**THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC**

PERFORMANCE AND LEARNING OUTCOME IN MATHEMATICS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

IN LAGOS STATE. A CASE STUDY OF AJEROMI

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

PERFORMANCE AND LEARNING OUTCOME IN MATHEMATICS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

IN LAGOS STATE. A CASE STUDY OF AJEROMI

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

**CHAPTER ONE**

**INTRODUCTION**

**Background to the study**

Mathematics

has the ability to confuse, frighten, and frustrate learners of all ages. If a

child has a negative experience in mathematics, that experience has the ability

to affect his/her attitude toward mathematics as an adult.

has the ability to confuse, frighten, and frustrate learners of all ages. If a

child has a negative experience in mathematics, that experience has the ability

to affect his/her attitude toward mathematics as an adult.

According

to Okereke [2011] stated that mathematics is the science of things that have a

pattern of regularity and logical order and finding and exploring the

regularity. Mathematics is the foundation of science and technology and the

functional role of mathematics to science and technology is multifarious, that

no area of science, technology and business enterprise escapes its application.

The importance of mathematics in the world cannot be over-emphasized. There is

a general consensus among educators, that mathematics is an important and

useful subject for development in every country. The use of mathematics has

been with man even before the introduction of formal education; Sambo [2012].

to Okereke [2011] stated that mathematics is the science of things that have a

pattern of regularity and logical order and finding and exploring the

regularity. Mathematics is the foundation of science and technology and the

functional role of mathematics to science and technology is multifarious, that

no area of science, technology and business enterprise escapes its application.

The importance of mathematics in the world cannot be over-emphasized. There is

a general consensus among educators, that mathematics is an important and

useful subject for development in every country. The use of mathematics has

been with man even before the introduction of formal education; Sambo [2012].

Besides its importance it is

observed that mathematics is one of the most poorly taught, widely hated and

abysmally understood subject in elementary schools. Students particularly girls

run away from the subject. He further attributed students’ poor performance to

factors such as the society view that mathematics is difficult, shortage of

qualified teachers, lack of mathematics laboratory and lack of attractiveness

and novelty in teaching method. The obvious question is whether students’ failure

to learn mathematics can be ascribed to problems of curriculum, problem of

teaching, or the student, or perhaps the combination of these; Carnine [2013].

There are many possible reasons as to why students fail in

observed that mathematics is one of the most poorly taught, widely hated and

abysmally understood subject in elementary schools. Students particularly girls

run away from the subject. He further attributed students’ poor performance to

factors such as the society view that mathematics is difficult, shortage of

qualified teachers, lack of mathematics laboratory and lack of attractiveness

and novelty in teaching method. The obvious question is whether students’ failure

to learn mathematics can be ascribed to problems of curriculum, problem of

teaching, or the student, or perhaps the combination of these; Carnine [2013].

There are many possible reasons as to why students fail in

mathematics. But most of the reasons

are related to curriculum and methods of teaching rather than the students’

lack of capacity to learn; Jones, Wilson & Bhaswani [2014].Various factors

have been adduced for poor performance of students in mathematics. The interest

of students in mathematics have been related to the volume of work completed,

students task orientation and skill acquisition, students personality, shortage

of qualified mathematics teachers, poor facilities, equipment and instructional

materials for effective teaching Odogwu [2015].

are related to curriculum and methods of teaching rather than the students’

lack of capacity to learn; Jones, Wilson & Bhaswani [2014].Various factors

have been adduced for poor performance of students in mathematics. The interest

of students in mathematics have been related to the volume of work completed,

students task orientation and skill acquisition, students personality, shortage

of qualified mathematics teachers, poor facilities, equipment and instructional

materials for effective teaching Odogwu [2015].

