THE ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF
NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: A
CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS   IN ADO EKITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
OF      EKITI STATE
BY

OMOOGUN
MATRIC NO:
2011/3856
     
A PROJECT
SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE/EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF
NIGERIA, NSUKKA.
IN PARTIAL
FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE BACHELOR DEGREE IN EDUCATION
(B.ED)
                                   
     NOVEMBER, 2017



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University of Nigeria Nsukka, supervised and coordinated under my supervision.
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ABSTRACT
This
study investigates the role of Non-Governmental Organizations in the
development of education in Nigeria. This study was a survey research type
which comprises of selected schools and Non-Governmental Organization in Ado
Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Questionnaire was used as a
research instrument for data collection and analyzed with the use of
descriptive statistics. The result shows that NGOs are involved in the
development of education because they believe that Government alone cannot
provide for all educational needs and expenses. The NGOs involves in education
because of their believe that education is a tool for National development. The
study further revealed the roles, activities and contributions of NGOs to the
development are important for the upliftment of education sectors. The NGOs
provides infrastructural facilities, instructional materials catering for
student and staff welfare, enhancing self-reliance education, provision of
scholarship and textbooks among others. It was therefore recommended that
government should strive hard to encourage the NGOs to be actively involved in
the development of education in Nigeria. Also, Non-Governmental Organization
should not relent in the activities and contributions in order to reduce
illiteracy and improve economic status of Nigerians.
TABLE
OF CONTEN
T
                                                                                               Page
Title
Page…………………………………………………          
Certification………………………………………………         
Dedication…………………………………………………                  
Acknowledgement………………………..………………         
Abstract……………………………………………………                  
Table
of content…………………………………………..                  
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background
of the study…………………………………                  
Statement
of the Problem……….……………………….                   
Objective
of the Study…………………………………….                 
Research
Questions …………………………………….           
Research
Hypotheses……………………………………          
Research
Methodology………………………………….          
Significance
of the Study………………………………..          
Justification
of the Study ………………………………..          
Scope
of the Study………..……………………………..          
Limitation
of Study ……………………………………..           
Definition
of Terms …………………………………….           
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review and
Theoretical Framework
Conceptual
Clarification ………………………………..          
Activities
of Non-Governmental Organization in the                                   Development
of Education in Nigeria ……………………… 
Constraints
to Active Involvement of Non-Government                              Organisation in
the Development of Education in Nigeria ……     
Theoretical
Framework ………………………………….                  
CHAPTER THREE: Research
Methodology
Research
Design…………………………………………          
Population
of the Study ……………………………………                
Sample
and Sampling Technique .………………………..                 
Instrument
for Data Collection …………….……………                  
Source
of Data Collection …….…………………………                  
Validation
of the Instrument…….…………………………               
Administration
of the Instrument .………………………                  
Data
Analysis Technique …….…………………………          
  CHAPTER
FOUR: Results and Discussion
Results
……………..…………………………………              
Discussion
of Findings……………………………………                 
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary,
Conclusion and Recommendations
Summary
…………………………………………….               
Conclusion
….………..…………………………..…..              
Recommendation
……………………………………..              
Suggestion
for Further Study ………………………..              
BIBLIOGRAPHY
……………………………………              
APPENDIXES………………………………………                      
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study
It
is crystal clear in Nigeria today, that education is the greatest instrument and
asset which could be utilized for solving the various socio economic problems
facing the nation and for fullest realization of the potentials and aspirations
of the people.  The government now
perceives education as an investment in human capital, with the sole aim of
wiping out ills such as ignorance, disease, malnutrition, corruption, bribery,
tribalism, nepotism, super corruption, belief, unemployment, poverty,
inequality, duld mortality, political instability and economic stagnation that
usually plague an illiterate society.          
Despite
the commitment of the government to invest more on education in Nigeria,
ironically, the cost of education in recent times in Nigeria has become
astronomical. The high cost of education can be attributed to a number of
factors which includes increase in teacher’s salaries and allowances to meet
the hyper-inflation condition in the economy, increase in enrolment of
potentials at all level of education (primary, secondary, and tertiary) in
Nigeria due to high social demand for education which has consequently resulted
in proliferation of educational institution and equalization of educational
opportunities through the well-orchestrated Universal Basic Education Scheme [UBES].
