TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem 6
Purpose of the study 7
Research question 8
Significance of the study 8
Scope of the study 9
Limitation of the study 9
Definition of terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual framework 11
Concept of continuous assessment 12
Aims and objective of continuous assessment 18
Reasons for continuous assessment 19
Characteristic of continuous assessment 17
Advantages of continuous assessment 21
The viewing of continuous assessment 23
The challenges of continuous assessment 25
Problems of implementing continuous assessment 27
Empirical Framework 29
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research design 33
Population of the study 22
Sample and sampling techniques 34
Research Instrument 34
Validity of the instrument 35
Administration of the instrument 35
Method of data analysis 35
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Analysis of research questions 36
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION
Summary of finding 42
The study is aimed at investigating the role of continuous assessment in measuring students academic performance in selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo State. To carry out the study, four research questions were reviewed in line with the purpose of the study. The study is a descriptive research design, the population of the study consisted of all students in the four selected secondary schools. 138 students and 12 teachers were used for the study. Simple random simply techniques was used to selected four secondary schools in Akure South Local Governmet Area for the Studies. The data collected were analyzed using both descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation. The findings shows that: Continuous assessment enable the teacher to group his students in terms of achievement. Continuous assessment enable the teacher to determines student’s grade. Continuous assessment is guidance oriented in the sense that it provides information. Recommendation were made which include that prospective teachers should be encouraged by government to participate in the intensive and vigorous training programmes. It is therefore recommended that the concept of continuous assessment, its modalities and techniques, must be made a core subject of institution responsible for training teachers. Also, teacher must be involved in intensive and regular in intensive and regular in –service programme such as induction courses, seminars and workshops. All school principals, headmasters and education inspectors must equally be involved. Such programmes will help to reinforce their skills positively.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Continuous assessment is a relatively new terminology in Nigerian education. Emphasizes the importance of continuous assessment in Nigerian Education when it states that: Educational assessment and evaluation will be liberalised by basing them in whole or in part on continuous assessment of the progress of the individual.
Thus, it implies the teacher’s behaviours in assessing the performance of the students in relationship to their achievement in the subject being taught. Evaluation is synonymous with assessment. When a student is being evaluated with an instrument or test, the student could be said to be undergoing a process of assessment. Both terminologies refer to the determination of the amount of knowledge a student has acquired through the process of instruction.
Continuous assessment refers to the monitoring of the progress of a student through classroom evaluation. Monitoring of a student’s progress is a continuous process, since it is done on a continuous basis. The student is monitored as new knowledge is introduced to him to find out how he is progressing relatively to exposure.
The continuous assessment grading system requires the assessment of the change in behaviours, in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. Changes in cognitive domain reflect the ability of the student to perceive a relationship between objects and to understand information through the utilisation of what has been learned, (Sartain, North, Strange and Chapman, 1967). Cognitive learning, therefore, involves the ability to perceive a problem situation and be able to apply previous learned knowledge in its solution
Assessment plays prominent role in educational process and it is considered as a vital measurement tool in evaluating students’ performance. Ntiko, J.N. (2001) defines assessment as “a process for obtaining information that is used for making decisions about student, curricula and programmes, and educational policy”. It can therefore be a process of collecting information about student learning and performance to improve education. It helps in measuring student’s ability in acquiring certain behaviour or a specific knowledge for a particular subject, and provides the basis of ascertaining the quality of education at all levels. Learner assessment is best conceived as a form of two-way communication in which feedback on the educational process or product is provided to its key stakeholders McAlpine, M. (2002).. According to Adebowale, O. F., & Alao, K. A. (2008) “assessment enables the school to achieve an overall objective of having as complete a record of the growth and progress of each pupil as possible in order to make unbiased judgments in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor evaluation in the classroom”. Assessment results are used by stakeholders and practitioners in the evaluation of the entire educational system, motivating students to perform better, improving instructional planning and content, as well as certifying students as having attained specific levels of achievements. Continuous assessment (CA) is an important part of the evaluation of students’ achievement in Nigeria
Assessment of students learning outcomes in formally is completed through continuous assessment and final examinations levels of education in Nigeria. The Universities offering education courses in Nigeria uses two levels of assessment for both formative and summative evaluation. The continuous assessment is an essential formative evaluation technique with 40% weight in the total examination scores of a course in education. The final examination results determine students’ level of achievement and provide basis for decision on the level of students’ progress and provides feedback to students on their performance during the semester, CA is likely to influence their examination preparation and effort. Alonge, M. F. (2002). observed that examination and assessment in the schools system today have been misinterpreted in the sense that parents and students have the impression that what is important in schooling is to obtain a certificate (either through fair or foul means) at the end of the course
The National Policy on Education [Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004)] states that “Educational assessment and evaluation shall liberalized by being Based in whole or in part on continuous assessment of the progress of the Individual” (Section 1 No. 9 (g)).
