THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY
ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to find
the extent of relationship between the student socio-economic background and
their achievement in chemistry.
Two hundred students randomly
selected from five schools in Ekiti
State were used as study
sample. A 30 item multiple choice chemistry achievement test (CAT) and students
socio-economic background questionnaire were administered to the selected
students.
Five hypothesis were tested at p –
0.05 level of significance using chisquare (X2) goodness of fit and correlation
analysis were used for the analysis of data. Finding revealed that there exist
a significance relationship between the academic achievement of male and female
student in chemistry.
The socio-economic background of
student neither influence nor more students achievement in chemistry.
Also, no significant relationship
exist between the academic achievement of urban and rural students in
chemistry, there was no significant relationship between the academic
achievement of day and boarding students in chemistry.



TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of the problems
Research hypothesis
Theories framework of the study
Significance of the study
Limitation of the study
Delimitation of the study
Definition of the terms
CHAPTER TWO
Literature review
CHAPTER THREE
Research methodology
Study population and sample selection
Sample and sampling technique
Data collection
Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Discussion
Testing Hypothesis I
Hypothesis II
Hypothesis III
Hypothesis IV
Hypothesis V
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusions and
Recommendations
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDIX I
Students’ socio-economic background
QUESTIONNAIRE
APPENDIX II
Chemistry Achievement Test


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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Explaining the factors affecting
student achievement in various lessons has become a subject that interest a
great number of researchers. Studies of this kind are carried out intensively
in the field of science, the reason for this is that studies have established
that student achievement in the field of science is low.
In Nigeria today there is a high
degree of failure among students in their academic work. Inequality of
achievement has also been teaching issue. This problem has been attributed to
the different social class in Nigeria.
To this end, both the government and parents have been trying various avenues
to correct these faults, but so far their effort have not yielded any
significant results.
Recently, a great number of studies
have been carried out to investigate the possible effects of low achievement
and to increase students’ learning of the subject. Many variables considered to
contribute to low achievement have been discussed. The variables of both
cognitive and sensory quality.
Intelligence and achievement tests
have played very important roles in modern education because they are sometimes
used as sole basis for assignires students to class. They are also used in
advising students with respect to causes and vocation guidance and diagnostics
procedure and for measuring students’ abilities during research studies.
A further understanding of various
factors affecting the performance of the child in the classroom, with a view to
increase such performance has been great concern to educators and psychologists
over the years (1 paye 1975). Socio-economic status has been to relate in a
high positive way to the amount and quality of a person’s education (Warner
Havighurst and Loeb 1944). This was perhaps why Jensen (1973) observed that
socio-economic status today is largely a matter of educational and occupational
status. It means that socio-economic status has direct relevance to and
correlation with educational and occupational status.
The school does not and should not
function in isolation. It is usually a reflection of the society which it is
meant to serve and this has extraneus social forces which influence school
outcomes. The ability to succeed does not depend on innate intelligence alone
although it may be the most powerful influence in determining the level of
student achievement at school (Avotri 1987). Kenneth Eslls et al (1950) also revealed
further that significant relationships exist between students’ achievement in
school subject and their environment factors.
Psychologists have carried out
studies on various aspects of intelligence and have identified various factors
that can affect the intelligence of pupils in schools. Some of the factors
identified are hereditary and these include genetic characteristic within an
individual which inhibit his ability to learn (Taiwo 1968).
Psychologists also believe that
environment like hereditary begins to affect the child at the time of
conception and continues thereafter till death. Such physical environmental
factors include social set up. In general some of the factor affecting the
performance of student are: parental background, some location, level of
consumption, size of the family, teachers attitudes, sex and student attitude
(Anastas 1956).
Studies have been conducted in an
effort to identify positive parental influences on academic performance among
students. Lavin (1965) as quoted in Erinoso (1984) stated that a long with
ability and set, socio-economic status is regarded as a basic correlation of
performance.
For instance, if both parents are
intelligent, it can be inherited by the child and if it happens that both
parents are not intelligent, there is the possibility that the child will be
extremely dull.