Nomadic Education, Adult Literacy Programme, Distance Learning Education
Part-time Programme, Pre-Degree, Pre-National Diploma (ND), Pre-NCE Nigeria
Certificate in Education, Sandwish programmes  and the “free education policy” of some state
governments.
          Adeniran (2000), expressing his view
on the rapid expansion of the educational system, remarked that; in Nigeria,
the educational system is expanding daily of astonishing rate, to the extent
that within short periods educational forecast are render useless”. It is
therefore not superfluous that the phenomenal growth of educational system has
inevitably led to annual increase in expenditure on education in Nigeria today.
The government spending has therefore increase due to increasing enrolment of
students in school. Government need to attend to other area of the economy like
health, security, foreign relation and diplomacy. Another urgly development
about Nigerian government was the inability of the government to meet 26
percent of the United Nations Scientific Education and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) minimum as requirement as part of the National budget of every financial
year to be dedicated for the funding of Education.
It
is this becoming apparent that the government alone cannot continue to bear the
burden of funding education, particularly in this period of economic socio
political vicissitudes. Other sources have to be explored to supplement and
complement the government sources. One of the sources is the involvement of the
Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) in the development of education in Nigeria.
          The non-governmental organizations
have played a significant role in educational development in Nigeria. The
non-governmental organization includes the Religious Welfare and Philanthropist
Association and Organization as well as the Commercial and Industrial Firms,
which includes the Multi- national and Bi-lateral organizations and other
Private Companies and Parastatals. The following prominent NGOs have been known
to contribute greatly to the development of education in Nigeria. This includes
UNICEF- United Nation Children Education Fund, UNESCO- United National
Education Scientific and Cultural Organisation, USAID- United State Agency for
International Development, WHO- World Health Organization and other national
and Local non-governmental Organizations, operating in different ways and
names.
          The funding of NGOs may be by
governments, foundations, businesses, or private organizations or individuals
persons. Some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by
volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide
range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world
specifically in Nigeria. Some may have charitable status, while others may be
registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others
may be fronts for educational, political, religious or other interest.
Non-Government
Organisation (NGO) are difficult to define and the term NGOs is rarely used
consistently. As a result, there are many different classifications in use. The
most common focus is on ‘orientation’ and ‘level of operation’. An NGOs
orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities
might include human rights, environmental, or development work. An NGOs level
of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local,
regional, national or international.
          The term “non-governmental
organization” was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations (UN) was
created. The UN itself an inter-governmental organization, made it possible for
certain approved specialized international non- state agencies- i.e,
non-governmental organizations to be awarded observer status as its assemblies
and some of its meetings. Later the term became used and widely. Today,
according to UN, any kind of private organization that is independent from
government control can be termed    an
“NGOs” provided it is not for profit, non- criminal and not simply an
opposition Political Party.
One
characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit
status means they are hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly,
they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time
horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention or a global ban on landmines.
Public survey reveals that NGOs often enjoy a high degree of public trust,
which can make them a useful but not always sufficient-proxy for the concerns
of the society and stakeholders.
          The Non-Governmental Organizations
(NGOs) are exercising a very pervasive influence on the pace and directions of
educational development in Nigeria.
According
to Airewele (1999), development assistance from international NGOs can come in
form of loans, research and other grants, purchase credits, goods and services.
Over the years, the NGOs have been providing special aids to the educational
sectors and offering opportunities for local and oversee training for
educational planners and curriculum planners to make them abreast of least
innovations in the field of education.
Statement of the Problem
          The government expenditure over the
years has increased due to some reasons ranging from population increase,
natural disaster, disease outbreak and educational demand of the citizenry and
many others. As the ways in which government channeled her resources into
increases, the revenue that is accrued to the pursue of government decreases because
of consistent fall in the price of crude oil in the international market. This
is economic reality of our time. This clearly shows that all sectors of the
economy would be affected including educational sector financing as result of
the dwelling revenue that is accrued to the government at all level. With this
development, it is clearly shows that government alone cannot fund education.
It require the support of all the stakeholders including the Non-Governmental
organizations. Despite the commitment of the government to invest more on
education in Nigeria, the cost of education has become high that it is
difficult for the poor to have access to education. Also, the growth and
expansion in education system has inevitably led to annual increase in
expenditure on education. It is therefore becoming apparent that the government
alone cannot continues to bear the burden of funding education, particularly in
this period of economic and socio-political vicissitudes. As a result of the
above, the study therefore appraises the roles of Non- Governmental
Organizations (NGOs) in the development of education in Nigeria.
