This project
covers to a finite extent the socio-economic impact of democracy in Nigeria, a
case study of Ekiti State. The total sample that was used in carrying out this
work is about 50 towns and villages in Ekiti State. The main method or
instrument used in data collection was through consultation, visitation,
textbooks, and relevant document in the library. This study makes me to view
the past administration in Ekiti on how they have in one way or the other
influence the socio economic of Ekiti State during their era, and how people
enjoy the dividend of democracy in particular, we recommend that the government
of the day should allow the people in the state to participate in policy
formation in the state, so that they can have the government of their own, that
will act in interest of the people, and enjoy what we called democracy in our
land, the socio-economic impact of democracy must be put in place for all
citizen irrespective of their statue, gender, sex in the state.


Title page                                                                                                                              
Table of Contents
Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Assumption of the Study
Significance of the Study
Delimitation of the Study
Limitations to the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Research Hypothesis
Definition of Terms
The Meaning of Democracy
Democracy and Democratic Failure
Prospect of Democracy in Nigeria
Research Design
Sampling and Sampling Technique
Administration of Research Instrument

October 1st 1960, Nigeria was granted full independent, under a
constitution that provided for a parliamentary system of government and a
substandard measure of self-government for the country’s three regions, after
she had been under the ruling of the colonial alters for several decades since
some years back, the Nigeria speaking people had been trying hard but
unsuccessful to have their own independent country carded out from the colonial
era. Therefore, at independence their dream was realized but not fully because
of the circumstances under which the new country was created.
In October 1st 1963,
Nigeria proclaimed itself the Federal Republic of Nigeria and formal Governor
Gerbera Nnamdi Azikwe became the country’s first president from the outset
Nigeria’s ethnic and religious tension were magnified by the disparities in
economic and educational development between the South and the North, the AG
was maneuver out of control of the Western Region by the Federal government and
a new pro-government Yoruba party’s the shortly afterward the AG opposition
leader Chief Obafemi Awolowo was imprisoned without foundation. The 1965
national election produces a major realignment of politics and a disputed
result. That set country on the path of civil war.        
dominant northern N.P.C went into a conservation alliance with the new Yoruba
NNPD, leading the Igbo NCNC to coalesce with the remnants of the AG in a
progressive alliance. In the vote, widespread electoral proud was alleged and
riots elected pro-government NNPD reproductive. After military rules for some
years on 15th of January 1966, a group of army officers (the young
majors) mostly southeastern Igbo overthrew the N.N.D.P., N.P.P.C the premiers
of the northern and western region.
the bloody nature of young majors coup caused another coup to be carried out by
General Aguyi Ironsi, the young majors went in to hiding major Emmanuel
Ifeajuna pled to Kwami Nkbrumetis Ghana where he was welcomed as a hero, some
of the Ironsi government. Among the Igbo people of the eastern region, however,
the Hausa and Fulani people demanded that the detainees be placed on trial for
Federal military government that assumed power under general Johnson Aguyi
Ironsi was to quit ethnic tension on acceptable to all section of issue of
other lasses, additionally, the Ironsi government was unable to produce a
constitution acceptable to all section of the country most fateful for the
Ironsi government was the decision to issue decree no 34 which sought to unify
the nation in 24th May 1966 raised tension and lead to another coup
by largely northern officer in July leadership, of major general Yakubu Gowon,
the name Federal Republic of Nigeria was restored on 31st August
1966. In a move towards greater antimony to military divided the four regions
into 12 states. However, the Igbo rejected attempts at constitutional revisions
and insisted on full antimony for the east on May, 29th, 1967 it
Col. Emeka Ojukwu the military governor of the Eastern region who emerged as
the leader of increasing Igbo secessionist sentiment, debarred the independence
of the eastern region as the Republic of Biafra, on May 30th 1967
the ensuing Nigeria civic war resulted in an estimated with Gowon’s famous “No
victor, no vanquished ‘speech in 1970, following the civil war the country
turned to the task of economic development revenues increased speculaculay with
the oil price rises of 1973-74 on July 29th, 1975 Gen Murtala
Muhammed and a group of officers staged bloodless coup, accusing Gen Yakubu
Gowon corruption and delaying the promised replaced thousand of civil servants
and announced a October 1st, 1960. He was assassinated on February
13th 1976 in an abortive coup and his chief of staff a lit, Gen
Olusegun Obasanjo become head of state in the second Republic between
constitution in 1977 to draft constitution, which was published on September
21th 1978, when the ban on political activity was lifted in 1979, give
political panties competed in a series of election in which Alhaji Sheu Shagari
of the National Party of Nigeria (UPN) was elected president. All five parties
won depresentative in the national ascended.
the 1950 prior to independence oil begin to make Nigeria a wealthy nation.
However, the spike in oil prices from $12 per barrel, following the Yom kipper
war in 1973 brought a sudden rush of money to Nigeria. Another sadder rise in
the price of oil in 1979 to $19 per barrel occurred as a result of the lead up
to the Iran-Irag war; all of this meant that by 1979, Nigeria was the sixth
largest producer of oil in the world with revenues from oil of $24 billion per
year. In August 1983, Shagari and the NPN were returned to power in a landslide
victory with a, majority of 12 state government. But the election was marred by
violence and allegation of widespread vote rigging, and electoral malfeasance,
leading to legal battle over the result.