The educators, psychologists teachers
and the policy makers interviewed in Ashaolu (1985) stressed that some parents
to a large extent have little concern about the performance and progress of
their children in the schools. Some parents do not care about their
responsibility and this may lead to low moral and truancy and this may have
great effect on pupils academic performance. Both literate and illiterate
parent and guidance are quilty of inadequate attention being paid to their
children’s school work at home. As a result of this, pupils do not take their
school work seriously and this will eventually lead to poor academic
performance. Parents and guidance who fall in upbringing of their children
cannot expect miracle to be performed in school (Ashaolu 1985).
In a study by Pafford (1973) as
quoted in Erinoso (1984) to find the relationship between academic performance
in science and father’s occupation. It was observed that children of
professional fathers perform at a higher level than do the children of
non-professional when individual science courses are considered. This factor
leads to the size of the family and the pattern of consumption that is, if the
child is deprived of good nutrition he may suffer ill health and even find it
difficult to make satisfactory adjustment at school.
According to Anastasi (1956) the
family size of the child can also affect the performance of the child. She
asserts that a large family at least in certain socio-economic situations would
reduce per capital funds available for education, recreation, suitable housing,
proper food, medication attention and their environment factors. This means
that any reduction in or non availability of the items mentioned above will
normally affect the performance of the child in school. Douglas
(1964) stated socio-economic background of student has effect on their academic
performance in the school. It is agued further that student of higher social
class performed letter than those from the lower student from the lower
socio-economic class are assumed to engage in domestic works after the school
hours. It is assumed that these students have little or no time to do the
school work. They performed poorly in the school (Okoro 1988).
Moreover, it is argued that the
children from the low socio-economic background are handicapped because there
are some facilities that are lacking in their homes to prepare them for the
school. This can not be compared with children from the high socio-economic
homes who have every opportunity to educational facilities like textbooks
comper assisted instruction chalkboard and so on (Okoro 1988).
It is also assumed that the high
socio-economic parent employ house help to do the domestic work at homes.
Student from the class of high socio-economic status probably have the
opportunity of doing the school home work or any assignment given by the
teacher and prepare for the next days work in the school. They probably perform
better in the school (Okoro 1988)
It has been the view of Ogunlade
(1973) Fajuyitan (1978) and Adelusi (1960) that academic aspiration of the
school child is positively related to the socio economic status of his parents.
This presupposes that the poor performance of a pupil is a function of economic
factors like caring from a disadvantaged home. This does not necessary followed
because most of the pupil from poor homes always struggle to study hard so that
they can become somebody in future.
Teacher characteristics such as
background knowledge cognitive development and teaching strategies could also
influence the performance of students (Erinoso 1984).
Thompson (1979) report that boys have
a more positive attitude towards science then girls. The difference between the
attitude of boys and girls may be due to the certain nature of boys and
tendency for girls to be shy it cannot be inferred from this study that boys
have higher intelligence quotient (I.Q) than the girls.
It is the belief of most people that
pupils rather waste time watching the television, ODS, video, movies and
programmes that are often of little value to their education. This where
parents can function as an effective check on their children. A pupils with low
ambition a pupil given to a child limitation of others, a pupil whose attitude
to study is generally poor is not likely to perform admirably well in his
examination (Ashaolu 1985).
Statement of the Problem
The performance of students in both
the internal and external examination in Nigeria has been divindling. This
has been a cause of great concern to the stake holders in the educational
system. One of the factors that could be responsible for this may be students
socio-economic background. Therefore the study sought to investigate how
students socio-economic background could influence academic performances of
chemistry students.
Research Questions
The following research question will
be critically examined in this study:
1.                
Is
there any significant relationship between the academic achievement of male and
female students in chemistry
2.                
Is
there any significant relationship between academic achievement of student from
high medium and low socio-economic background in chemistry
3.                
Is
there any significant relationship between the academic achievement of urban
and rural student in chemistry
4.                
Is
there any relationship between the academic achievement of Day and Boarding
students
5.                
Is
there any significant relationship between the academic achievement of student
from mixed and single sex school in chemistry
Research Hypothesis   
The following null hypothesis will be
tested at P = 0.05 level of significance in this study.
1.                
There
is no significant relationship between the academic achievement of male and
female students in chemistry.
2.                
There
is no significant relationship between academic achievement of student from
high medium and low socio-economic background in chemistry.
3.                
