THE SOCIO –ECONOMIC EFFECT OF COVID 19 ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN POLITICAL SCIENCE. ( A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA (UNN)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Approval Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Objectives of the Study

Research Questions                                                                                                                         8

Significance of the Study

Scope of the Study

Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Conceptual framework

2.2       Theoretical framework

2.3       Empirical framework

2.4       Summary of literature review

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Research Design

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.5       Instrument for data collection

3.6       Validity of the instrument

3.7      Reliability of the instrument

3.8       Method of data collection                                                                                                 55

3.9       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Introduction

4.2       Respondents Demographic Characteristicsq

4.3       Analysis of research questions

4.4      Discussion of Result

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1       Summary of the study

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

The emergence of the novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) has imposed a threat on Nigeria Education sectors, health, economy, social relations globally. As at mid-July 2020, the disease has spread. In Nigeria, there has been confirmed cased of corona virus (COVID -19) across the 36 states including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). In response to curtail the spread of the virus most countries of the world, including Nigeria have imposed restriction measure which led to total and or partial closure of the economy for more than six months. In the process, economies are grinding to a halt, jobs and livelihoods are lost on scales never seen before. The impact is huge and increasing in low and middle-income countries, especially in Nigeria with over 202 million population (World Bank, 2020)

Nigeria’s education system encompasses three different sectors: basic education (nine years), post-basic/senior secondary education (three years), and tertiary education (four to six years, depending on the program of study). According to Nigeria’s latest National Policy on Education (2004), basic education covers nine years of formal (compulsory) schooling consisting of six years of elementary and three years of junior secondary education. Post-basic education includes three years of senior secondary education. Ogunode (2020)

At the tertiary level, the system consists of a university sector and a non-university sector. The latter is composed of polytechnics, monotechnics, and colleges of education. The tertiary sector as a whole offers opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and vocational and technical education. The academic year typically runs from September to July. Most universities use a semester system of 18 – 20 weeks. Others run from January to December, divided into 3 terms of 10 -12 weeks. The National University Commission (NUC), the government umbrella organization that oversees the administration of higher education in Nigeria, listed 40 federal universities, 44 state universities and 68 private universities as accredited degree-granting institutions on its website as of 2017.

As the coronavirus pandemic and its relevant effects continue in Nigeria, it becomes pertinent to assess the potential changes in education caused by its economic and social implications. Most importantly, the negative impacts of the pandemic are not felt equally across Nigerian population. Recent evidence suggests profound “racial, economic, and health inequality in the population infected by and dying from COVID-19,” with people of color, particularly African Americans, as well as individuals of poverty or with disabilities, experiencing higher rates of mortality due to the virus

The global outbreak of the corona virus (COVID -19) pandemic has spread worldwide, affecting almost all countries and territories. The outbreak was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The countries around the world cautioned the public to take responsive care. The public care strategies have included handwashing, wearing face masks, physical distancing, and avoiding mass gathering and assemblies. Lockdown and staying home strategies have been put in place as the needed action to flatten the curve and control the transmission of the disease (Sintema, 2020).

There is no doubt that students in terminal classes in lower and higher levels of Education system of Nigeria has been held on a spot; they were unable to graduate or even move to the next level in their academic pursuit this has led to the set a great back of the smooth running of educational sector of Nigeria and the world at large.

What makes education beautiful and fulfilling is the progress in terms of moving to the next level, graduating and becoming a useful and acceptable member of the society after being exposed to the teaching-learning processes in the school. The careers of this year’s university graduates may be severely affected by the corona virus (COVID -19) pandemic. They have experienced majorly teaching interruptions in the final part of their studies, interruptions in their assessments, and finally they are likely to graduate at the beginning of a major global recession, because there is no doubt there will be global recession in the economy of the world at large at the end of the pandemic lockdown. While there was boom in the economy of Nigeria in the past, some graduates still find it difficult to get their desired jobs in the labor market, now that there is every tendencies that the economy of the country could experience a drastic meltdown after the corona virus (COVID -19) pandemic, how will graduate get menial jobs talk less of their desired jobs. Unfortunately if this persists for a longer period of time, there might be a great hit on the smooth running of the economy, educational and other sectors of the country at large. Evidence suggests that poor market conditions at labour market entry cause workers to accept lower paid jobs for survival first, and that this has permanent effects on the careers of some graduate because they have been doing the jobs far related to their area of specializations for so many years which on the long run has made them not been fulfilled in their choice careers.

Oreopoulos et al. (2020) show that graduates from programmes with high predicted earnings can compensate for their poor starting point through both within- and across-firm earnings gains, but graduates from other programmes have been found to experience permanent earnings losses from graduating in a recession

The careers of this year’s university students have been severely affected by the corona virus (COVID -19) pandemic. Students have experienced major teaching interruptions in their studies, some private universities that engaged their students with online teaching could not conduct examinations or assess their students as building a trust in their students is a major setback in an online learning environment (Adejoke 2020). In general, the time of graduation for every university student have been indirectly elongated and they are likely to graduate at the beginning of a major global recession.

There is no doubt that some students who have just graduated from universities or other higher institutions could not secure a job; since industries, companies, government parastatals, schools as well as institutions were shutdown (Adewumi 2020). Some of them were not mobilized for the one-year compulsory national youth service in Nigeria, those that were in the orientation camps before the outbreak of corona virus (COVID -19) were not posted to their place of primary assignment for the first 6 months of their service year due to the lockdown.

