This work focuses on the Niger delta crisis in Nigeria political development and it will also define the basic catalyst underlying the crises in Niger delta area. The various causes will be painted out and analysed. The study also exposed itself to the effect of crises as it may affect the political development of Nigeria nation.in chapter two which is the literature review and the conceptual analysis will talk various definitions of some scholars on high delta crisis. Furthermore, the work will touch some of the causes if the Niger delta crisis the federal constitution of 1960 which did not focused the Niger delta people. And also the implication on the unity among their ethnic nationalities i.e. the exploration of oil in the Niger delta area. Finally, I have be able to trace the origin of the Nigeria civil war to oil syndrome. The work will at the sometime recommend some systemic ways see that the Niger delta crisis must be solve locally. And the government should work with the local people of Niger delta to put in place a new constitutional compact transform them.
1.1. Background of Study
Over the years there are always be a crisis in Niger delta area of Nigeria. The said Niger delta area of Nigeria. Niger delta area which comprises seven state of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, cross river, delta Edo River and Ondo could equally be term hot one or region. The fact is it unconnected with the level of exploitation and total neglect that have long is experienced by the inhabitant of the area. The iron of the matter is that this is said to be the fountain of the Nigeria economy since there has been a shift from the agricultural sector of the economy and hence Nigeria now depends on petroleum for her living despite the above fact these area have long suffered total neglect in term of health services deliver education and other infrastructural facilities.
Fundamental to the story of crude oil exploitation in Nigeria is the state of the environment in the creeks. The nature of on- going damage to the environment is usually captured by the movement for the survival of Ogoni people (MOSOP) an organization that has one more than any situation.
The reluctant of the Nigeria state to recognize and protect the environment apparently informed the view of the movement for the survival of Ogoni people (MESOP) among others that the state is only wagging a determined ecological war on the people of the war bearing state.
There are many tribes that constitute the Niger delta through the most pronounced one are the yaws and Iteseliris. These tribes always threaten to secede from Nigeria to Niger delta republic. They have often shut down most oil flow station in Warri only a few if not all companies operations are usually in a state of common at these various crisis periods.
The facts are that the Niger delta crisis has always threatens the cooperation existence of Nigeria. An environment a list in Warri one time said the most Itesekiri communities are devastated pointed out that are homes are being destroyed our people are being killed in the name local government creation and location of its head- quarters we believe there is more to it why we are being killed.
The Niger delta crisis in Nigeria could best be explained or understand using conflict and crises theory according to Sidney verbal exist when re- institutionalization within a performance area is needed.
It is also necessary turning point a crucial movement when development must move one way or the other marshalling resources of growth, recovery and further differentiation. Conflict on the other hand refers to a process a struggle over status power and scare resources in which in the aim of the opponent are to neutralize inure or eliminate. This introduction will enable us to have much insight into understanding of the problems, the causes and possible solution to the delta state crisis.
The conflict and crisis theory as regarded this study will make the analysis accurate and correct since theory enable one to prepared a universal base on background for a concept or statement for universal application and acceptability.
The examination of the linkage between the twin concept of conflict and crisis is germane here as this would provide the necessary background against which forces or phenomenon could breed or easily call for conflict and crisis in a given situation.
The issue of marginalization and total neglect of the Niger delta area are always been associated with crisis. His has informed Remi his is inaugural speech in November 23, 2002. In Port Harcourt to note that it is evidently cleared that the government is not obvious of then problem in Niger delta whose people has suffered in the hands of the successive Nigeria government. He further noted m the root cause(s) of the problems and violence in the Niger delta is oil and lack of government and leader presence.
One will observe that major of Niger delta crisis has always be challant attitudes of the government and the trans- national cooperation in the area. Less attention is paid to the welfare of the communities in the region in spite of the huge resources being exploited in the area.
1.2 Statement of the problem
TheNiger delta communities have long been neglected exploited of course, marginalized. The assertion usually carries weight especially when we compare the attendant governmental activities in terms of survival delivery in the area of the health education and other infrastructures. People in Niger delta believe they can do better rightly or wrongly, that they product the nation wealth.
The people of the Niger delta felt that are not right and they have called the attention of the government to this sense of loss but those who should listen did not listen.
Various clashes arose between the communities and in which oil flow station especially in Warri are shutdown, workers are kidnapped and which definitely paralyses all business activities in the region and this has not been fair on the resources of the nation.
Ogoni is a waste land due to the four gases 35 year in very close proximity to human habitation. Over 100 oil wells in gardens a petrochemical complex two oils refineries a fertilizer plant and oil pipes lines.
The negative involvement of the government especially the past military regimes with specific focus on the Niger delta issues has always worsen the situation rather than relief. The killing of the activists which include the writer Kan saro wiwa, leader of the movement for survival of ogoni people (mosop) were done by the military government of late general Sani Abacha.