There
is no significant relationship between the academic achievement of urban and
rural student in chemistry.
4.                
 There is no significant relationship between
the academic achievement of student from mixed and single sex school in
chemistry.
5.                
There
is no significant relationship between the academic achievement of Day and
Boarding students in chemistry.
Theoretical Framework of the Study
Palvako and Bishop (1966) classified socio
economic status into high and low. Both see high socio-economic status as
non-manual occupations which include professionals, technical managers,
officials, professors and engineers. In Nigeria, these are the types of
category who hold the top positions in the society, who live in their luxurious
and well furnished house or live in quarters provided by government, companies
and institution. Such parents send their children to private school where they
pay very huge money per term and can afford to provide the necessary
educational materials for their children.
Low socio economic status: According to Pavelko and Bishop (1966)consist of manual occupations
and includes craft men peasant farmers petty traders and labourers. In Nigeria,
this set/category of people hold the lowest position in the society and live in
the slum area of the town. They can only afford to send their children to the
public school where token fees is being paid per term. Some of them are lucky
or who are lucky to live in the government or institutions quarters are found
in the smaller houses of one room or in the boys quarters. They also find it
difficult to buy the necessary educational materials for their children.
For the purpose of this study,
ezewu’s indices will be used but the occupation and income would be together as
it is not generally easy to separate both in Nigeria. One can find a wealthy Nigeria who is
a timber magnate, painter, roadside mechanic or musician. Also there are some
Alhajis and Alhaja who are contractors and business tycoons. These people may
have little or no education but they could be in high socio-economic class if
it is used to classify them while a school certificate holder a fresh grade II
or N.C.E graduate in the government employment whose income is not up to what
it should be per annum may find himself in the low socio-economic class. It is
becoming increasingly apparent that well educated people are able to ensure by
their wealth and their ability to understand and manipulate the school system
that their children receive a good or a better education than themselves and
that they will constitute the educated alite of coming generation. Conversely,
the urban workers has the least chance of any social category that his son will
enter secondary school. An open society is rapidly closing (Lioyd 1964).
Jenneth Blakmore and Brain Cooksey
(1978) also observed that school in Africa
serve contradictory purpose. On one hand, they allow a few children from modest
background to achieve varying degrees of upward social mobility and on another
hand, they help to perpetrate and deepen general social inequalities between
the privileged and unprivileged classes. Thus, we can say that although
education does contribute to social mobility in Nigeria, it is also increasingly
becoming a vehicle that is helping to deepen the already existing high level of
social inequality.
However, series of attestation have
been made by scholars concerning the important of school in student’s lives, weather
they come from high school socio-economic class or not. It is believed that the
school handle the secondary socialization while the family is in charge of the
primary socialization (Abimbola, 1990).
Significance of the Study
The motive behind this research was
to enlighten the people about problems created by inequality in parental status
of student in our society. This study will acquaint people with this
educational and social problem and invariably furnish than with their social
responsibilities.
As for the government, it is hoped
that this study will help the government to be aware of this of this
sociological problem and be able to know where to concentrate in term of
supplementing the efforts of the parents for instance the government can help
to provide books for students whose parental background is not as sound as
their contemporaries which will also improve the quality of students academic
performance in chemistry.
The findings of this study will also
be very useful to both education and educational management. It will also be
useful in the area of future plans for the learning of chemistry. To a large
extent, a conducive atmosphere will also be useful in teaching chemistry. This
study will be useful to the future researchers who may wish to find out the
causes of failure and inequality in the performance of student. This study also
encourage the teachers to gain an in sight into the social factors influencing
students’ achievement and ways by which he can combate them.
Limitation of the Study
During the period of this study,
secondary school teachers were not ready to work in Ondo State,
this is because they had axe to grind with the government. As a result the
study was only limited to only Ekiti
State whose teachers and
students cooperated.
Delimitation of the Study
The study was limited to five schools
in Ekiti State, due to the financial constraint
and lack of much time to travel to a long distance.
Definition of Terms
Academic Achievement: Academic achievement in the context of this study will be defined
operationally as the pupil performance in terms of their grades or scores in
the achievement test given by the researcher.
Socio-Economics:
This means the socio-economic status. It is defined in this study as the
position occupied in the society by a family determined by the amount of the
society’s economy (wealth0 that such an individual or family possesses.
