CHAPTER ONE
to the Study
The hospitality industry is a broad
category of fields within the
service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, travelling and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a
multibillion-dollar industry that depends on the availability of leisure time
disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or an
amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance and
direct operations (servers,
porters, kitchen workers,
bartenders, management, marketing, and human
resources etc.)
Bureau of
Labor Statistics
, 2017.
Hospitality industry, an aspect of Tourism which cannot be overlooked is
defined according to “the prospectors act 1956. section 1 (3) as an
establishment held out by the proprietors offering foods and drinks if so
required sleeping accommodation without special contract to any traveller
presenting himself to be in a fit state of mind to be received and is willing
and able to pay for the services rendered to him by the establishment. Its
history can be traced to the early civilization of the mind 16th century when
the Romans built roads between the main cities and towns of the time along
which posting houses known as stabuli were set up to provide holding, food
drinks. Thus, Every city/town at this time had ale houses which provides only
drink which later advanced to the building of what we now call the hospitality
industry (hotel).
Hospitality industry is a major sector in the tourism
industry, which, in turn is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the
service industry. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC),
travel and tourism has become the leading economic contributor to the world and
national economies in terms of gross output, value added, capital investment,
employment and tax contributions. Hospitality industry has brought tremendous
growth to the global economy by providing services ranging from accommodation,
sightseeing as well as other services related to the tourism industry. It not
only provides employment but also plays a vital role in the economic returns of
a state. Also the interaction with people from different cultures, thus
educating people, is brought about by the hospitality industry. Hence,
Hospitality industry plays a major role in the development of economy of Ado
Ekiti, Ekiti State. In principle, it is expected that many people patronize the
hospitality industry when the economy is buoyant, thereby signifying a positive
correlation between the industry and the economy.
 Globally, it is a money spinning industry with
billions of dollars to its credit even though in this part of the world, people
are still grappling with putting the industry on the right pedestal so as to
wholly benefit like other countries (Chukwudi, 2015) . Just like any other
business running in Nigeria, there are areas of concentration – accommodation
and restaurants which seemingly, is the ‘honey pot’ for practitioners in
Nigeria . 
In recent
times, the Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State economy has witnessed tremendous ‘growth’ in
the hospitality industry leading to the emergence of hotels, fast food
restaurant chains and night clubs. These positive trends in no small measure
are clearly helping to re-define the face of the hospitality industry in Ekiti.
Information on the street shows that the industry is booming. Nonetheless, it
is believes people with adequate funds, are investing into the business with
limited knowledge of the expertise required to run such business. Most of them
forget that the industry requires investors that are aware of the fact that
investment in this area requires long term commitment. Hence, they expect
returns as soon as possible at the peril of their poorly remunerated staff.
hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State is variegated depending on the
location. Some of the outfits found in big cities boast of ‘reasonably’ high
quality of service while those in the outskirts offer a lower standard. It is
therefore not surprising that since the industry has become an ‘all comers
affair’, there is in reality, no true classification of restaurants and hotels
as obtainable in other countries. Consequently, most hotels have taken a bold
step of prescribing their own grading leading to confusion amongst their
clientele. It is  on this background this
study examines the problems and prospect of hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti.
Statement of the Problem
The Nigerian
Hospitality Industry is faced with a myriad of problems ranging from poor
energy supply and insecurity to misconstrued internal perception, cynical
global perspicacity, flawed hotel classification, poor customer service, little
or no standardisation in operations, inconsistent regulatory environment and
skilled labour shortages caused by a few entrepreneurs with little knowledge of
the workings of the industry who hijack the process to perpetuate plans for
their own personal aggrandisement.
challenges cascades from the ineffective top echelon in government down to the
least of employees in the industry. Arguably, the industry has not recorded
