CHEMICAL/MINERAL COMPOSITIONS OF WATER EXTRACTS OF Hibiscus sabdariffa

CHEMICAL/MINERAL COMPOSITIONS OF WATER EXTRACTS OF Hibiscus sabdariffa
TABLE
OF CONTENT
Title
page=    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
Approval
page          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
Dedication
page       =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
Acknowledgement   =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
List
of tables =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
Table
of contents     =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
Abstract         =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
CHAPTER ONE:    Introduction
1.1       Suggestions for further research    =          =          =          =          =         
1.2       Objective of study   =          =          =          =          =          =          =      
CHAPTER TWO: Literature
Review
2.0       Scientific  Classification of roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa).       =         
2.1       Effect on smooth muscle    =          =          =          =          =          =         
2.2       Effect on blood pressure     =          =          =          =          =          =        
2.3       Anticancer and antioxidant activity         =          =          =          =         
2.4       Anticholesterol effects        =          =          =          =          =          =         
2.5       Hibiscus
sabdariffa
plant profile  =          =          =          =          =         
2.5.1   Constituents of hibiscus sabdariffa          =          =          =          =         
2.5.2   Herbal medicine and plants            =          =          =          =          =          =         
2.5.3   Medicinal benefits of hibiscus sabdariffa           =         =         =         =       
2.6       Flavonoid contents of fruits and
vegetables
fruits         =          =        
2.7
      Preparation of ‘zobo’ made from
Hibiscus
sabdariffa
  =          =         
 2.8      Characteristics
of roselle.   =         =         =         =         =         =        
2.9       Uses of roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa).
     =          =          =          =         
CHAPTER THREE: Materials
and Methods
3.0       Materials       =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
3.1       Extraction procedure/plant materials       =          =          =          =        
3.1.1   Plant materials          =          =          =          =          =          =          =        
3.1.2   Extract preparation  =          =          =          =          =          =          =        
3.2       Atomic absorption spectrophotometric
determination  =          =         
3.3       Phytochemical Analysis     =          =          =          =          =          =     
3.3.1   Preparation
of reagents for phytochemical analysis      =          =         
3.4       Acute toxicity study            =          =          =          =          =          =          =        
Chapter Four: Results
4.0       Phytochemical analysis      =          =          =          =          =          =         
4.1       Calcium         =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
4.2       Magnesium    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
4.3       Sodium           =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =        
4.4       Potassium      =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
4.5       Manganese    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
4.6       Iron     =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
4.7       Copper           =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =        
4.8       Zinc    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion
and Conclusion
5.1       Discussion     =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =        
5.1       Conclussion  =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =         
References    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =        
Appendix 1:  Gallery
of Hibiscus sabdariffa      =         =         =         =      
   ABSTRACT

This work was carried out to investigate the
chemical properties of the water extract of zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa) drink using the modern atomic absorption
spectrophotometer. Zobo drink is a popular drink in the Nigeria, especially in
the northern part of Nigeria. The result of the analysis indicated that the
drink is high in vital mineral nutrients required for the healthy growth by
humans and for the proper metabolic processes to be adequately maintained. Zobo
drink is high, as indicated in the result, in iron – a major component of the
human haemoglobin, when compared with other leaf like the popular vegetable
leaf known as awa (Piper methysticum).
 
 
CHAPTER
ONE
1.0            
                                                INTRODUCTION
            Toward the end of the 20th century,
epidemiological studies and associated meta-analyses suggested strongly that
long-term consumption of diets rich in plant foods offered some protection
against chronic diseases, especially cancer (Wallstromet al., 2000).Because uncontrolled production of free radicals was
thought to be significantly implicated in the etiology of cancer (Guyton and
Kensler 1993),these observations focused attention on the possible role of
radical scavenging and radical suppressing nutrients and non-nutrients in
explaining the apparent benefit of such diets (Weisburger, 1991).
The realization that free radicals were similarly implicated in the
etiology of many other chronic diseases (Kehrer, 1993 and Stohs
, 1995), immediately
focused attention on flavonoids and the foods and beverages rich therein. An
unfortunate, but unintended side effect of some research works and papers was
the misleading tendency of many investigators to think of dietary phenols,
polyphenols, and tannins (PPT)as encompassing only the flavonoids, flavonols,
and flavones. More recent epidemiological studies have supported the
association between better health and long-term consumption of diets rich in
foods of plant origin(Hung et al.,
2004 and Jansen et al., 2004).However,
whether this is because such diets minimize exposure to deleterious substances
(example oxidized cholesterol, pyrolysis mutagens, salt, saturated fat, etc.),
or maximize intake of certain beneficial nutrients (example isothiocyanates and
other sulfur-containing plant constituents, mono-unsaturated fatty
acids, and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, PPT, polyacetylenes,
selenium, terpenes, etc.) or some combination as advocated in the ‘‘Polymeal’’
concept, remains unknown (Franco et al.,
2004 and Johnson, 2004).An
in vitro study
indicates that there may be mechanistic basis for true synergy between PPT and isothiocyanates.
In contrast, more recent studies seeking to assess the suggested link between
the consumption of flavonols and flavones, or other flavonoids, have given much
less consistent results. Some studies have suggested a possible protective
effect of flavonoids against vascular diseases (Hirvonen et al., 2001 and Mennen et al.,
2004) or certain (but not all) cancers(Knekt et al., 1997 and Sun et al.,
2002).Interestingly, an investigation of the relationship between the
consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa
(zobo) and other cruciferous vegetables and the risk of breast cancer in
premenopausal women has to be carried out in order to ascertain the beneficial effects
to isothiocyanates and/or the phenolic components of the plants (like the
dietary phenols including flavonoids) in the management of cancer growth and initiation
of various types of diabetes.
In the same time period, various studies have suggested beneficial
effect associated with raised consumption of other classes of dietary phenols.
For example, increased coffee consumption has been linked with reduced
incidence of type II diabetes (van Dam et
al
., 2002 and Saremi et al.,
2003).Similarly, increased consumption of lignans (or at least greater plasma
concentrations of their metabolites)has been linked with reduced incidence of estrogen-related
cancers in some (Boccardo et al.,
2004 and McCann et al., 2004) but not
all studies (Kilkkinen et al., 2004
and Zeleniuch –Jacquotte et al.,
2004),and a prospective study was equivocal.
1.1       SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
The flavonoids in the water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa should be extracted for further experimental
and clinical research in the management of certain ailments and disorders like
cancer, diabetes mellitus etc.
The mechanisms of flavonoid-protein interactions have been
determined; it is my suggestion that such mechanisms should be carried to the in-vivo metabolic and physiological
processes aimed at determining the detailed mechanisms involved in cells aging
processes and the progression of diseases.
1.2       OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
    The objective of this study is to determine
the physico chemical (biochemical) and water constituent of Zobo produced from
dried calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa
(Linn Roselle
). Using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The
biochemical content of the zobo has undesirable effects on human health when
consumed.
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