Status: The
oxford dictionary defines status as the social position, rank or relation to
the others position of affairs person’s relation to others as fixed by law. But
for the purpose of this study status will be defined as the social position of
an individual in the society.
Class:
According to the oxford English Dictionary and Longman Dictionary of
contemporary English, class is often used for a set of students taught together
or doing the same course in the same year. However, for the study class will be
used as rank or high or low social position occupied by an individual in the
society.
Socio-Economic Background (S.E.B): The Oxford Dictionary defines “Background” as scenery or
ground behind something. But socio-economic Background in the content of this
study, borrowing from Dubey (1979), may means one or two things. It may be
refer to as hereditary factors, that is the genetic characteristics within an
individual which either inhibit or facilitate his ability to learn, factors
which limit the potentials of an individual. The second meaning refers to the
social background of an individual encountered for by the people around him and
his general environment.
Society: This
is the set up surrounding the student the kind of people that constitute the
students environment.
Hypothesis: These
are hunches or guesses put forwards by the researcher in order to solve the
problem posed in the study.
Data:
Information
Study: The
research
Inequality:
This means the in balance in the various achievement and also the differences
in parental background.
Income: This
is the amount of money that are derive from one’s occupation within a period of
one year.
Researcher:
This is the person who is involves or undertake the study.
Socio-Economic background Questionnaire: This is refer to as the instrument used in
determining the social and economic background of the students.
Chemistry achievement Test: This chemistry achievement test refers to the set of thirty
questions in chemistry used in determining the achievement of the student.
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND AND THEIR ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY

ABSTRACT
This project examines the role of
gender in Community Development in Akoko North West Local government area with
special reference to Ajowa Akoko Community.
The study focuses on the duties of
men, women and youths in the Development of their communities particularly
Ajowa in Akoko North West Local Government.
In addition the factors affecting
rural Development e.g. land, rural urban drift and Education are also
considered in the project research work as well as the importance of rural
populace, force, labour, social values and norms.
This project among others discovered
the following.
That both men and women the youth as
well as adults play significant role in the development of Ajowa Akoko.
Men for examples are involved in
initiating and financing of viable projects such as building of town halls,
market stalls, grading and clearing of road.
On the other hands the women folk
assist in providing labour during any communal work.  They are also involved in assisting the men
folk in other areas where their assistance may be needed.
Finally recommendation of how to encourage
community project work and to develop Ajowa community is proffered in the
project and some suggestions for further researches.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                              
Approval page                                                                       
Dedication                                                                             
Acknowledgement                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                
Table of contents                                                                    
CHAPTER ONE
1.0           
Introduction
                                                                 
1.1           
Background
to the study                                                        
1.2           
 Statement of the Problem                                            
1.3           
Purpose
of the study                                                    
1.4           
Significance
of the study                                                        
1.5           
Research
questions                                                       
1.6           
Scope
of the study                                                                  
1.7           
Limitation
of the study                                                 
1.8           
Definition
of terms                                                                 
 CHAPTER TWO
2.0           
Review
of Literature                                                     
2.1     History
of Community Development                                     
2.2     Brazil                                                                                      
2.3     The
Republic of Korea                                                  
2.4     Nigeria                                                                         
2.5     Community
Development                                           
2.6     A
Rural Community                                                    
2.7     Development                                                                
2.8     Importance
of a Rural Community                               
2.9     Community
Development                                             
CHAPTER THREE
3.0           
Methodology
                                                              
3.1           
Research
Design                                                        
3.2           
Population
                                                                   
3.3           
Sample
                                                                         
3.4           
Sampling
Techniques                                                    
3.5           
Instrument
for data collection                                       
3.6           
Administration
of instrument                                       
3.7           
Method
of data Collection                                            
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0           
Analysis
of Data and Finding                                       
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0           
Summary,
Conclusion and Recommendation               
5.1           
Summary                                                                   
5.2           
Conclusion                                                                    
5.3           
Recommendation                                                          
5.4           
Suggestion
for further Research or study                    
REFERENCE                                                               
APPENDIX                                                                  



CHAPTER ONE
1.0           
Introduction
1.1           
Background to the study
This study will focus on the duties
of men, women and youths in the development of their communities.  Development is defined by A Grandar Frank as
a set of inter dependent process through which a traditional social structure
is transformed into a modern social structure is through most recently the idea
the new born independent countries of the thoird world more so development
according to Walter Rodney, is the development of both the individual and the
society.  At the individual level, it
means increased skill and more freedom, creativity, self – discipline,
responsibility and material well being. 
