THE INFLUENCE OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN FOCUS)

THE INFLUENCE OF USING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING BUSINESS
STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
(IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN FOCUS)
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 CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study
The teaching profession
over a decade has been faced with many challenges in Nigeria with negative
impact on the quality of education and the status of the Nigerian teachers. The
most single critical element in the education process is the teacher who plans,
organizes, designs, directs, motivates and inspires others to learn using
standard teaching techniques to impart knowledge.
Teaching according to
Adeola (2011) citing Oyedeji (1998) is the  process of imparting in the students’
knowledge, skills and attitude in order to bring about a desirable change in learners.
Knapper and Wright (2001) posit that teachers are the hub of the educational
system. Teachers are the most important factor in students learning next to
students themselves. As a result, the pre-eminence of teachers, the application
of pedagogical knowledge into classroom oriented plan of actions constitute
most essential fabric upon which the success of the school, its administration
and the entire education system rest upon. Education can change one’s culture
of learning, mind-set and orientation to values.
          Effective
teaching of any subject will not only stimulate student’s interest in the
subject but also enhance their achievement in the examination. To achieve
effective teaching and learning process, there is the need for use of
instructional materials.       This study
is carried out to examine the influence of using instructional materials in
teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools, and their academic
achievement.  instructional materials
have some inherent advantages that make teacher unique in teaching. They provide
the teacher with interesting and compelling platform for conveying information
since they motivate learning to develop interest in learning process.
Teaching
at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation.
Adekunle (2008) in Dr. (Mrs.) E. O. Okobia (2011) noted that teaching resources
means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning.
When the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one,
they can learn faster and easier.
According
to Nwafor. C.E. and Eze, S.O (2014) instructional materials refer to materials
that are used to facilitate teaching and learning. It enables the teacher
communicate ideas or concepts with ease as they appeal to many senses at a
time. The learner can see, touch, smell or taste thereby making learning more
meaningful. This agrees with the Chinese proverb that state: I hear, I forget,
I see, I remember, and I do, I understand.
The
use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and
compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to
learn more. Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical
difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given
topic.
Larson
(2001) quoted Lane (1994) who noted that the use of electronically mediated
instruction to duplicate the traditional face to face classroom has resulted in
a shift from teacher- to student-centred classes. In this situation the
responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates
the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide and companion in learning.
The use of instructional materials does not only encourage teachers and
students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning
activities among the students. Ikerionwu (2000) refers to instructional
materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning
meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe (1994) classified them into two
as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading materials and
audio-visual materials comprising electrically operated and non-electrically
operated materials. Business studies is a subject that depends on the use of a
number of resources.
Osakwe
and Itedjere (1993) summarized these resources as textual like books,
audio-visual and human resources. They stated that these resources are either
used individually or collectively in any meaningful teaching and learning
situation. The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of
education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. Incorporating
these tools and materials present, support and reinforces teaching. According
to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including
audio tape recorders, video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque
projectors, over-head projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction,
filmstrips, maps, chart, graphs and many more offer a variety of learning
experiences individually or in combination to meet different teaching and learning
experiences.
Other
investigators including Jimoh (2009), Yeager (2000), Nwanyanwu (1999), Bozimo
(1992) and Ogbondah (2008) have similarly emphasized the importance of
instructional materials and resources in the effective delivery of business
studies lessons in secondary schools. These views have been corroborated by
international investigators including Bolick, Berson, Coutts and Heinecke
(2003), Killen (2006), Dahar and Faize (2011). Bolick, Berson, Coutts and
Heinecke (2003) observed that while some educators are fascinated by the
potential of instructional materials in enhancing teaching and learning, other
teachers lagged behind in using instructional materials to teach. However,
achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional
materials and resources in business studies teaching and learning has been very
challenging in developing countries such as Nigeria. As noted by Garuba (2003),
the Nigerian teacher operates from a deficient environment where teaching and
learning is seriously impoverished particularly in the rural set up. And even
in the urban areas only few schools are connected to the national grid while
virtually all the rural schools do not enjoy basic facilities like pipe borne
water and electricity.
Instructional
materials are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information
to students in the educational process (Bradley et al. 2005). Among these items
are textbooks, charts, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recordings, slides,
transparencies and many more. The use of instructional materials in secondary
schools has been widely researched and the findings indicate that the benefits
of using them are immense. The integration of instructional materials in
classroom practice is believed to bolster the quality of instruction by
fostering student-centred pedagogies (Abdo and Semela 2010). Furthermore,
according to Mateer et al. (2012) the use of relevant instructional media in
the classroom is invaluable since it engages students, aids their retention of
knowledge, motivates interest in the subject matter and helps to illustrate the
relevance of many concepts taught.
Statement
of the Problem
Since
the inception of the National Junior Secondary School Business Studies
Curriculum in Nigeria, few studies have been devoted to evaluating the
availability and utilization of instructional materials and resources in the
teaching of business studies in the Junior Secondary Schools of Nigeria. At the
threshold of the new millennium, business studies teachers face both old and new
challenges and need to evolve strategies to engage learners in activities that
are active, meaningful and challenging.
It
has been said that instructional materials has objects or devices which help
the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. According to Bradley
et al. (2005), instructional materials are print and non-print items that are
designed to impart information to students in the educational process. Also,
according Chew (2008), teaching and learning in business education could be enhanced
to a great extent by using instructional resources based on local contexts,
because such resources would be more authentic and more relevant to students’
needs.
          The
use of instructional materials in teaching Business studies in Junior secondary
schools is not encouraging.
          As
a result, it makes the morale and interest of the students in Business studies
low. Teachers adopt the verbalistic and theoretical method as a way of teaching
and learning the subject. Non-availability of instructional materials in
schools.
          To
what extent does the use of instructional materials effect learning and
students achievement in Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools.
Purpose
of the Study
          The
main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using instructional
materials in teaching business studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Ikere
Local Government in Ekiti State which are:
        
To investigate the extent of the
availability of instructional materials in teaching business studies in school
        
To investigate whether the availability
of instructional materials in schools are effectively used
        
To examine the factors that militate
against the procurement of instructional materials for teaching and learning of
Business studies in schools
        
To investigate the attitudes of schools
administrator and the teacher towards the provision and utilization of
instructional materials in teaching business studies
Significance
of the Study
          This
is centred on the importance as it would provide an index in the contribution of
instructional materials to the attainment of the national policy on education
objectives as it relates to Business studies.
          More
specifically, it will also reveal some specific areas covered where more is
required to be done in order to accomplish the slated objectives of junior
secondary education in respect of vocational subjects.
This
study will be useful to professionals, counsellors, teachers, students and
curriculum developers. It will enlighten them on the extent of use of
instructional materials in the teaching to learning of business studies and
even bring into awareness how important it is to both the teachers’ teaching
effectiveness and the students’ academic performance.
Scope
of the Study
          This
study examine the impact of using instructional materials in teaching Business
studies in junior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti
State
Research
Questions
          To
what extend are instructional material available in teaching business studies   in
———- local government
        
What are the factors  militating against the procurement of
instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Business studies
in schools
        
What are the  attitudes of schools administrator and the
teacher towards the provision and utilization of instructional materials in
teaching business studies
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