much progress in terms of achievements from its past precedence.
Notwithstanding, more than ever before, it has become more lucrative depending
on which side of the divide you find yourself i.e. employer or employee.
Although the
hospitality  industry in Ado Ekiti offer
different services to all classes of customers yet they suffer from a culture
that is alien to supporting good customer service. It is on this backdrop this
study examines the problems and prospect of hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti.
1.3     Research Questions
following research questions were raised to guide this study;
1.     What is the socio-economic
contribution of hospitality industry in Ado Ekiti community
Does hospitality industry has impact on
socio-economic development in Ado Ekiti?
What are the problems facing hospitality
industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State ?
What are the  possible solution to the  problems facing hospitality industry in Ado
1.4     Research Hypotheses
following hypotheses will be tested for the purpose of this study
Ho:    There
is no socio-economic contribution of hospitality industry on the host community
Hi:     There
is socio-economic contribution of hospitality industry on the host community
Ho:    There is
no significant  impact of  hospitality industry on the development of
people in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.
Hi:     There
is significant  impact of  hospitality industry on the development of
people in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.
1.5     Aim and Objectives of the Study
aim of the research wok is to examine the problems and prospect of hospitality
industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State . The specific objectives are to:
1.     examine  the socio-economic contribution of
hospitality industry on Ado Ekiti community
Examine the impact of hospitality
industry has on socio-economic development of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State?
Examine the problems facing hospitality
industry in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State,
Investigate the   possible solution to the  problems facing hospitality industry in Ado
Ekiti, Ekiti State?
1.6     The Study Area
Ekiti was an
independent state prior to the British conquest. It was one of the many
Yoruba states in what is today Nigeria. The Ekiti people as a nation and districts of Yoruba
race trace some of her progeny to Oduduwa, the father and progenitor of Yoruba
race even though good reason appear to establish the existence of aboriginal
people in Ekiti region prior to influx of royalty from present day Ile Ife as
that kingdom grew and abound.
There are two
major schools of thought regarding Ekiti History. First was the story that tied
the origin of Ekiti to Ife. The story goes that the Olofin, one of the sons of
the Oduduwa had 16 children and in the means of searching for the new land to
develop, they all journeyed out of Ile-Ife as they walked through the Iwo –
Eleru(crave) near Akure and had stop over at a place called Igbo-Aka(forest of
termites) closer to Ile-Oluji.
The Olofin,
the 16 children and some other beloved people continued with their journey, but
when they got to a particular lovely and flat land, the Owa-Obokun (the
monarchy of Ijesha land) and Orangun of Ila decided to stay in the present
Ijesha and Igomina land of in Osun state. While the remaining 14 children
continued with the journey and later settled in the present day Ekiti land.
They discovered that there were many hills in the place and they said in their
mother’s language that this is “Ile olokiti” the land of hills.
Therefore, the Okiti later blended to Ekiti. So Ekiti derived her name through
It must
however be noted, that this history may describe the history of certain royalty
in present-day Ekiti, but not all of Ekiti which is made up of 131 Principal
towns, with their own royalty and many land owning communities with no royalty
at all.In fact, the invading royalties from the East, went on to colonize and
transform the aboriginals, distinguishing the Ekiti dialect upon mix with the
Ife/Oyo tongue of the Yorubas according the Samuel Johnson, the renowned
historian of early Yoruba States and Affairs
Second school
of thought on Ekiti origin is more likely and grounded in actual history. It
was said that Oduduwa, the ancestor of the Yoruba traveled to Ife [Ife
Ooyelagbo] where he met people who were already settled there. Among the elders
he met in the town were Agbonniregun [Stetillu], Obatala, Orelure, Obameri,
Elesije, Obamirin, Obalejugbe just to mention a few. It is known that
descendants of Agbonniregun [Baba Ifa] settled in Ekiti, examples being the
Alara and Ajero who are sons of Ifa. Orunmila [Agbonniregun] himself spent a
greater part of his life at Ado. Due to this, we have the saying ‘Ado ni ile
Ifa’ [Ado is the home of Ifa]. The Ekiti have ever since settled in their present
Nobody can
give accurate dates to these events due to the lack of written sources, but
people have lived in Ekiti for centuries. It is on record that Ekiti Obas had
prosperous reign in the 13th century. An example was the reign of Ewi Ata od
Ado in the 1400s.


