THE INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PROGRAMME ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BENUE STATE. A CASE STUDY OF AGATU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

THE INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PROGRAMME ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BENUE STATE. A CASE STUDY OF AGATU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
ABSTRACT
A guidance and counselling programme in a
school assist students to harmonize their abilities, interests and values and
thereby develop their full potential. All this is geared towards improving the
self-image of the students and facilitating better achievement in academic
performance. This study sought to establish the influence of guidance and
counselling programme on academic performance of secondary school students in
Agatu local government area of Benue State. A random sample of 196 students,
ten teacher counsellors and ten head teachers were selected from the five
schools. Data were collected through administration of questionnaires with the
selected respondents. The collected data were then processed and analyzed using
descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for
Social Science (SPSS) version 16 for windows. The study established the
following findings: Secondary schools in the study area differed in the number
of guidance and counseling services that they had implemented. Teacher
counsellors had little training in guidance and counselling. Stakeholders
adequately supported guidance and counselling programme in the schools.
Students were aware of the role and importance of career counselling in their
schools. There was poor academic performance among students. Guidance and
counselling programme has a positive impact on the academic performance of
students. Based on these study findings, the following recommendations were
made: There is need for the teacher counsellors to implement all the services
required for a guidance and counselling programme. There is need to improve the
level of training of teacher counsellors in guidance and counselling. Teacher
counsellors should take advantage of the positive attitude of the students to
enhance career counselling in their schools. Guidance and counselling programme
should be strengthened in order to improve the academic performance of
secondary schools in the area.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                                       i
Certification                                                                                                  ii
Approval page                                                                                              iii
Dedication                                                                                                     iv
Acknowledgements                                                                                     v
Abstract                    
                                                                                   vii      
Table of contents                                                                                         viii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background Information                                                                                        
Statement of the Problem                                                                                       
Objective of the Study                                                                                         
Research Questions                                                                                             
 Significance of the Study                                                                                   
The Scope of the Study                                                                                    
Assumptions of the Study                                                                                      
Definition of Terms                                                                                                           
 CHAPTER
TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction                                                                                                            
Genesis of Guidance and Counselling                                                                 
Role of Guidance and Counselling in Secondary
Schools                              
An Effective Guidance and Counselling
Programme in Secondary Schools
Causes of Poor Academic Performance in
Schools                                           
Theoretical Framework                                                                                        
Conceptual Framework                                                                                          
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                                                      
Area of the Study                                                                                                   
Population of Study                                                                                             
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                                             Instrumentation for data
collection                                                                
Validation of the instrument                                                                                 
Validation of the Instrument                                                                                 
Administration of the instrument                                                                     
Data Analysis                                                                                                      
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION                                          
CHAPTER
FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction                                                                                                              
 Summary of the Findings                                                                                  
Conclusion                                                                                                               
Recommendations                                                                                                  
Suggestions for Further
Research                                                                         
References
                                                                                                             
Appendices                                                                                                              
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
 Background to the
study
Guidance and counselling are two
closely interrelated concepts and each determines the availability and
efficient of the other. According to Makinde (2004) and Patterson (2007),
“guidance” refers to a abroad area of all educational activities and services
aimed at assisting individual students to understand themselves and adjust to
school life. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education (1977) considers guidance as a
continuing process concerned with determining and providing for the
developmental needs of „learners‟. Mutie and Ndambuki (1999) defines
“counselling” as a learning-oriented process which usually occurs in an
interactive relationship with the aim of helping the client learn more about
him/herself. Guidance and counselling is therefore aimed at bringing about
maximum development and self-realization of human potential for the benefit of
the individual and the society. In a school, the programme assists students in
harmonizing their abilities, interests and values and enables them to develop
their full potential. It directs students on appropriate career and subject
choices; solving discipline, education, social and psychological problems; and
general adjustment to school life (Gerardo, 2006).

According
to Gururani,G.D. (2006,p-1) Guidance is commonly understood as leadership,
instruction or direction. Counseling may also be taken as a psychological
process of helping an individual to achieve his self-direction,
self-understanding and mental balance necessary to make the maximum adjustment
to the school, home and society. Bhatnagar & Gupta (1999) view guidance as
a process of helping individuals to find solutions of their problems. They
further say that guidance is an integral part of education; a continuous
service; both generalized and specialized service, for the “whole” child and is
not confined only to some specific aspects of his personality. Guidance and
counseling has been conceptualized as a programme of activities which has
provided us with the gateway out of the existing numerous problems in our
present age of complex scientific and technological development (Okobiah and
Okorodudu 2004). The country like Pakistan wherein the literacy level is
already falling below the desired level as well as drop out ratio is alarming,
an optimistic scenario could be arisen by applying guidance and counseling
techniques to improve the academic performances of the students. Olayinka
(1996) and Yahaya (2003) view that passing examination to secure certificates either
for admission into higher institution or secure good jobs is the main goal of
education to many people and not the acquisition of knowledge and skills
through studying. Many students perform poorly because they lack the right
attitude to study and do not have the right orientation from home and from the
society (Obilade, 1987; Ladipo, 2000; Eweniyi, 2002). The attitudes of human
beings play significant role in their behaviours. The study of human habits and
attitudes is relevant and essential to counseling, as it can help in the
understanding of the rationale for their behaviour and provides basis for
prediction and assistance. Abiri (1996) argued that if the society is not to be
plaque by a band/group of disgruntled, frustrated and unrealistic individuals,
it is desirable that adequate guidance and counseling and career information be
provided, to enable the school and society arrive at a realistic vocational
choice for their children/wards with due realization of their potentialities.
Akpama (2005) perceive that the issue of sex and academic performance has
attracted reports while some propose that males perform better than females in
academics, others argue that the reverse is the case, and still another group
says that the difference in performance between the two is insignificant.
Guidance services are presented by Nwachukwu (2007) as information services,
placement services, appraisal services, vocational guidance services,
counseling services, referral services, evaluation, follow-up, consultancy and
research services. As a vital component of any type and any level of education
the absence of non utilization of these services in the present day school
system has led to the unprecedented rise in the crime wave, violence among
students, fuelled cultism, wrong career choice, and wrong subject combination
among other issues.

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