sized classes perform better in relation to those in large sized classes.
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 CHAPTER
ONE
         INTRODUCTION
Background
to the Study
As school population
increases, class sizes also increase, the performances of students become an
issue. According to Dror (2005), class size has become a phenomenon often
mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on pupil’s feelings and
achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. In his words he
noted, that class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers
have little or no control. Most researchers start from the assumption that size
of the class would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of
students. In fact, with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that
under ideal situation, class size in itself appears to be an important factor.
 Class size refers to an educational tool that
can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school
(Adeyemi, 2008). This varies from country to country. Kedney (2009) saw it as a
tool that can be used to measure the performance of the education system.
The place of account in
the life of any nation cannot be overemphasized for instance Franwood (2001)
pointed out that it provides information that is vital in the process of taking
decision in virtually all organization. in the same vein Walter B. Meigs (2000)
believes that it enable us to know is going on relative to day-to-day
activities indeed and it also believed that all organization (public and
private) to evaluate the effectiveness of their policy.
It was that realization
of the importance of account that necessitated its introduction into the
secondary school curriculum in Nigeria
under the present system of education (6-3-3-4). The subject is introduced to
students up to secondary school level.
The few of attention in
the teaching of principle of account has for long been it methodology for
processing data and hence to most people book keeping. It means recording
financial data in books of account and by accounting. It means the whole
structure of ideas involved in giving expression to the activities in assumed
to conduct in a mechanical kind of way without a theoretical by reference to
which objective may be understood. Principle of account is a subject at any
level of education in mentally demanding. It is analytical of any level because
it involves mass transactions which have to be reduced to relatively small
items to give status and assessment to the progress of any enterprises.
Principles of account
therefore need through approach by professional teachers who are well abreast
of innovations in teaching methods of principle of accounts. There are various
methods by which principles of account teachers can impact knowledge on their
students, which can be done by ways of giving information on advice on how to
get something done.
In addition, principle
of account serves as a source of information guide and organizer of
opportunities for learning. Difference teachers have different ways by which
they can impact knowledge. The term “teaching style” refers to a particular
teacher’s way of going about the business of enabling students to learn.
In relation to class-size
effect on Principle of Account, Stepaniuk (2000) reported that the rational
utilization of classroom space depends upon class-size. This in turn would
depend upon the area of the classroom. He argued that there are approved norms
of class-size, 40 pupils per class for grades 1 to 8 and 35 pupils per class
for the senior classes; while the standard allocation of class space per pupil
is 1:25 square metres. In this regard, Dean (2004) compared class-size in some
countries and found that Turkey, Norway and Netherlands had class-sizes of 20
more; the UK, USA, Japan, Canada and Ireland had class-sizes of between 15 and
20 while France, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Italy, Luxembourg and Belgium had
sizes of below 15.
In Nigeria, however,
Okoro (2005) reported that the class-size in secondary schools ranges between
35 or40 students. He argued that few pupils per class are uneconomical, as they
do not make full use of space, teachers and teaching materials. Adeyemi (2008) too,
reported that average class-size influences the cost of education while capital
cost could be reduced by increasing the average class-size in schools while
Nwadiani (2000) argued that the higher the class-size, the lower the cost of
education. He contended however, that most classrooms are over-crowded
spreading resources thinly and thereby affecting the quality of education.
Ajayi (2000) supported the viewpoints and argued that in order to control
rising capital cost of education, the average class-size could be increased.
These points were also supported by Toth and Montagna (2002) who reported that
the increase in enrollment in many institutions which has become major concerns
of students could definitely lead to an increase in class size. Commeyras (2000)
however, disagreed with these arguments and reported that effective teaching
seems impracticable for teacher educators having large class sizes of 50, 75,
100 or more. In terms of outcomes, Schultz (2003) classified the outcomes of
education into two categories from the economic point of view. These are
consumption and investment. Cohn (2005) referred to the consumption aspect as
that related to benefits derived by students. He regarded the investment
component as including a variety of outputs related to the enhancement of an
individual’s or society’s productive skills. Thus, Blaug (2003) argued that the
extension of education tends to raise the earnings of those who benefited from
it. In this regard, Simkins (2001) reported that output “represents the
immediate results of the system’s activities.” According to him, “the main
outputs in education are expressed in terms of learning, that is, changes in
the knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals as a result of their
experiences within the educational system.” He argued that the educational
system is a productive system in the very sense that it produces outputs
especially various forms of learning. He expressed that the components of the
system could be represented in a model viz:

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