At society level, member and the various groups efforts and increased
capacity for sub – due their environment by practicing the law of nature
(science) which could only be manifested by the use of technology and proper
organization.  Hence, the national
development plan (1970 – 1974) defined development as a situation in which an
average Nigerian should be able to have similar opportunity, to help realize
his potentials and development his full personality.  More so develop structure, behaviour and
institution as well as fast economic growth. 
Also eradicate inequality total poverty. 
From the following definition we could deduce that, they have been
continuous development in the human society from the beginning of man’s life
here on earth.  Man has increased his
capacity of skills for subdue his environment since the beginning of
civilization.  He has out growth the age
of stone to metal and from hunting/gathering of wild fruits to agriculture and
domestic games.  He has also improved
from individual organized frame work that assume social behaviour by mutual
participation individual growth and development therefore plays a major role in
rural development.
1.2           
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study is to
identify the duties of men, women and youths in the development of their
communities.  Many at time, community
leaders tend to ignore the care rights are be backbone of every community.  As society can only carry out their roles
effectively and exposed to implement such skills.  The African continent compared to others is
one of the richest in the world.  Nigeria
as a nation is immensely rich and Ondo State is very much blessed: What
therefore could be the cause of the slow pace of growth and development in the
rural areas and Akoko North West local Government (Oke – Agbe).  How could localities be checked and the
suggested measures for enhance, growth and total development
1.3           
Purpose of the study
The study is carried out, to find
i.                       
The
importance of vocational training/Educational trade in a community.
ii.                       
The
importance of rural populace force, labour, social values and norms.
iii.                       
The
factors affecting rural development e.g. land, rural – urban drift and
Education.
iv.                       
The
response of parents to the present system of (vocational) Education 6 – 3 – 3 –
4 and how it affects development and growth on the individual level and society
at large.
1.4           
Significance of the study
Men, women and youths in rural areas
completely lacking the importance of their functions in the growth an
development of their village.  These will
be able to adjust and participate actively in the development of their
communities by using the force of modernization against the habits, institution
the values and compound interest build up into the society structure in order
to enhance industrial revolution.  It is
often said that what a man can do a women can do it better.  To ascertain this fact, the contribution of
gender to community development will prove this ascertion.  Also, the contribution of men, women and
youth in community development in Akoko North West local government can be
generalize to other local government in the state.  Again, the research will reveal the
contribution of gender to community development so as to checkmate the rural urban
drift.
1.5           
Research Questions
The following research questions
shall be used for this study.
a)                
What
is the role of a man in his community?
b)               
Of
what use is vocational training/trade in a community?
c)                
What
are the importance of rural population, work force, labour social values and
norms to rural society?
d)               
What
are the factors affecting community development?
e)                
What
is the response of parents in rural communities to the present system of
education?
f)                 
What
are the duties of men, women and youth in community development?
1.6           
Scope of the study
In the course of this research study,
we will find out.
i.                  
The
role of men, women and youth in community development
ii.                
The
importance of vocational training or educational trade in a community.
iii.             
The
factors affecting rural development e.g. land, rural – urban drift and
Education.
iv.             
The
response of parents to the present system of (vocational) Education the topic
shall be limited to Ondo State with particular reference to Akoko North West
local government area, Ajowa Akoko village.
1.7           
Limitation to the study
The process of this study time was
identified as a hindrance, as it was not for an exhaustive research another
factor limited the research work was finance and factor and transportation.
1.8           
Definition of Terms
a)                
Role: the role function or duty that a
person is expected to perform.
b)               
Gender: Gender is the condition state,
quality or classification of being male, and female.
c)                
Community: A community is a group of people
leaving or cohabiting in place having the same interest.
d)               
Development: Development is the total changes
that takes place in a society.  In other
words the interdependent process through which a traditional social structure
is transformed into a modern social structure.
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