AN APPRAISAL OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR THE ERADICATION OF ILLITERACY PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

AN APPRAISAL OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION AS A TOOL FOR THE ERADICATION OF ILLITERACY PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                i
Certification                                                                                      ii
Dedication                                                                               iii
Acknowledgement                                                                             iv
Table of contents                                                                     v-vii
List of tables                                                                            viii
Abstract                                                                                  ix
CHAPTER ONE
1.1           
Introduction                                                                            1-2
1.2           
Background
of study                                                     2-4
1.3           
Statement
of Problems                                                   4-5
1.4           
Objectives
of the study                                                  5-6
1.5           
Hypothesis
of the study                                                 6
1.6           
Significance
of the study                                                         6-7
1.7           
Limitations
of the study                                                 7-8
1.8           
Delimitations
of the study                                             8-9
References                                                                      10
CHAPTER TWO
2.1           
Introduction                                                                            11-18
2.2           
UBE
and Information Technology                                 18-19
2.3           
Need
for Basic Education                                              20-26
2.4           
UBE
and effective Learning                                           26-28
2.5           
Requirements
for the success of UBE                                     28-32
2.6           
UBE
and Illiteracy Eradication                                               32-39
References                                                                      40
CHAPTER THREE
3.1           
Introduction                                                                            41
3.2           
Area
of study/Population Size                                       41-42
3.3           
Data
Collection                                                              42-45
3.4           
Research
Instruments                                                    45
3.5           
Validation
of research Instruments                                45-46
3.6           
Data
Analysis                                                                46-48
References                                                                      49
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1           
Introduction                                                                             50-51
4.2           
Analysis
of Results                                                        51-58
4.3           
Chi
– Square Technique                                                 58-65
4.4           
Discussions
                                                                            65-72
References                                                                      73
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1           
Conclusions
                                                                  74-76
5.2           
Recommendations
                                                                  76-79
REFERENCES                                                                      80
APPENDIX :
Essential Elements of Quality Education                   81-86



LIST OF TABLE
Table I Awareness and support for UBE
Table II Facilities for the
Implementation for UBE
Table III UBE and Standard of
Education
Table IV Effect of UBE on Citizens
Table V Achievements of UBE
objectives
Table VI UBE and numbers of Drop –
outs
Table VII UBE and Improved learning
conditions of Public schools
Table VIII UBE and Gender Education
Table IX UBE and Increased literacy
level
Table X UBE and cure for Education
Ills
Table XI Observed Frequency for
Hypothesis I
Table XII Expected frequency
Table XIII Contingency Table
Table XIV Observed frequency for
Hypothesis II
Table XV Expected Frequency
Table XVI Contingency Table



ABSTRACT
          The
purpose of this research study is to assess, the relevance, implementation
strategies and impact of the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) on the
eradication of illiteracy in Nigeria.
          The
simple percentage rating, together with the chi-square technique was used in
analyzing the data so gotten and testing the two hypotheses for the research study.  The following findings were made from the
study.
          That
with the proper education of the Nigerian population, Nigeria will be able to truly
attain sustainable development, and this she can attain through the Universal
Basic Education Scheme (UBE).
          That
the major objective of the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE), is to
address the various problems that Nigeria’s educational system has encountered,
over the year, with a view of correcting the anomie’s in the system, such as
the ever decreasing standard of education.
          Finally,
to bring back trust and confidence in public schools, by totally over handing
the education sector, through the provision of the various infrastructure and
materials needed for this purpose.



