THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF SCHOOL BULLYING AMONG ADOLESCENT SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF SCHOOL BULLYING AMONG ADOLESCENT SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
ABSTRACT
The study investigates the nature and extent of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. Simple random techniques were used to collect data from three hundred respondents. The instrument for the study was a 28-items, self developed close ended structured questionnaire. A test-retest method was employed to ascertain the reliability of the instrument using Pearson product moment correlation. A coefficient (r) value of 1.00 was obtained. The demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and simple percentage while Chi-square (X2) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The results revealed that physical, emotional, cyber and sexual bullying will significantly be the forms of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ikere Ekiti. While verbal bully will not significantly be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state.  Lastly, the finding affirmed that school bullying will not significantly be very common among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ikere Ekiti. The researcher recommended that the school and parents should work collaboratively to instill good values in their children & students among others
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents                                                                                                                                 Pages
COVER PAGE
TITLE PAGE
APPROVAL PAGE
CERTIFICATION PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF APPENDICES
ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Research questions
Hypotheses                                                                                                                             8
Assumptions of the study
CHAPTER II- REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual framework
Theoretical framework
Review of related empirical studies

  • Concept of school bullying
  • Prevalence of bullying in school
  • History of school bullying
  • Types of school bullying
  • Short term and long term effects of bullying
  • Common myths/ misconceptions about school bullying
  • Strategies to reduce school bullying

Summary of Literature Reviewed
CHAPTER III- METHODOLOGY
Research design
Area of the study
Sample and sampling technique (s)
Instruments for data collection
Validation of the instrument
Reliability of the study
Administration of the instrument
Data analysis of the techniques
CHAPTER IV- PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS
CHAPTER V- DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Results
Summary of the study
Conclusions                                                                                                                             54
Implication of the study
Recommendations                                                                                                                  56
Limitation of the study
Suggestions for further research studies
REFERENCES

APPENDICES

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
In the past three decades, school bullying gained increased attention in the united state of America (USA) due to media attention on homicide and suicide case where bullying was appreciating factors. A report by the USA secret service (2007) investigated characteristic of students involved in school shooting two-third involved attacked or injured by other prior to the incident while two-third of the cases did not directly involve school bullying, “a number of the attacking had experienced bullying and harassment that was longstanding and severe. In those cases, the experience of bullying appeared to play a major role in motivating the attack at the school while pioneering research on school bullying came from Scandinavian countries only recently have USA researchers begins
investigating the problem. A death of literature from USA has examined the extent and intricacies of school bullying.
The USA secret service (2007), says the nature of school bullying provides unique world-wide perspective on how different countries have conceptualized on the issue of school bullying, what information has been gathered, and what intervention have been carried out. Written and complied by well know expects in the field, it provides a concise summary of the current state of knowledge of school bullying.
Studies have established that approximately 15% of students are either bullied regularly or are initiators or insulting someone while psychological bullying refers to the use of peer rejection or exclusion to humiliate or isolate a victim (Moris, 2008). Teacher consider bullying as part of the development in the growth of children and some believe that bullying will better prepare oneself for life by toughening a kid up (Maliki, 2009).
The USA secret & service (2007), indicate that Bullying in school is a world wide problems that can have negative consequences for the genial school climate and for the right of student to learn in safe environment without fear. Bullying can also have negative lifelong consequences both for students who bully and for the victims. Although much of the formal research on bullying has taken place in the Scandinavian countries, Great Britain and Japan, the problems associated with bullying have been noted and discussed wherever formal schooling environment exists.
Bullying is comprised of direct behavior such as teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting and stealing that are initiated by one or more students against a victim. In addition to direct attacks, bullying may also be more indirect by causing a student to be socially isolated through intentional exclusion.
South Africa’s post apartheid society is founded on a respect for human respect. South Africa’s bill of right to be free from all the forms of violence, on the part of either the government or other source, not to be tortured in any way, and not to be treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading way specifically for the education sector. Also blind schools. The national education policy of bullying behavior.
The USA secret service (2007) says, that direct bullying seems to increase through, the elementary years, peak in the middle school/junior high school years, and decline during the high school years however, while direct physical assault seems to decrease with age, verbal abuse appears to remain constant and school setting (rural, sub urban, or urban)  do not seem to be distinguishing factor in predicting the occurrence of bullying, finally boy engage in bullying behavior and are victims of bullies more frequently than girls.
Bullying is the most common form of violence in schools studies show that this violence make school unsafe places for children and has contributed to the perception that some school are not safe anymore (Maliki, 2009). It is also bullying when a student is teased repeatedly in a way he or she does not like. But it is not a bullying when two students about the same strength quarrel or fight (Omotoso, 2010) Bullying is a common problem that is gradually increasing in every part of the society and in schools. Incidents on bullying have always come to occur from time to time and they have negative impacts especially on students academic, emotional and social development during the school period and some involve a gradual increase of violence that leads to some fatalities (Kartal, 2009). Moris 2008 claims that, bullying is not only a case of school children bullying their peers, teachers are also involved either as victims or as bullies. Physical bullying involve physical injury or threat of injury to someone, verbal bullying refers to teasing act require the department of education, school and school authorities to create are enabling education system that support the full personal development of each learners, and contribute to the moral, social cultural, political and economic development of the nation at large. It emphasizes the advancement of democracy, human rights and the peaceful resolution of dispute.
According to Fajoju (2009) says, in Nigeria today the attitude of parents, educators and policy makers toward bullying are changing and it is no longer accepted as a part of a normal childhood experience. Bullying is now considered a maker towards a serious or violent behavior and information on how to effectively respond to bullying is not readily available of much concern is that thousands of children are afraid of going to school because of teasing and of proffer harassment. It is in the light of the above researcher has deceived to embark upon this study in order to proffer solution that might be of help to all stakeholder of education in the country.
In reality, other factors are more important certain personality characteristic and typical reaction patterns, combined with the level of physical strength or weakness in the case of boys, can help to explain the development of bullying problem in individual students. Therefore, students affected by bullying will be at a risk of developing depression, anxiety, loneliness, mistrust of others, low self-esteem, poor social adjustment, poor academic achievement and a poor health as compared to others. Additionally, the bully may intimidate the victim by initiating act such as name-calling, teasing, pushing or shoving and using physical dominance for intimidation (Fajoju, 2009)
In Ikere Ekiti local government area, the rate of school bully is increasing at amazing rate. Hence this prompted the researcher to investigate the extent to school bullying among adolescent secondary student in Ikere local government of Ekiti State.
Statement of the problem
The opinion of parents in both urban and rural in Ekiti State has been observed, most parents and students feel. Those secondary schools students are stressed and frustrated due to overcrowleled classroom, poverty and to some the tightened time table, poor training all school, poor sanitary conditions. However, most secondary school teachers lack knowledge on the alternative ways of punishing students when has contributed to the nature and extent of bullying.
Students have inadequate knowledge on the proper classroom order of management; effective management of discipline, children rights, healthy child development, how children learn and other factors that may cause learners fails to catch up.
Majority of secondary school students in Ikere have poor understanding and they are involved in bullying behavior because of poor training. Unfortunately their attitude towards bullying have not directly given variation in approach. It is on this concern that the researcher attempted to investigate the nature and extent of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere Ekiti State.
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is to determine:
The nature and extent of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
Specifically, this study will be set to examine the following:

