This study was intended to determine the assessment of availability and utilization of e-learning technologies in business education programme in tertiary institution in Ekiti states of Nigeria. Five research questions were raised to guide the study, while three hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. A total of 173 practicing business education programme selected from the universities, polytechnic and colleges of education in Ekiti states were used for the study. The data collection instrument was a 56-item questionnaire that was structured on a five point likert type rating scale. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was further computed using Spearman Brown Prophecy’ Formula which yielded the score of 0.50, 0.88, 0.87, 0.73 and 0.86 respectively. The data collected for the study were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the five research questions, while the t-test and One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were also used for testing the null hypothesis. The major findings that were gotten from the study include the following:
- Business education programme rarely utilize e-learning technologies such as; hard ware, Software and internet technologies in teaching business education courses in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States of Nigeria.
- Gender has no effect on the assessment at which business education programme in tertiary institutions in Edo Delta of Nigeria utilize internet facilities in teaching business education courses in their various institutions.
- The assessment of utilization of e-learning technologies by business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti has no significant difference on the institution type and ownership.
Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that, the federal and state governments should make adequate budgetary allocation for the provision of computers, internet and other telecommunications technologies in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. While business education programme should as a matter of urgency update their knowledge in e-learning technology. The implication of this is that, inadequate exposure and provision of e-learning equipment and facilities will lead to the production of graduates whom may not likely be practically exposed where skill acquisition is highly demanded. Finally, suggestions for further research were given.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
COVER PAGE i
TITLE PAGE ii
APPROVAL PAGE iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF APPENDICES viii
CERTIFICATION PAGE ix
DEDICATION PAGE x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 5
Purpose of the Study 5
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Significance of the Study 6
Scope of the Study 8
Research Questions 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework 11
Conceptualizing E-learning 11
Theoretical Framework 15
Theories of E – learning 15
Theory of Perceived Ease and use of ICT in Teaching 20
Evolution of E-learning 22
Forms of E-learning 25
Technology Changes in Business Education 32
E-learning Models 33
Utilization of E-learning 35
Benefits of E-learning Technology 36
Constraints to E-learning Technology Utilization in Nigeria 37
Related Empirical Studies 40
Summary of Related Literature 44
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD
Research Design 46
Area of the Study 46
Population of the Study 47
Instrument for Data Collection 48
Validation of the Instrument 50
Reliability of the Instrument 50
Method of Data Collection 51
Method of Data Analysis 51
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALYSIS OF DATA
Research Question 1 53
Research Question 2 54
Research Question 3 55
Research Question 4 56
Research Question 5 57
Hypothesis 1 59
Hypothesis 2 60
Hypothesis 3 61
Summary of the Major Findings 62
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
Discussion of Results 64
Implications of the Study 69
Limitations of the Study 71
Suggestions for Further Research 72
Background to the Study
Tertiary education refers to a non-compulsory education provided by specialist institutions, usually labeled as colleges, polytechnics or universities. Tertiary education may be delivered virtually or at a distance. It is also known as higher education in Nigeria. In the words of Campell & Rozsnyal: “Tertiary education is any education entered after a successful completion of secondary education, this may include vocational post-secondary education (leading to a certificate) and higher education (leading to a degree), even though the designation is often used synonymously with higher education”. (2000.13)
The National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004:36) spelt out the followings as constituting the goals of tertiary education in Nigeria:
- To Contribute to national development through high level relevant manpower training;
- To Develop and inculcate proper values for the survival of the individual;
- To develop the intellectual capacity of individuals to understand and appreciate their local and external environment.
Tertiary education has largely contributed in the development of knowledge byproviding an enabling environment for innovation and the building of human capital that is required for a potential future economy. Towards the end of the 20th century and at the dawn of the 21st century. It becomes apparent that national development depends on educational advancement which in turn depends on technological development. This equally led to the introduction of information and communication technologies, which gave room to the new concept called e-learning (Akudolu, 2002; Okiki, 2011). E-learning is the systematic integration of modern technologies and equipment; telecommunication and ICT resources to create experiences that seek to improve human beings. Anowor (2011), observes that e-learning encompasses learning at all levels (both formal and informal) that uses ICT and instructional media in form of: hardware and software technologies in the development and transformation of skills and concept-based knowledge.