State is mainly an upland zone, rising over 250 meters above sea level. It lies
on an area underlain by metamorphic rock. It is generally undulating country
with a characteristic landscape that consists of old plains broken by
step-sided out-crops that may occur singularly or in groups or ridges. Such
rocks out-crops exist mainly at Aramoko, Efon-Alaaye, Ikere-Ekiti,Igbara-odo-
ekiti and Okemesi-Ekiti. The State is dotted with rugged hills, notable ones
being Ikere-Ekiti Hills in the south, Efon-Alaaye Hills on the western boundary
Ado-Ekiti Hills in the centre.

and vegetation

The State
enjoys tropical climate with two distinct seasons. These are the
rainy season (April–October) and the dry season (November–March). Temperature ranges
between 21° and 28 °C with high humidity. The south westerly wind and the
northeast trade winds blow in the rainy and dry (Harmattan) seasons
respectively. Tropical forest exists in the south, while
savannah occupies the northern peripheriesh

and Administrative Divisions

          The people of Ekiti State live mainly in towns. These towns
Ado, Ikere Ekiti,
Awo Ekiti, Ayegbaju Ekiti, Araromi Oke Ekiti,
Aramoko Ekiti, Temidire-Ikole Local Govt, Igede Ekiti, Are Ekiti,
Iye Ayede, Ire,
Ipoti, Igogo,
Ise, Itapa, Otun, Usi
Ido, Emure,
Oye, Omuo,
Ijurin, Ikun, Iye, Ijesa-Isu, Ayedun, Aisegba,
Iworoko, Ifaki Ekiti,
Erinmope, Asin-Ekiti, Orin, Ilogbo Ekiti, Osi, Igbole, Ora, Aye,
Erio, [Igbara-Odo](Ogotun), Erijiyan Ekiti Iludun, Ilemeso, Otun, Itapaji, Ipao
Ekiti, Oke Ako Ekiti, Irele Ekiti, Imojo,
, Eda Oniyo, Gogo Ekiti, Odooro Ekiti, Ijan Ekiti,
Epe Ekiti, Usi Ekiti, Ijesa-Isu Ekiti Ilasa-Ekiti, Iropora-Ekiti.
          Ekitis are culturally homogeneous and
they speak a dialect of Yoruba language known as Ekiti. The homogeneous nature
of Ekiti confers on the state some uniqueness among the states of the
federation. Slight differences are noticeable in the Ekiti dialects of the
Yoruba language spoken by the border communities to other states. For
example, the people of Ado local government area do not speak exactly the same
dialect with the people of Ijero Local government area, while the people of
Ikole area speak something different from the people of Ikere area.
The communities influenced by their locations include Otun
(Moba land) that speaks a dialect close to the one spoken by the Igbominas in
Kwara State. The people of Oke-Ako, Irele, Omuo speak a similar dialect to that of  Ijesas of
Osun State. However, part of the uniqueness of the Ekitis is
that wherever is your own part of the state, you will understand well, when the
other Ekiti man/woman speaks, in spite of the dialectal variations. In
addition, all towns in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State take a common suffix, “Ekiti,”
after their names. The main staple food of the people of Ekiti is
with Isapa soup or vegetable soup.
          Interestingly, not all parts of Ekiti
are today part of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State. Historical Ekiti includes Akure as
documented by Samuel Johnson, and also parts of Ekiti LGA in Kwara State.
Indeed, Ijeshaland being part of Ekiti Parapo is also in Osun State.
Natural resources
Ekiti land is naturally endowed with numerous natural resources.
The state is potentially rich in mineral deposits. These include granite,
kaolin, columbite, channockete, iron ore, baryte, aquamine, gemstone,
phosphate, limestone,GOLD among others. They are largely deposited in different
towns and villages of Ijero, Ekiti West, Ado – Ekiti, Ikole, Ikere, Ise-Ekiti
and other Local Government Areas.
The Land is also blessed with water resources, some of its
major rivers are Ero, Osun, Ose, and Ogbese. More so a variety of tourist
attractions abound in the state namely, Ikogosi Warm Spring, Ipole – Iloro
Water Falls, Olosunta hills, Ikere, Fajuyi Memorial Park Ado – Ekiti and so on.
The Ikogosi tourist centre is the most popular and the most developed. The warm
spring is a unique natural feature, and supporting facilities are developed in
the centre. The spring is at present being processed and packaged into bottled
water for commercial purpose by a private company – UAC Nigeria.
Moreover, the land is buoyant in agricultural resources with
cocoa as its leading cash crop. It was largely known that Ekiti land
constituted well over 40% of the cocoa products of the famous old Western
Region. The land is also known for its forest resources, notably timber.
Because of the favourable climatic conditions, the land enjoys luxuriant
vegetation, thus, it has abundant resources of different species of timber.
Food crops such as yam, cassava, and also grains like rice and maize are grown
in large qualities. Other notable crops such as kola nut and varieties of
fruits are also cultivated in commercial quantities.
1.7.    Significance of the Study
This will enlighten the local populace about the important of
hospitality industry on the social economic development in Ado, Ekiti State at
large.   It will help to know the
resources to be developed, managed and promoted for hospitality and community
This development can bring forth the provision of
social amenities and infrastructures, construction of modern roads, active cultural
institutions, sustainable environment, provision of employment opportunities
and many other benefits in the study areas.
Finally, the recommendations that would be given in
this report would optimistically provide the necessary information and strategies
needed by the students, researchers, government and other sets of people, who
are concerned in the development and management of cultural and natural
resources to boost the disciplines of archaeology, museum, tourism and other
cultural related fields in the community.
1.8     Organization
of the Study
The study has five chapters. The
first Chapter provides background to the study, where among other things; it
presents the problem statement, study objectives, research questions. The
second Chapter presents a critical review of literature relevant to the study.
A detailed description of the methodology employed, study area and the data
used by the present study is provided in Chapter three. The fourth Chapter
presents results and discussion. Summary, recommendations and conclusion are
provided in Chapter five of this research work.


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