The repeataed emphasis being placed on continuous assessment is a clear evidence of its importance. The National Steering Committee on Continuous Assessment in Nigeria Schools led by Professor Yoloye regards continuous assessment as a method of ascertaining what a child gains from schooling in terms of knowledge, industry and character development, taking into account all his/her performances in tests, assignments, projects and other educational activities during a given period of term, year, or during the entire period of an educational level (Ipaye, 1995). It is also a method of using the recorded performances of each pupil to help him or her improve on his or her achievement through guidance. According to Ezewu and Okoye (1986), continuous assessment refers to a systematic and objective process of determining the extent of a student’s performance in all the expected changes in his behaviour, from the day he enters upon a course of study and a judicious accumulation of all pieces of information derived from this purpose with a view to using them to guide and shape the student and to serve as basis for making important decisions about the child. In other words, continuous assessment should be systematic, comprehensive, cumulative and guidance oriented.
Continuous assessment is systematic in the sense that it is planned, graded to suit the age and experience of the children and is given at suitable intervals during the school year. Appropriate timing saves students from being tested to death or becoming bored with too frequent assessments. Comprehensiveness of continuous assessment means that it is not focused on academic skills alone. It embraces the cognitive, the psychomotor and the affective domains. A child is assessed as a total entity using all the psychometric devises such as test and non test techniques. Cumulative characteristics of continuous assessment means that all information gathered on the individual has to be pooled together before a decision can be taken. To say that continuous assessment is guidance oriented means that the information so collected is to be used for educational, vocational and personal- social decision-making for the child. Guidance and counselling activities thrive better on valid, sequential, systematic, continuous, cumulative and comprehensive information. (Denga, 1986).
Statement of The Problem
Continuous assessment just like any other government policy cannot be implemented effectively if there are underlying problem. (Ortyo-Yande;1988).
Most teachers lack the skills on process as well as the practice of keeping the records of children’s achievement as they are scored and graded and according to the weightings given to each component area that has been assessed.
Another problem most teachers face is that of incompetence in developing valid assessment instrument for evaluation of behavioral outcomes in the three domains. Most teachers seem to be confused in the amount of material content that should be covered by each test. Most teachers are of the opinion that each test should include the earlier her and related materials taught before and after each preceding test. To operate continuous assessment effectively, teachers need to spend time on each child helping and observing. This implies that the teacher has to teach less number of students per class. At present, the number of student per class is enormous. This makes it difficult for teachers to teach and evaluate effectively.
It was observed by Aiyelabegan (2003), Akanbi (2003) and Kola (2007) that, in the recent time students’ performance has not been encouraging. Despite the vital role continuous assessment played in the teaching and learning of school subject to improve students’ performance, yet students still performed poorly in the course. The question that comes to mind is that, is there any relationship between continuous assessment and students’ performance. This research work intends to examine the role of Continuous Assessment in measuring students performance using Akure South local government area of Ekiti state.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to determine the role of continuous assessment in measuring student performance.
The study specifically seeks to;
- investigate the roles of continuous assessment in measuring student performance
- Examine the problem encountered in the implementation of continuous assessment in the secondary school
- Examine the requirements for the effective implementation of continuous assessment
To this end the following research questions seeks to address the fundamental problems in the research work
- What are the roles of continuous assessment in measuring students performance
- What are the major problems in the effective implementation of continuous assessment in the secondary school
- What are the basic requirement for the effective implementation of continuous assessment ?
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study could be of beneficial to the teachers, school administrators and the government as a whole.
The result of the role of continuous assessment in measuring students performance could help in discovering whether the teaching and learning process of the subject on the entire local government is successful or not while the comparative outcome of male and female student’s result will indicate where more effort is required.
Also in finding out the factors limiting the students performance, the school administrators and the government would be assisted in identifying the resources that are lacking in schools.
The teachers could be helped in identifying their shortcomings and how best they can help the students.
Scope of the Study
The study is aimed at investigating the role of continous assessment in measuring students academic performance. The research work covers four selected secondary schools in Akure south local government area of Ondo state.
Limitation of the Study
The study will be limited to four selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of Ondo state. Irrespective of the efforts put in the research to make it a reality, there are still some obstacles, which include Time and financial constrant at the disposal of the researcher
Definition of Terms
The following terms are used in this research work expressly or impliedly.
Education: Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind character or physical ability of an individual.
Continuous Assessment: Evaluation of a pupil’s progress throughout the course of study.
Innovation: Act of bringing in new methods, ideas, etc. make changes.
Role: A person’s or thing’s functions.
Cognitive: Cognition is “the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.
Psychomotor: Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination, manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instrument