In making instruction interesting in

learning mathematics, there is need to use methods/strategies and

material/media which will make the learning of mathematics, active,

investigative and adventurous as much as possible. Such methods also must be

ones that take into account, learner’s differences and attitudes towards

mathematics as a subject. Examples could be the use of programmed learning

texts, use of concrete materials and other instructional devices, which are

manipulated.To enhance self-esteem of learners, which will in turn improve

attitude of such pupils, it is recommended that varying activities (game

activities), which has been designed to contain mathematics problems ranging

from easy to very difficult, should be used. This would go a long way to

motivate such pupils towards further learning. When an activity is designed

with its central feature being an admired situation, experience or individual,

it would go a long way in motivating, pupils to learn mathematics. For example,

in teaching addition at the primary school level, you could centre learning

activities around foods like snacks

(for example, I got two sweets from mummy and four from daddy how many sweet do

I have and so on). All these suggestions would help to motivate learners

towards learning. However, one strategy, which has been observed to bring about

motivation of learners to learn mathematics, is the use of game based strategy;

Aremu [2000].

learning mathematics, there is need to use methods/strategies and

material/media which will make the learning of mathematics, active,

investigative and adventurous as much as possible. Such methods also must be

ones that take into account, learner’s differences and attitudes towards

mathematics as a subject. Examples could be the use of programmed learning

texts, use of concrete materials and other instructional devices, which are

manipulated.To enhance self-esteem of learners, which will in turn improve

attitude of such pupils, it is recommended that varying activities (game

activities), which has been designed to contain mathematics problems ranging

from easy to very difficult, should be used. This would go a long way to

motivate such pupils towards further learning. When an activity is designed

with its central feature being an admired situation, experience or individual,

it would go a long way in motivating, pupils to learn mathematics. For example,

in teaching addition at the primary school level, you could centre learning

activities around foods like snacks

(for example, I got two sweets from mummy and four from daddy how many sweet do

I have and so on). All these suggestions would help to motivate learners

towards learning. However, one strategy, which has been observed to bring about

motivation of learners to learn mathematics, is the use of game based strategy;

Aremu [2000].

Moreover,

individual characteristics such as intelligence, cognitive styles, and

personality play an important role in learning and instruction as does the

context of learning. Other research findings have shown that individual

students’ characteristics variables such as motivational orientations,

self-esteem and learning approaches are important factors influencing academic

achievements. In the effort to improve students’ cognition and affective

outcomes in mathematics and school learning, mathematics educators have

continued to search for variables (personal and environmental) that could be

manipulated in favour of academic gains. Of all the personal and psychological

variables that have attracted researchers in this area of educational

achievement, motivation seems to be gaining more popularity and leading other

variables; Aire & Tella The issue of motivating learners is seen as an

important aspect of effective learning. In fact psychologists believe that

motivation is a necessary ingredient for learning; Biehler and Snowman [2010].

They believe that satisfactory school learning is unlikely to take place in the

absence of sufficient motivation to learn; Fontana [2011]. These issues of

motivation of students in education and the impact on academic performance are

considered as an important aspect of effective learning. However, a learner’s

reaction to education determines the extent to which he or she will go in education.

The impact of motivation on education of mathematics of a child cannot be

undermined. That is why Hall [2010] believes that there is a need to motivate

pupils so as to arouse and sustain their interest in learning mathematics.

“Motivation raises question on why people behave in the way they do it”. An

individual could therefore, from psychologists’ point of view, be seen as

politically, socially and academically motivated depending on the motive behind

his or her activities. Hence, this study intends to investigate the impact of

motivation on student’s academic achievement in mathematics.

individual characteristics such as intelligence, cognitive styles, and

personality play an important role in learning and instruction as does the

context of learning. Other research findings have shown that individual

students’ characteristics variables such as motivational orientations,

self-esteem and learning approaches are important factors influencing academic

achievements. In the effort to improve students’ cognition and affective

outcomes in mathematics and school learning, mathematics educators have

continued to search for variables (personal and environmental) that could be

manipulated in favour of academic gains. Of all the personal and psychological

variables that have attracted researchers in this area of educational

achievement, motivation seems to be gaining more popularity and leading other

variables; Aire & Tella The issue of motivating learners is seen as an

important aspect of effective learning. In fact psychologists believe that

motivation is a necessary ingredient for learning; Biehler and Snowman [2010].