Objective of the study
          The purpose of this study is to find
out the roles of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the development of
education in Nigeria. A case study of selected secondary schools in Ado Local
Government Area of Ekiti State.
          Specifically, the study will examine;
(i)
The rationales for the involvement of Non-Governmental Organizations in the
development of education in Nigeria.
(ii)
The activities of Non-Governmental Organizations in the development of
educations in Nigeria.
(iii)
Non-Governmental Organizations and the type of contribution available to
funding education in Nigeria.
Research Questions
          The following research question were
formulated for the study.
       i.           
What are the rationales for the
involvement of non-governmental organizations in the development of education
in Nigeria
     ii.           
 What are the activities of Non-Governmental
Organizations in the development of education in Nigeria?
  iii.           
What are the constraints to the
effective contributions of the Non-Governmental Organizations to the
development of education in Nigeria?
Research Methodology
          The study employs the descriptive
statistics as a survey design. Both primary and secondary data will be used as
a source of data for the study. A qualitative approach is used to highlight the
specific phenomena and to identify phenomena through how they are perceived by
the actors in the situation. The primary data involves the data that is
collected from source through interview and questionnaire, while secondary data
involves the information collected from the prepared sources such as newspaper,
magazine and academic journals. The method of data analysis would be simple
percentage analysis.
Significance of the study
          The study will reveal the significant
or role of Non-governmental organizations in the development of education in
Nigeria. The study will help education researchers, school administrators,
educational and curriculum planner to identify the activities of
non-governmental organizations to the development of education in Nigeria.
Considering the invaluable roles and contributions of education to meaningful
individual, social and national development, nobody will dispute the fact that
it is proper management and administration by competent leaders should be a
national concern. The need and importance of the study to national development
cannot be under looked as it appraised the role of NGOs in the management style
and leadership role in administration, provision of instructional materials and
infrastructure in the Nigerian schools. The study will be an eye-opener for the
administrations, management schools, NGOs to know the appropriate method and
techniques in formulating policies and programmes that will enhance education
and national development, through the support of NGOs it’s important to state
here that the study will be an opportunity to access the policies and
programmes of government at putting the education sector in Nigeria in line
with global practices.
          Furthermore, the study will provide
library services for readers. Every chapter of the study shall constitute an
area of study for students and serve as resource material for teachers,
especially in higher institutions of learning.
Justification of the Study
          The need for the study is very
important at this point in time, as the nation is experiencing several reforms,
policy and programme in education sector aimed at putting the education in
appropriate position. The study looks at the reflection and influence of
management and administrative style of leaders by the NGOs in the management
and development of education sector in Nigeria with a reference to selected
schools in Ado local government area of Ekiti State. The selected schools will
incorporate the elements of research and respondent that will be appropriate as
the population for the study. In the same vein, the study will draw the
attention of government and stakeholders in the country to the effectiveness of
using fund allocated to them and policy, instruments for education recovery
from both national and global practice.
          Furthermore, the study will provide
library service for leaders. Every chapter of the study shall constitute an
area of study for students and serve as resource materials for teachers,
especially in higher institutions of learning without mining words. The
empirical results of previous research work on the management and
administrative style the area in particular and provision of infrastructure by
the NGOs in schools and the relationship in terms of development and budgetary
components and output expansion in Nigeria education may no more be applicable
to the recent challenges in the country. This study is sensitive to this fact.
The study will therefore update the data set used by the previous researchers
to produce a dependable result that is efficient management of primary,
secondary schools and tertiary institution in Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
          The study is designed to examine the
role of NGOs in the development, management and administration of secondary
schools in Nigeria. The investigation would be carried out in Ado – Ekiti local
government area of Ekiti State. It will also look at management and
administrative style of selected institutions.
Limitation of the Study
          In view of the limitation of this
study, various factors contributed in affecting the researcher’s comprehensive
and totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors include, scarcity
of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature,
financial constraints, some questionnaire administered were not returned and
most of the respondents failed to respond to some important questions even some
response by the respondent were friend influence ‘copied work’ and other
tasking campus engagements and the fact that the crises was still occurring at
the period of research. Despite the above mentioned shortcomings and hindrances,
the research study no doubt turned out to be successful.