E-learning technologies have the potentials for revolutionizing the waywe teach and learn whether at the lower or at tertiary institutions in Nigeria. However, for the purpose of this research work, the definition of e-learning technology will be restricted to that of Allen and Seaman (2003); Stockley (2003); and Horton (2005), who view e-learning technologies as those electronic learning technologies like the internet, software applications, hardware components and digital technologies that are used to support the teaching and learning processes.
The ever-growing need for ICT for national development led the Nigerian Government in 1998, to enact a policy on computer education. More so, the relevance of this computer education moved the Nigerian Government in its National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) to state that;
- The Government will provide basic infrastructure and training on computer at primary school;
- Computer education is a pre-vocational elective at the junior secondary school; and that;
- Computer education is a vocational elective at the senior secondary school.
Considerably, at the tertiary education level, computer literacy which is seen as a compulsory academic program appears to have not resulted in any meaningful change on the fundamentals necessary for teaching and learning. Most faculties of education and schools of business studies in Nigerian tertiary institutions do not have adequate state-of-the-art laboratories for ICT training. Classrooms are not satisfactorily equipped for ICT usage (Marir, 2009B). Thus, teachers’ trainers and trainee teachers do not seem to have adequate access to e-learning technologies within their schools. Rather, the few ones available are used for administrative services and dissemination of information among staff. The introduction of modern electronic technologies into education has transformed the totality of the educational industry. The e-learning technologies, such as computer hardware, digital, software applications and internet facilities (like search engine, and Modem) have been an indispensable ingredient for execution of research works, preparation of lesson notes and presentation of instruction by business education programme. Indeed the use of e-learning technologies for teaching help in generating a friendly atmosphere to empower teachers to meet with the challenges of accelerating technological advancement in education. These technological empowerments are regarded as the electronic skills required by business education programme irrespective of their gender (male or female).
Business education is that aspect of vocational education programme that provides its recipients with the requisite skills that will enable them to function effectively in the competitive business environment. According to the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004), business education is considered as a veritable instrument for preparing students for the enterprise as employees, employers, entrepreneurs and self-employed. It also provides knowledge in the special areas of human activities including methodologies in instruction; it equips individuals with saleable and functional skills, knowledge, values and attitudes relevant to the business environment. For business education to meet the mission of preparing business education graduates in the 21st century world ofwork. Information and communication Technology (ICT) must be embraced in training students
Statement of the Problem
The federal government policy on computer education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) provides that government would provide the necessary infrastructure on computer or Information Technology (IT) with the aim of institutionalizing Informationand Communication Technology (ICT) in the educational system. This presupposes that computer assisted hardware and software facilities would be available for the education and training of teachers in both lower and higher education in Nigeria. In relation to business education programme, the need for adequate knowledge and skills for appropriate utilization of e – learning facilities, such as those related to internet and other telecommunicationtechnologies can hardly be emphasised. In fact, at this point of our technological development. It is expected that business education teachers, particularly those in tertiary institutions would be well-place to make adequate and good use of the various computer aided electronic learning facilities to aid their instruction.
However, in view of the fact that studies on the assessment of availability and utilization of e – learning facilities in teaching of business education courses in Nigeria higher institution is not well known; this study, consequently seeks to investigate the availability, and specifically the assessment of utilization of e – learning technologies for the teaching of business education courses in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States of Nigeria (a case study of Ekiti State University of Ado Ekiti).
Purpose of the Study
The major concern of this study is to investigate the assessment of availability and utilization ofavailable e-learning technologies by business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States for the teaching business courses (a case study of Ekiti State University of Ado Ekiti). Specifically, this study sought to:
- Ascertain the assessment to which business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States utilize available hardware technologies in teaching business education courses.