They believe that satisfactory school learning is unlikely to take place in the

absence of sufficient motivation to learn; Fontana [2011]. These issues of

motivation of students in education and the impact on academic performance are

considered as an important aspect of effective learning. However, a learner’s

reaction to education determines the extent to which he or she will go in education.

The impact of motivation on education of mathematics of a child cannot be

undermined. That is why Hall [2010] believes that there is a need to motivate

pupils so as to arouse and sustain their interest in learning mathematics.

“Motivation raises question on why people behave in the way they do it”. An

individual could therefore, from psychologists’ point of view, be seen as

politically, socially and academically motivated depending on the motive behind

his or her activities. Hence, this study intends to investigate the impact of

motivation on student’s academic achievement in mathematics.

**Statement of the Problem**

It

is generally assumed that motivation influences people’s attitude and

performance at work. Teacher motivation is directly linked to the instructors’

desire to take part in the pedagogical process and interest in sharing their

knowledge with the students. It determines their involvement or no-involvement

in the teaching activities. Teachers put educational philosophy and objective

into the knowledge they transfer to their students.

is generally assumed that motivation influences people’s attitude and

performance at work. Teacher motivation is directly linked to the instructors’

desire to take part in the pedagogical process and interest in sharing their

knowledge with the students. It determines their involvement or no-involvement

in the teaching activities. Teachers put educational philosophy and objective

into the knowledge they transfer to their students.

Perhaps,

it is in realization of the importance of mathematics that it is made

compulsory at primary and secondary levels of education besides admission into

higher institutions and professional institutions. In Nigeria, students poor

performance in mathematics have been attributed to lack of motivation,poor

teaching methods, unqualified and inexperienced teachers, poor student attitude

toward mathematics, poor learning environment and gender effect. It is against

this background that the researchersinvestigate the role of motivation on

student’s academic achievement in secondary school mathematics.

it is in realization of the importance of mathematics that it is made

compulsory at primary and secondary levels of education besides admission into

higher institutions and professional institutions. In Nigeria, students poor

performance in mathematics have been attributed to lack of motivation,poor

teaching methods, unqualified and inexperienced teachers, poor student attitude

toward mathematics, poor learning environment and gender effect. It is against

this background that the researchersinvestigate the role of motivation on

student’s academic achievement in secondary school mathematics.

**Objectives of the Study**

The

general objective of this study is to find out the impact

of motivation on students academic performance and learning outcome in

mathematics among secondary school students in Lagos state. A case study of Ajeromi Local Government Area

general objective of this study is to find out the impact

of motivation on students academic performance and learning outcome in

mathematics among secondary school students in Lagos state. A case study of Ajeromi Local Government Area

The

study intends to achieve the following objectives:

study intends to achieve the following objectives:

1. To determine the effect of

motivation on academic performance of male and female students in mathematics.

motivation on academic performance of male and female students in mathematics.

2. To compare the academic performance

of highly motivated and lowly motivated students in mathematics achievement

test.

of highly motivated and lowly motivated students in mathematics achievement

test.

3. To

determine if teacher motivation affect or influence student academic

performance

determine if teacher motivation affect or influence student academic

performance

4. To

determine if principal leadership style affect or influence student academic

performance

determine if principal leadership style affect or influence student academic

performance

**1.3 Research Questions**

In line with the objectives of the study, the following

research questions were raised in this study:

research questions were raised in this study:

1. Is there any difference in the

impact of motivation on academic performance of male and female students in

mathematics?

impact of motivation on academic performance of male and female students in

mathematics?

2. Is there any difference in the academic

performance of highly motivated and lowly motivated students in mathematics?

performance of highly motivated and lowly motivated students in mathematics?

3. Does

teacher motivation affect or influence student academic performance?

teacher motivation affect or influence student academic performance?