  1. If physical nature is a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state.
  2. Whether emotional nature is a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government of Ekiti state.
  3. If verbal nature is a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government of Ekiti state
  4. Whether cyber nature is a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state.
  5. If sexual nature is a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government of Ekiti state.
  6. Whether homophobic nature is a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government of Ekiti state.
  7. If school bullying is very common among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state.

Significance of the study
The research work has potential benefits. In the first place, it will help to enlighten the ministry of education, government official assignment in the school and community which are in needs to understand the bullying behaviors. Also, this research work will provide greater insight to the school administrator on the factors that contribute to school bullying among secondary students. Teachers in secondary school students.
Furthermore, schools will benefit through seminars on bullying behavior to student academic performance through which they could impact positively into their children and students in secondary schools.
This work could be as well being of benefit to community members by broadening their horizon, on school bullying. Also, students will benefit from the study as they will be exposing to become control their bullying behavior.
Scope of the study
The study will be limited to the following. The nature and extent of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students of Ikere local government area of Ekiti State
The study covers all secondary school students in Ikere –Ekiti. Local government of Ekiti state will be used as respondent, self –developed structured questionnaire will be use as instrument for data collection
The research involved two (2) trained research assistant who will b1We trained by the researcher.
The research will involve the independent variable of type of bullying which include, physical bullying, emotional bullying, verbal bullying, cyber bullying, sexual bullying and extent of school bulling. It will also involve dependent variable of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere –Ekiti Local government area of Ekiti state. The analysis of data will be done using descriptive statistics of frequency counts, mean, median, mode and percentage for demography data and influential statistics of chi-square (X2) will be used for the research variables.
Research Questions
In an attempt to carry out this study, answers will be provided to the following research questions.

  1. Will physical nature be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government of Ekiti State?
  2. Can emotional nature be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government of Ekiti State?
  3. Can verbal be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State?
  4. Will cyber nature be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government of Ekiti state?
  5. Will sexual nature be a from of school bullying among adolescent secondary students in Ikere local government of Ekiti state?
  6. Can school bullying be very common among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government of Ekiti state?

Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested for the purpose of the study.

  1. Physical nature will not significantly be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state.
  2. Emotional nature will net significantly be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state.
  3. Verbal nature will not significantly be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state.
  4. Cyber nature will not significantly be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti state
  5. Sexual nature will not significantly be a form of school bullying among adolescent secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti.

Assumptions of the study
The researcher assumes that bullying behavior attitude of secondary school students and the nature of bullying of each of the secondary schools is very common in Ikere Ekiti local government area of Ekiti state, a lot of work has not been done by previous researchers as literature violence are scanty. The researcher therefore intends to look into this during the course of the study.
 
 
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