Definition of Terms
EDUCATION:
Education as an activity is as old as man across cultures. It is therefore a
concept that people have severally defined according to their own perceptions.
According to Emenike (2004), education is the acquisition of knowledge that
tends to train and develop individual. Education embraces not only school
experiences but also in direct or incidental influences which helps us to
learn, such influences and activities affect our character, behaviors and
perceptions. Education is a process of learning to live as useful and acceptable
members of society. As a social institution, Emile (1956:28), defined education
as: The influence exercised by adult generation on those that are yet ready for
social life. Its object is to arouse and to develop in the child a certain
number of physical, intellectual and moral states which are demanded of him by
both the political society as a whole and the special milieu for which is
specifically destined.
            The matter arising from this
definition are two fold. The first is that education is the process by which
individuals are selected and assigned social roles while the second shows that
the level of development in a society is dependent on the type (or quality) of
education given to its members. All in all, education is a continuous learning
process through which members of a society acquire requisite knowledge and
skills to facilitate effective performance of assigned social responsibilities.
            DEVELOPMENT:
National, according to Longman dictionary of contemporary English refers to a
phenomena that embraces a whole nation. National development therefore can be
described as the overall development or a collective socio-economic political
as well as religious advancement of a country or nation. This is best achieved
through development planning, which can be described as the country’s
collection of strategies mapped out by the government.
            Development as a concept is a victim
of definitional pluralism. It is a difficult word to define. However, attempts
have been made by erudite scholars to conceptualize development. Some of those
definitions will be explored for the purpose of this study.
            Gboyega (2003) captures development
as an idea that embodies all attempt to improve the conditions of human
existence in all ramifications. It implies improvement in material well-being
of all citizens, not the most powerful and rich alone. In a sustainable way
such that today’s consumption does not imperil the future, it is demands that
poverty and inequality of access to the good things of life be removed or
drastically reduced. It seeks to improve personal security and livelihoods and
expansion of life chances.
            NGOs: This stands for
Non-Governmental Organizations, it’s an organization that is neither a part of
a government nor a conventional for profit business. Usually set up by ordinary
citizens, NGOs maybe funded by governments, foundations, businesses, or private
persons. Some avoid formal funding altogether and are run highly diverse groups
of activities. The term NGO was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations
(UN) was created being an Intergovernmental Organization.
Public
survey reveals that NGOs often enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can
make them a useful but not always sufficient proxy for the concerns of society
and stakeholders.
References
Adaralegbe,
A. A. (1972); A philosophy for Nigeria Education. Ibadan. Heineman Education
Books Nigeria Limited.
Adaralegbe
, A.A (2003): Secondary School Education in Nigeria, Progress, Problems and
Issues in Nigeria Education Trends Issues, Ile-Ife ; OAU Press Limited.
Adaralegbe,
A. A. (2004); Philosophy of Nigeria Education Ibadan. Heineman Education Books
Nigeria Limited.
Adeniran, A. (2000); Manpower Utilization in
Nigeria: An Analysis of Some Causes and Consequences of Unemployment FBN.
Bi-Annual Review Lagos.
Airewele,
S. (1999); Principle Practice and Fundamental of Education. London. Hodder and
Stoughton.
Emenike,
C. (2004): Institutional Bottlenecks to Curriculum Development in Nigeria. In
Igwe (Eds). Journal of Education Research in Nigeria, Vol. 6. (12). pg 72-79.
Emile,
D. (1956); Education for Social Mobilization and Development in Contemporary
World. London: Princeton Hills Publisher
Farrant,
A. (1964), Education Planning and Management for Reliance and Sustainability in
Phenics (Ed) Journal of Education Planning in Developing Countries Volio (18)
Pg 101-107.
Gboyega,
B. (2003): The effects of Education on National Development in Nigeria: Issues
and Challenges.
Oyekan,
S.O (1999); Crisis in Nigeria Education System: Impact on human development in
Gboye Ajayi (Ed) Critical Perspective on Nigeria’s socio – political Development
in the 20th century Lagos. Setback Books.
Oyekan,
S.O (1994); Fundamental of Education, in W.Osisanwo (Ed) Education for Nigeria
Certificate in Education, Ondo, ACE Textbook Development Board.
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