IMPROVEMENT NEEDS OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE TEACHERS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU STATE

IMPROVEMENT NEEDS  OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE TEACHERS FOR
EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN  ENUGU STATE
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Animal Husbandry is
the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat,
fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective
breeding and the raising of livestock.
Husbandry has a
long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first
domesticated, from around 13,000 BC onwards, antedating farming of the first
crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt, cattle, sheep,
goats and pigs were being raised on farms.
Agricultural
science students need a good understanding of Animal Husbandry and management
techniques in choosing it as a Trade Subject. Animal Husbandry requires well
trained and experienced teachers. These teachers are saddled with the
responsibility of imparting knowledge to students who will like to take up Animal
Husbandry asTrade Subject.
They also help in training farmers who have little or no knowledge in animal
management. The effect of this is that, most incompetent people are employed or
take up animal farming without undergoing training in Animal Husbandry.AkinsorotanAdesiji,
Ogunlade, and Opabo (2007) stated that in the developing countries of the World
where there is inadequate Trade Subject guidance, the young ones tend to choose
the career line of their parents most especially fathers’ occupation.
Akinsorotanet al. (2007) further stated that, the educational system of
the country stipulated that secondary school to be for children between 12 and
18 years. This is the time when they can be tutored and guided towards choosing
a career.
They
further stated that one of the major problems facing Nigeria is unemployment of
youths due to unfavorable disposition to agriculture as a Trade Subject and all
efforts by Government and Non-Governmental Agencies to encourage youths to
choose agriculture production as a career have not been effective. Hence, for
the young generation participation on agriculture production there should be a
positive perception of agriculture production as a progressive and reliable Trade
Subject in order to reverse the drifting of youths towards other professions.Ogbazi (2008) observed that Animal Husbandry in recent times
has become an enterprise of concern to individual families, and schools. Ogbazi
(2008) went further to observe that Animal Husbandry is relatively less capital
intensive. This makes it possible for most secondary schools to establish
poultry and growing of other animal in their school farms. Ogbazi further
pointed out that teachers of agriculture should help agriculture students and
other people who are interested in establishing animal farms in schools or in
their homes. In order to be able to offer such a help, the agricultural
teachers should possess both the technical and professional competencies needed
for effective teaching of Animal Husbandry.Onu, (2005) maintained that animal
farms in secondary schools when properly established will equipped the students
with relevant skills. Onu (2006) went further to assert that Nigeria is a
country with shortage of food supply, while the population is increasing
rapidly.
In
order to combat this problem, Onu (2006) added that many programmes were put in
place which brought the teaching of agricultural science in both primary and
secondary schools. Agriculture teachers have the responsibility of educating
agricultural science students as prospective farmers in the different methods
of producing and processing agricultural products. In order to be able to
perform this function, the teachers need to be knowledgeable of the most
effective methods of teaching vocational or skill oriented subject (Ogbazi,
2008). Onu (2006) indicated that agriculture and economic development of any
nation to a large extent depends on the quality of her teachers especially
agricultural teachers.
Agidi
(2004) in Akinsorotanet al, (2007) stated that, the journey back to the
history of agriculture in Nigeria, there is now a trend that is bringing a
great concern tothe future of agriculture and food
production.
It is
necessary to educate and make the young generation to be conversant with
agricultural farming in order to encourage them to contribute to food
production and distribution in the country. Mayer and Onaze (1996) in
Akinsorotanet al. (2007) stressed that Students who were also in the
post primary education stage were taught in the classroom about modern methods
of agricultural farming with practical training on the school farm. The
National Policy on Education (2004), defined Vocational and Technical Education
“as the Education designed to prepare individuals to acquire practical skills,
basic scientific knowledge and attitude acquired as a craftsman and technician
of sub professional level”.
The policy further stated that, the goals of teacher education was to
provide teachers with intellectual and professional background adequate for
their assignment and make them adaptable to changing situations. The policy
further stated that, the goals ofsecondary and vocational education are for the
purpose of:providing technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for
agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development.giving training
and imparting the necessary skills to individual who shall be self- reliant
economically.exposing students to Trade Subject awareness by exploring usable
options in the world of work, enabling the students to set up their own
business and become self-employed and be able to employ others.
Rao,
Reddy and Reddy (1995) in Akinsorotanet al (2007) stated that
Agriculture Education and training in higher schools require professional
teachers who understandthe psychology, principles,
techniques of teaching and learning process for proper and adequate transfer of
information to ensure change in knowledge, skills and attitude towards
progressive agricultural practices. Okigbo (2012) in Akinsorotanet al
(2007) stated that the future of increased food production rested on giving
support to the education and training of young generations who are students of
agriculture.
Statement of the Problem
Animal farming  in secondary
schools are no longer equipped to make today’s modern  farming efficient and effective (Onu, 2004)
Institution Animal Husbandry such as secondary schools enhance teaching and
learning process and motivate the learners tochoose Animal Husbandry as a Trade
Subject. The students should be acquainted with all the skills required in Animal
Husbandry and be able to apply such knowledge effectively after graduation. In EkitiState, the researcher observed
that, most students performed poorly in the West African School Certificate
“Mass failure bleak future on WAEC report” (Kunle, 2010).  It was further observed by the researcher
that secondary school students were not adequately exposed to Animal Husbandry
practical due to poor teaching methods, unqualified agricultural science
teachers and specialists in Animal Husbandry, inadequate modern equipment and
facilities among others.  
Teachers
are being trained by the government to handle the subject at secondary school
levels.  Yet, there are still, some
problems, which the teachers face in teaching this subject at a secondary
school level.  This study is designed to
focus on the problems facing the teachers in the teaching of agricultural
science in secondary school.
Purpose of the study
The
main purpose of the study is to identify the improvement needs of agricultural
science teachers in teaching animal husbandry in secondary school
 Specifically the study shall seek to:
1.    
Identify the strategies  needed for improving the teaching and learning
of animal husbandry in secondary schools
2.    
To find out the factors that affect the teaching
and learning of animal husbandry in secondary schools
3.    
What are the teaching techniques adopted
in the teaching of animal husbandry
4.    
Determine ways of solving the problems
identified in teaching animal husbandry in secondary schools.
Significance of the study
Agriculture
has been made a core subject in the primary school curriculum.  This is the secondary aim of training present
and prospective farmers for proficiency in farming.  Also to reverse the lack of interest show by
many young ones and their preference for the white collar jobs, which have made
agriculture to be left in the hands of the aged people.
Hopefully,
the finding of the study will provide information and the data that would
assist curriculum planners, decision makers as well as other bodies associated
with agricultural programme in schools. 
This will help in harmonizing the course content of agriculture in the
secondary schools and giving balance attention to both theoretical and
practical aspect of agriculture.
Such
finding could serve as a spring board for the improvement of agricultural
programmes at the secondary school level and in motivating pupils in choosing
agriculture as career.
Research Question
          This study has the following research
questions:
1)               
What are the strategies needed for
improving the teaching and learning of animal husbandry in secondary schools?
2)               
 What
are the factors that affect the teaching and learning of animal husbandry  and effectiveness in secondary schools?
3)               
What are the teaching techniques adopted
in the teaching of animal husbandry?
4)               
What are the ways of solving the
identified problems the teachers face in teaching Animal husbandry in secondary
school.
Scope of the study
          The study focuses on the improvement
needs for effective teaching and learning of animal husbandry in secondary
school. The study covers five selected secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State
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