THE IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON TEACHING ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF AKURE NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE)

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to find
out the impact of instructional materials on teaching Economics in secondary
schools in Akure North Local Government Area of Ondo State.  Problems affecting the impact of instructional
materials on teaching Economics in secondary schools.  Were discussed these include inadequate
instructional materials and inadequate usage of resources.  His study is therefore an attempt at
investigating the dimension of those problems in secondary schools.  Questionnaire was used for the finding.  The finding revealed that the availability of
instructional and improper usage of instructional materials based on
these.  Some recommendation for further
research to improve the teaching of economics among other subject in secondary
schools were offered.  Government should
make specific fund available to school for the purchase of some instructional
materials and teaching Aids and economics teacher should note textbooks which
is available to the students background culture and local examples should be
used while teaching the subjects.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CERTIFICATION
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1.1           
Background
of the study
1.2           
Statement
of the Problem
1.3           
Objectives
of the study
1.4           
Research
Question
1.5           
Significance
of the study
1.6           
Scope
of the study
1.7           
Definition
of Terms
CHAPTER TWO:
LITERATURE REVIEW
Definition of Instructional Materials
CHAPTER THREE:
METHODOLOGY
3.1           
Research
Design
3.2           
Population
of the study
3.3           
Sample
and Sampling Techniques
3.4           
Research
Instrument
3.5           
Validity
of the Instrument
3.6           
Administration
of Research Instrument
3.7           
Data
Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Discussion
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
5.1           
Summary
5.2           
Conclusion
5.3           
Recommendation
REFERENCES



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1           
Background to the study
Despina and Samaras 2001. The last
two decades have brought about a dramatic change in instructional methods for
general education and particularly for economics education.  These methods have challenged the traditional
teacher – centred, blackboard – lecture, text and class relationship.  After as low development from the voice and
vision broadcasting educational programs technology to the punched card mainframes,
photocopies and overhead projectors there has been a geometric growth of
electronics technology with micro computers, personal computers, interactive
and multimedia CD-ROMs, the Internet and intranets, and the World Wide Web with
its online simulations and interactive multimedia Web – based courses and
virtual classes.  All these innovations
claim to have the potential to revolutionize the educational process.  Their effectiveness, however, has still to be
established in educational research.
The fact that economics education as
a discipline relies very heavily an quantitative, graphical and simulation –
game type aspects lead to the immediate adoption of these innovations with the
USA, UK and French educational system having the lead in the beginning of the
70s and the Greek educational system slowly following in the mid 80s (Bousiou
and Isopoglou, 2001).  Research carried
out at the time was basically in the use of mainframes and concluded that
positive result were very limited.  A
large amount of educational software was produced in the 80s to support
economic education and economist, introducing the notion of computer aided
simulations/Games and Drill and practice software.  Researchers held different views about the
effectiveness of computer aided learning software for economic education.  Although several research papers pointed to
the positive effect of the kind of software (Davies and Crowther 1995), the
general beliefs was that “… they may cover the content – but not in the most
imaginative way.  Students need to be
sufficiently motivated and interested to learn economics from the computer
screen and this kind of software is unlikely to change the character of the
text dominated courses that have resisted change for 30 years” (Yahoo D.L. and
Walstad W.B, 1990).  Although the effectiveness
of the use of micro and personal computers for economic education is still to
be proven, it seems that classroom lectures, textbooks and material library
referencing continue to resist and constitute the largest part of the learning
process.
In the last decade the Internet has
emerged as a powerful tool for enhancing the learning process.  Particularly for economic education.  Agarwal and Day (1998) supported that
Internet implementation in economics courses has a positive impact on three
crucial are: (a) Student learning and retention of concepts, (b) Student
perceptions of instructor effectiveness and (c) attitudes toward
economics.  The internet with its
multiple services, online simulations, and interactive multimedia Web – based
courses is being used both to supplement and enrich the traditional way of
teaching economics with district applications such as e-mail, HP, etc (Maaning,
1996) as well as to provide complete learning experiences in the form of
virtual classes.  Due to its structure,
the World Wide Web (and the internet in general) has been proposed as a
powerful environment to support student – centered instruction, facilitating
instructional methods that focus on constructivism, active learning,
collaborative learning and individualized learning (Wiemi and Gooler, 1987;
Massy and Zemsky, 1995; sell, 1996; Tait, 1997).
Lagging behind the USA and
European systems, the Greek educational system experimentally joined this cycle
of development in the mid 80’s when information technology had already become
widespread and relatively inexpensive. 
Today with the even larger decreases in the costs of using new
technologies for students, teachers and institutions, a challenge is offered to
state officials, educational institutions, economic educators, private software
producers and published to provide all those innovative means and methods that
will allow both students as well as the general public to become computer and
business economics literate while assisting in the slud of the discipline of economics
(Bousiou and Tsopoglou, 2001).
There is no teaching when learning is
not taking place and in order that meaningful learning may take place, there is
need for the use of teaching aids as much as possible.
It is the ideal thing to teach, from
concrete to the abstracts from the seen to the unseen, from the known to the
unknown.  Teaching aids should not only
be taken as concrete materials.  They
also include all illustrative materials used to get meaning into learning
teaching aids comprise a set of tools ranging from the locally constructed
materials and usually of cheap materials to the highly complicated and
expensive machines.
In spite of language barriers all
parties involved are in a better position than ever to develop or adapt state –
of – the – art economics – business education technology, at a “principle”
level and produce hypertext manuals, problem and data sets, simulation – game
material, case studies, role playing and electronic referencing within local
national and international networks.  These instructional tools within an
electronically networked environment could recast established notions and
structures of learning as “teacher, lecture, group, individual, classroom,
home, library” and rearrange their relationship and relative importance in more
creative, exciting and effective ways.
Drawing from our research of
existing, innovative instructional methods for teaching Economics (Bousiou,
Samara and Tahmatzidou, 2000), we attempt to describe and classify the latest
technological solutions.  We have
separated them into two categories, distinguishing between technologies that
need little technical expertise in the part of the teacher and those, which
require either particular technical knowledge and skills, server access, and/or
the support of an educational institution. 
While the power of these platforms, compared to more traditional methods
of instruction in delivering course content, is largely discussed in literature
(Sosm, 1997; Daniel, 1991; Stone, 1999, reports on formal assessments of the
effectiveness of electronic education are either rare or are still providing
early results (Meyer, Bandan and Niessen, 1996; Zywno and Kennedy, 2000).  A study carried out by Kadiyala and Crynes
provided convincing evidence that new technologies can indeed enhance learning
when the pedagogy is sound, and when there is a good match of technology,
techniques and objectives (Kadiyala and Crynes, 1998).  Their research reported supisingly few
studies staling neutral or negative results. 
However, there is a need for further research to substantiate claims
about positive impact of new technologies on learning outcomes.
1.2           
Statement of the problem
Today as a
result of introduction of 6- 3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria. Which leads to the
addition of new topic in the curriculum content of economics in secondary
school.
Teaching of
economics in secondary schools are faced with the problem of students failure
in both WAEC and NECO examination
Another problem faced with the
teaching of economic in secondary schools is that student learning and
retention of concept is very low.

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