CHAPTER ONE
1.1                                                                                   
INTRODUCTION
The development
of individuals and society is possible only through education.  In this sense, education is the basic
function of society, which constitutes the prime mover for national
development.  Hence to establish the
goals of education, represent an attempt to define the goals and ideals of a
nation.  No one, therefore, can possibly
doubt that education is the corner stone for national development and
prosperity, something absolutely essential for progress in all areas of human
endeavour.
In recent
times, government has had to embark on several educational campaign programmes
to bring to the bearest minimum the number of illiterates among its
citizens.  In carrying out this
responsibility, the government can be said to be fulfilling its constitutional
obligations as provided for by the constitution of the Federal Republic of
Nigeria.  This is spelt out in section
(18) (3), which has the following objectives; “Government shall strive to
eradicate illiteracy, and to this end, government shall when practicable provide”.
a)                
Free,
compulsory and universal primary education
b)               
Free,
secondary education.
c)                
Free
university education and
d)               
Free
adult literacy education programmes.
In am attempt
to achieving this goals, the government recently came up with the Universal
Basic Education Scheme (UBE) as a way of witnessing spectacular growth and
development in all aspects of education.  
With this education programmes. 
The government intends to attain qualitative and qualitative growth in
the educational sector.
1.2                                   
Background of Study
The
universalization of basic education is in keeping with the requirements of the
constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999), the objectives of which
are state in section 18 as follows government shall direct its policies in
ensuring that there are equal and adequate opportunities at all levels.
Hence, the
introduction of the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) of the Federal
Republic of Nigeria, which way formally launched on 30th September 1999 in
Sokoto by president Olusegun Obasanjo, which aims at achieving the following
specific objectives.
i.                       
Development
in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong
commitment to its vigorous promotion.
ii.                       
The
provision of free, Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school
age.
iii.                       
Reducing
drastically the incidence of drop out from the formal school system (through
improved relevance, quality and efficiency).
iv.                       
Catering
for the learning needs of younger persons, who for one reason or the other hand
to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complementary
approaches to the provisions and promotion of basic education.
v.                       
Ensuring
the acquisition of appropriate level of literacy, numeracy, manipulative,
communication and life skills, as well as the ethical, moral and civic values
needed for laying solid foundation for life long learning.
Basic
education, according to the Jomtien Declaration and frame work of Action on
Education for all is not defined in terms of years of schooling, neither is it
limited to formal schooling.  It sees
education in its broadest sense as of a close articulation of the formal and
non – formal approaches to, and mechanism for the all – awakening and all round
development of the human potential.  The
broad aim is to lay the foundation for life long learning, self – awareness,
citizenship and life skills.
1.3                                   
Statement of the Problem
This study is
primarily concerned with the high level of illiteracy in Nigeria as a
developing country, which has in so many ways retarded the country’s growth in
all ramifications.  Statistics shows that
about sixty (60) percent of Nigerians are illiterates i.e. do not have access
to formal education, of which more than half of this number live in the rural
areas.  This has therefore, made it
difficult for the government to harness to the fullest both its human and
natural resources.
The
government had therefore, in most cases, resort to depend on foreign
expatriates to work in almost every facet of her economy so that it will be
able to carry out certain functions that are very important to it.
1.4                                   
Objective of the study
The aim and
objective of this study is to take a critical look at the Universal Basic
Education Scheme (UBE) of the present administration with emphasis on the
following objective;
1)                     
Infrastructure
funding
2)                     
Monitoring
and evaluation of the programme
3)                     
Teacher,
their education, training, professional development and motivation.
4)                     
Data
problem considering the fact that educational statistics is compounded by a
number of factors, thus making it easy to extrapolate school – age population
figures.  This has therefore given rise
to the phenomenon of “discordant data”.
1.5           
Hypotheses
The following
hypotheses will be tested, using the chi square technique during the process of
the study.
i.                       
That
UBE will succeed, where others or earlier programmes have failed.
ii.                       
That
UBE is capable of reducing the incidence of drop out in the formal school
system.
iii.                       
The
hypothesis should be capable of being proved.
iv.                       
Hypothesis
is derived from the body of knowledge or theory about a phenomenon requiring
further verification through empirical analysis.
1.6           
Significance of the study
i.                       
This
study is expected to add to existing knowledge of government educational mass
literacy programmes.
ii.                       
It
will inform and enable educations, educational administrators and planners to
come up with modifications, where necessary, that will bring about the
realization of UBE objectives.
iii.                       
It
will crate awareness of the need for greater involvement of both parents and
non – governmental organization of the need to make meaningful contributions to
the education of both their words and the entire citizenry.
iv.                       
It
will inform subsequent government or administration of the need for
continuation of educational policies such as UBE which the Olusegun Obasanjo
led administration has started.
v.                       
Lastly,
it will serves as a useful material for further studies in this area.
1.7           
Limitations of the study
·                   
Due
to the constraints imposed directly by finance and time, this study could not
be carried out as exhaustively as the researcher would have liked to.
·                   
Another
factor is the unwillingness of officials to release what may be regarded as
confidential information or inadequate data.
·                   
Also
added to this limitation is the deficiency of available related literature,
given the fact that this area of study is new in the country.
·                   
Though
the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) is nation – wide, this work does not
cover the whole Country.
1.8           
Delimitation of the study
This study is
based on the fact that the higher the literacy level of the citizens of a
country, the more rapid the growth in terms of economic achievements it will
attain.  Education can be said to have
direct bearing on national development. 
For Nigeria,
therefore, to experience technological know how, it must be able to intensively
address itself to educational needs of its ever – increasing, teeming and large
population.
This study is
equally concerned with the fact that the development of individuals and society
is possible only through education.  The
researcher therefore is of the belief that to attain a high literacy level for
its citizens the Nigerian government must make deliberate efforts to vigorously
pursue its educational policies with a firm resolve and determination to over
come what ever obstacle that may be experienced in the process of achieving its
set objectives.
Geographically
this study was carried out in Lagos
State, despite the fact
that the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) is nation – wide.



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