4. To

what extent does principal leadership style affect or influence student

academic performance

what extent does principal leadership style affect or influence student

academic performance

**Research Hypotheses**

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at

0.05 level of significance.

0.05 level of significance.

**Ho1:**There is no

significant difference in

the impact of

motivation on

**academic**

performance of male and female students in mathematics.

**Ho2:**There is no significant difference in the academic

performance of highly

**motivated and lowly motivated students in**

mathematics achievement test.

**Scope Of The Study**

This

study will be carried out in some selected senior secondary school in Ajeromi Ifelodun local government

area of Lagos state, the study will cover five selected secondary schools in

the local government area.

study will be carried out in some selected senior secondary school in Ajeromi Ifelodun local government

area of Lagos state, the study will cover five selected secondary schools in

the local government area.

**Significant Of The Study**

The

result of this study will help all stake holders in education i.e (Parents,

Teachers, Society, Student and Government) to pay their respective roles in

relation to the issue of motivation.

result of this study will help all stake holders in education i.e (Parents,

Teachers, Society, Student and Government) to pay their respective roles in

relation to the issue of motivation.

The

study will help government being the major employers of teacher are adequately

and appropriately motivated to boost their performance.

study will help government being the major employers of teacher are adequately

and appropriately motivated to boost their performance.

Government

i.e the educational administrator will be able to improve the teaching

profession by providing basic facilities for school to encourage teachers in a

conductive atmosphere.

i.e the educational administrator will be able to improve the teaching

profession by providing basic facilities for school to encourage teachers in a

conductive atmosphere.

The

study will bring about elevation of the failing standard of education to

encourage graduates, under graduates and student to have the intention of

coming into the teaching profession not to feel with drawn to wards teaching as

efforts are already course for an over view of teachers motivation.

study will bring about elevation of the failing standard of education to

encourage graduates, under graduates and student to have the intention of

coming into the teaching profession not to feel with drawn to wards teaching as

efforts are already course for an over view of teachers motivation.

The

study will also help the parents and the society to contribute their quota as

regards the issue of teacher’s motivation. This should build up the interest of

parent and society towards making deliberate effort to encourage teachers in

cash and kind, through the study, the society will be made better since the

quality of education depends to a large extent on the quality of the teachers.

study will also help the parents and the society to contribute their quota as

regards the issue of teacher’s motivation. This should build up the interest of

parent and society towards making deliberate effort to encourage teachers in

cash and kind, through the study, the society will be made better since the

quality of education depends to a large extent on the quality of the teachers.

Teachers

are nation builders, when they are motivated, they gladly give their best,

putting their welfare into consideration will enhance their job performance.

are nation builders, when they are motivated, they gladly give their best,

putting their welfare into consideration will enhance their job performance.

**Definition Of Terms**

v

It is the state that energizes, activities, moves, direct or channel behaviour

towards a defined goal.

**–**__Motivation:__It is the state that energizes, activities, moves, direct or channel behaviour

towards a defined goal.

v

is anything done to make teacher happy, satisfy, dedicated and committed in

such a way that they bring out their best at work.

**-This**__Teacher Motivation:__is anything done to make teacher happy, satisfy, dedicated and committed in

such a way that they bring out their best at work.

v

are needs or factors naturally belonging to somebody. It is an interal motivator

that stirs up an individual toward, self actualization

**:-Those**__Intrinsic Needs__are needs or factors naturally belonging to somebody. It is an interal motivator

that stirs up an individual toward, self actualization

v

These are not naturally belonging to somebody. They are motivators that exist

outside then that within them. These include monetary incentives and

commendation.

**:-**__Extrinsic Needs__These are not naturally belonging to somebody. They are motivators that exist

outside then that within them. These include monetary incentives and

commendation.

v

This is the efficiency at which a teacher does his job. It is out standing

action displayed by the teacher in the course of carrying out an assigned task.

__Job Satisfaction:-:-__This is the efficiency at which a teacher does his job. It is out standing

action displayed by the teacher in the course of carrying out an assigned task.

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