Corona Virus (COVID -19) pandemic has affected all levels of the education system (Nicola et al, 2020). Educational institutions around the world (in 192 countries) have either temporarily closed or implemented localized closures affecting about 1.7 billion student populations worldwide (UNESCO 2020). Many universities around the world either postponed or canceled all campus activities to minimize gatherings and hence decrease the transmission of the virus. However, these measures lead to higher economical, medical, and social implications on both undergraduate and postgraduate communities (Nicola et al, 2020; Esposito and Principi, 2020).

Due to the suspension of classroom teaching in many colleges and universities, a switch to online teaching for undergraduate and graduate students becomes effective [reviewed in (Sahu, 2020; Yamin, 2020)]. This form of learning provides an alternative way to minimize either the contact between students themselves or between the students and lecturers (Pragholapati, 2020). However, many students have no access to online teaching due to a lack of either the means or the instruments due to the economical and digital divide (UNESCO 2020).

This paper is aim to investigate the socio-ecomomic effects of Corona virus (COVID -19) on students’ academic performance in political science using Bamidele Olumilua University of Education Science and Technology.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, after the confirmation of the first case of corona virus disease in Ogun State on 27th February 2020, the Federal Ministry of Education on March 19th, 2020 approved the closure of all schools nationwide . In response, every state in Nigeria contextualized with the directive of the federal government. As a result   million   school learners in public and private tertiary school were sent home due to global pandemic.

The economic impact of corona virus (COVID -19) in Nigeria education system can be felt through three possible scenarios i.e. the labour productivity shock which comes from workers unable to do their job and it results into the average decline in labour productivity   during the pandemic in 2020. The impact of corona virus (COVID -19) also causes a total factor productivity shock that is felt through a temporary paralysis of school activities caused by disruptions to distribute and the inability to provide inputs and services due to quarantine for teachers or workers leading to a big enough reduction in global GDP   in total factor productivity growth. The last impact is the trade shock. It is felt through the international trade disruptions bringing about cost of doing trade to rise by nearly 5% on the average. This is suffice to provoke the cost of global economic growth by 1% (Vos et al., 2020).

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has no doubt had negative toll on the human race, with huge socio-economic impact on educational system in Nigeria, business such as tourism and travel as well as significant drop in global socio-economic security. ` The decision to close educational institutions and schools around the globe in an attempt to contain the pandemic has also led to a soaring number of children, youth and adults not attending schools. According to UNESCO Monitoring report on corona virus (COVID -19) educational disruption and response, the impact of school closures in the over 100 countries that have implemented the decisions around the world has impacted over half of the global students’ population. These educational disruptions are being escalated particularly for the most vulnerable members of society. The global reactions to the corona virus (COVID -19) infection has been worrisome.

Due to the effect on Covid 19 in Nigeria educational system, all the schools in Nigeria were closed down to control the wide spread of the pandemic on Nigeria Students. As a result of this pandemic, the students were keep at home for almost a year doing nothing most of those students even find it difficult to study their books at home which might have effect on their academic performance. As a result of this, the researcher intended to carry out this research to determine the socio –economic effect of corona virus (COVID -19) on students academic performance in political science in University of Nigeria, Nsukka

1.3 Objective of the study

The broad objective of this study is to investigate socio- economics effect of Covid 19 pandemic on students academic performance in political science, University of Nigeria, Ikere campus

The specific objectives are to

  1. investigate the socio-economic effect of COVID 19 on students academic performance in political science department
  2. investigate impact of corona virus (COVID -19) on social interaction among political science students academic performance
  3. determine effect of corona virus (COVID -19) on   political science students welfare
  4. determine the effect of corona virus (COVID -19) pandemic on political science lecturers in university of Nigeria
  5. proffer recommendations that could mitigate the effects of corona virus (COVID -19) pandemic on academic performance of political science students in UNN, Ikere campus

1.4 Research questions

The following research question were raised to guide the study

  • what are the socio-economics effect of COVID 19 on students academic performance in political science?
  • what are the impact of corona virus (COVID -19) on social- interaction of political science students academic performance?
  • What are the effect of corona virus (COVID -19) on   political science students welfare?
  • What are the effect of corona virus (COVID -19) pandemic on political science lecturer in UNN?
  • What recommendation can be made to address t the effects of corona virus (COVID -19) pandemic on academic performance of political science students in UNN, Ikere campus.

1.5       Significance of the study

This study is significance because it will allow government and education stakeholder to prepare for future occurrence of any health crisis or pandemic. The study will intended to provide a thick description of the effect of Corona virus (COVID -19) on Nigeria educational system,    The study will contribute knowledge to the existing literature about the menace of Corona virus (COVID -19) in Nigeria and it effects on students academic performance. It will also assist Educating parents and other residents to understand the importance of knowing the sing and symptoms, prevention, control of COVID-19. Also this study will help the students to know the control measure that will prevent them for contacting corona virus among themselves.

1.6       Scope of the study

The research is aimed at investigating the socio economic effect of corona virus (COVID -19) students academic performance in political science. The study covers, students and lecturers in   University of Nigeria (UNN) Ikere campus, Ikere Ekiti

1.7       Definition of basic terms

Corona virus disease: A corona virus is a kind of common virus that causes an infection in your nose, sinuses, or upper throat.

Pandemic: A pandemic is defined as “an epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries and usually affecting a large number of people”. The classical definition includes nothing about population immunity, virology or disease severity.

Education: discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization

COVID-19 : corona virus disease 2019

 

 

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