Sarowiwa and his group had comp lamed about the immoveable oil spills. Caused by the use of oil dared equipment and technology employed to maximise profit by multinational cooperation like the shell oil company which they claimed has destroy farm lands, stream and creets. As a result they said that the Ogoni fishermen have not only list their occupation but also there rich source of protein (ie) the mangrove which are the source of firewood and habitant for thrilling wealth of seafood such as olysters crabs mussels are now lost by the Ogoni people who make up about 500,000 of Nigeria’s 110 million population. The consequence is rising and instability in the polity with increasingly threats of possible breakdown of the Nigerian federations.
1.3 Objectives of the study
This research work tends to acknowledge the controversial of Niger Delta crisis in Nigeria. This piece of study will mark out the area as a crisis zone and tribes to look at the likely features that has made them to be unique compared to other region in Nigeria.
This study as stated above will look into the much deposited petroleum products in this region and how this has basic catalysts underlying the crisis in the Niger Delta Areas. The various causes will be pointed out and analyzed.
Also the sequential emergence of the crisis from one period of administration to the other would be observed. The various causes and time of events or dynamics underlying this crisis would be adequately examined. This study in a broader term will look into the effect of the crisis as it may affect the political development of the Nigerian nation. The likely implications of the Niger Delta crisis a evidenced and facts may have revealed would be critically pointed out analyzed.
1.4 Justification of the Study
This study on the Niger Delta crisis has become necessary as sit revolves around the core of the Nigerian Economy and it has got a lot to tell on the political development of the Nigeria polity.
The study, in view of the above is out to look into the problems facing the Niger Delta people and at the same time suggests alternative measures in solving these problem besides those one being taken by both government and the oil companies in the past.
The Niger Delta issue has attracted the newsmen in Asaba A’ccused the federal government for neglecting the oil producing Area and for failing to realize that most of the oil communities have difficult terrain hence the urgent for attention to be paid to such areas.
Many ideas like resources control is being clamouring by some states, onshore, offshore dichotomy bill being initiated by the Federal House of Assembly are products of the efforts put in place in order to put an end to the Niger Delta crisis.
The basic assumptions in the research work are as follows:
1. The Niger Delta area of Nigeria as a result of the large oil deposit in the area.
2. There has always been crisis in the area as a result of the total neglect of the area in spite of the above.
3. The political development or stability of the Nigeria nation may be if governments fail to attend to the problems and requests of the Niger Delta people.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work tends to look at causes and effect of the Niger Delta crisis as it affects the political stability and development of Nigeria nation.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The mode of fact collection in this work would be based on analysis of data collected form the relevant primary and secondary sources as well as oral interview of some of the inhabitant of the Niger Delta area.
The sensitivity of the crisis in Niger Delta has made data collection difficult as most newspapers and magazines are local ones from the area concerned and at times reflects biases of the Niger Delta people.
On the part of the government it becomes difficult to access the government activities in the area as most a claimed ones in the news media area more propaganda.
Even oral interview and information collection are often difficult because of the frequent clashes and crisis in the area.
In the real sense material are not easily accessible since no much book has been written on the issue in question. However, all these problem and limitation will be overcome by limiting the research study to the few available journal texts, magazines, news etc.
Also, participating approach to gathering information about the frequent occurrence of events in the area is useful.
1.7 Definition of Major Terms
The major concept used in this work need to be explained or defined for easy communication and clarity of purpose, some of these are: –
CONFLICT: – This refers to a process a struggle over status power and scare resources in which the aim of the opponents are to neutralize or injure.
CRISIS: – The term implies in this study a time of great difficulties, danger civil disorders and unrest in any political environment with serious consequence for the citizen in the real sense, material are not easily accessible since no much book has been written on he issue in question. Howver, all these problems and limitation will
POLITICAL INSTABILTY: – political instability is changes within a society which so not confirm to or proceeds from the rules governing organization process in the society. It also sees as a phenomenon that arises if there is a in constituency on inequality in the society.
POLITICAL VIOLENCE: – Can be seen as the preventing mode of allocation of he values authoritatively.
1.8 Organization of Chapters
This work focuses on the Niger Delta political development and it will also define the basic catalysts underlying the crisis in Niger Delta area. The various causes will be printed out and analyzed.
The chapter one exposed us to the effect of crisis at it may affect the political development of the Nigeria nation.
In chapter two which is the literature review and the conceptual analysis will talk about various definitions of some scholars on Niger Delta crisis.
Also, in chapter four is the implications of the Niger Delta crisis and the political development of unity among the ethnic nationalities and the implications of succession bid by the Niger Delta people in Nigeria.
Lastly in chapter five which is the last chapter study contain the summary, recommendation and the references.
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