- Determine the assessment to which business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States utilize available software technologies in teaching business education courses.
- Determine the assessment to which business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States utilize available internet facilities in teaching business education courses.
- Ascertain the benefits business education programmein tertiary institutions in Ekiti States derive in utilizing e-learning technologies for teaching business education courses.
- Determine the constraints relative to the utilization of e-learning technologies by business education programme in tertiary institutions in EkitiStates
- Determine the differences that may exist in the utilization of e-learning technologies by business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti
States as a result of their bio- data profile (gender, types, and ownershipof institutions).
Significance of the Study
It is believed that the findings of this study will provide information on theassessment of utilization of e-learning technologies by tertiary institution business education programme. It is also hoped that the research work will be of immense benefit to policy makers, business education programme, curriculum planners, school management, and business education students in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States of Nigeria. Thus, it could help in providing fundamental information required by policy makers in formulating ICT policies as it could help in the development of the educational industry.
Also the findings of the study could benefitbusiness education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States by identifying those e-learning technologies that are most relevant in exposing business education students to meet the daunting challenges of business offices in the 21st century. Curriculum planner could also benefit from the study by knowing the assessment business education programme utilize e-learning technologies in their teaching process. The study could also aid business education curriculum planners in designing business education curriculum to suit the present ICT innovation of the federal government. The outcome of the study could also profit business education students by identifying how e-learning technologies are being used, which could help them in world of work. Additionally, the management of tertiary institutions in Ekiti States could benefit from the findings of the study as it could show the management the constraints bedeviling business education programme’ from the utilization of e-learning technologies in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States. It could also aid the management in knowing the role they have to play in the provision of free or low cost e-learning technologies to aid business education programme in their teaching process.
Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to the investigation of the assessment of the utilizationof available e-learning technologies by tertiary institution business education programme in Ekiti States of Nigeria. The content of the study was limited to hardware; software and internet technologies utilized by business educator in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States in teaching business education courses. Utilization of e-learning technology is delimited to how business education programme use e-learning technologies in supporting educational process.
In addition, it covers the benefits and the constraints encountered by business education programme in the utilization of e-learning technologies in teaching business education courses. Tertiary institutions in this study consist of universities, polytechnics and colleges of education offering business education programme within Ekiti States. However, monotechnics are not included in the study. Gender and tertiary institutions are the independent variables the research is restricted to.
The following research questions guided the study:
- To what assessment do business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States utilize available hardware technologies in teaching business education courses in their institutions?
- To what assessment do business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States utilize available software technologies in teaching business education courses in their institutions?
- To what assessment do business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States utilize internet facilities in teaching business education courses in their institutions?
- What benefits do tertiary institution business education programme in EkitiStates derive in utilizing e-learning technologies for teaching business education courses.
- What are the constraints relative to the utilization of e-leaning technologies by business education programme in tertiary institutions in EkitiStates?
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and weretested at 0.05 level of significance.
- Business education programme in universities, polytechnics and colleges of education in Ekiti States of Nigeria do not differ significantly in their mean ratings of the level of utilization of hardware technologies in teaching business education courses
- Business education programme in private, state and federal government tertiary institutions in Ekiti States of Nigeria do not differ significantly in their mean ratings of the level of utilization of software technologies inteaching business education courses.
- Business education programme in tertiary institutions in Ekiti States of Nigeria do not differ significantly in their mean ratings of the level of utilization of internet technologies in teaching business education courses as a result of gender (male and female).
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The review of related literature is conducted under the following sub-headings:
- Conceptualizing e-learning
- Evolution of E-learning
- Forms of E-learning
- Technology Changes in Business Education
- E-learning Models
- Utilization of E-learning Technology in Nigeria
- Benefits of E-learning Technologies
- Constraints to E-learning Technologies Utilization in Nigeria
Summary of Review of Related Literature