December 31st, 1983 the military overthrew the second republic Major
General Muhammad Buhari emerged as the leader of the Supreme Military Council
(SMC) the country’s new ruling body. The Buhari was peacefully overthrown by
the S.M.C. third-ranking Major General Ibrahim Babangida in August 1985.
Babangida (IBB) cited the misuse of power violence of human right by the key
officers of the S.M.C and the government failure to deal with the country’s
deepening economic crisis as justification for the takeover burning this first
day in officer president Babangida moved to restore freedom of the press and to
release political detainees being held without charge as plant he a 15 months
economic emergency plan he announced pay cuts for the unmilitary, police, civil
servicemen and this private sectors president Babangida demonstrated his hit
end to encourage public participation in decision making by opening a national
debate on proposed economic recovery unmeasured, the response  convinced Babangida of inter opposition to an
abortive third republic Head of State Babangida pronounced to return the
country rule by 1990 which was later extended until January 1993, in easy 1989
a constitution assembly completed a constitution and in the spins of 1989
politic activity was again permitted in October 1989 the government established
two parties the National Republican Convention (NRC) others parties were not
allowed to register.
April 1990, mid-level officers attempted unsuccessfully to overthrew the
government and 69 accused plotters were executed after secret trials before
military tribunal in December 1990 the first stage of partisan election was
held at the local government level. Despite 100 turnouts there was no violence
and both parties demonstrated strength in all regions of the country with the
(SDP) winning control of a majority of local government councils.
December 1991, state legislative election were held and Babangida decreed that
previously banned political could contest in primaries scheduled for August
these were canceled due to fraud and subsequent primaries scheduled for
September also were canceled. All announced candidates were disqualified from
standing for president ones a new election format was selected the president election
was finally held on June 12th, 1993 with the inauguration of the new
president scheduled to take place.
27th, 1993 the eight anniversary of president Babangida counting to
power. In the historic June 12th, 1993 president election which most
observers deemed to be Nigeria’s fairest early returns indicated that wealthy
Yoruba business man M.K.O Abiola won a decisive victory. However, on June 23rd,
Babangida, using several pending law soils as a pretense annoyed the election,
throwing Nigeria into turmoil more than 100 were killed in roils before
Babangida agreed to hand power to an interim government on August 27th,
1993. He later attempted to renege this decision but without popular and
military support he was forced to hand over to Ernest Shonekan, a prominent
nonpartisan businessman. Shonekan was to rule until election scheduled for
February 1994.
Although he had lead Babangida transitional
councils since 1993, Shonekan was unable to reverse Nigeria’s economic problems
or to defuse lingering political tension. With the country shading into class
Defense Minister Sanni Abasha assumed power and forced Shonekan’s resignation
on November 17th, 1993. Abasha dissolved and replaced governors with
military officers, although province restoration of civilian rule he refused to
announce a transitional timetable until 1995.
Following the annulment of the June
12th election the United State imposed sanction on Nigeria including
travel restrict on government officials and suspension of arms sales and
military assistance.
Additional sanctions were imposed
as a result of Nigeria failure to gain full certification for its
counter-narcotics efforts.
On October 1st, 1995
Abasha announced the time table for a 3 years transition to civilian rule. Only
five political parties where approved by the region and votes turnout for local
election in December 1997 were eight civilians on changes of soup plotting.
Abasha died of heart failure on June 8th, 1998 and was replaced by
General Abdulsalami Abubakar, the Military Provisional Ruling Council (P.R.C.)
under Abubakar committee the sentence of these accused in the alleged coup
during the Abasha regime and relapsed almost all know civilian political
detainees pending the promulgation of the constitution written in 1995, the
government observe some provision of the 1979 and constitutions neither Abasha
and Abubakar lifted the decree suspending the 1979 constitution and the 1959 constriction
was not implemented. In August 1998 Abubakar appointed the Independent National
Electoral Commission (INEC) to conduct election for local government council’s
state legislatures and governors, the National Assembly, and President, the
NEC, successfully held election on December 5th, 1998, 1998 January
9th, 1999, February 20th, and February 27th,
1999, respectively were granted provisitional registration with three
fulfilling the requirement to contest the following election, the parties were
the People’s Democracy Party (PDP), All People’s Party (APP) and the
predominantly Yoruba. Alliance for Democracy (AD) former military head of state
Olusegun Obasanjo freed from prison by Abubakar ran as a civilian candidate and
won the presidential election. The (P.R.C) promulgated a new constitution
before the May 29th, 1999, inauguration of the new civilian president;
the constitution includes provision for a bicameral legislature, the National
Assembly consisting of a 360 member’s seat.
The Fourth Republic, the emergence
of democracy in Nigeria on May 1999 ended 16 years of consecutive Military
Rule; Olusegun Obasanjo inherited a country suffering economic stagnation and
the deterioration of most institution, Obasanjo a former general was admired
for his stand against the Abasha dictatorship, his record of returning the
Federal government to civilian rule in 1979, and his claim to represent all
Nigeria regardless of religion. The new president took over a country that
faced many problems, including a dysfunctional bureaucracy, collapsed
infrastructure and a military that wanted a reward for returning quickly to the
barracks. The president moved quickly and retired hundred of military officers
holding political positions established a blue ribbon panel to investigate
human right violence released scores of person held without change and resends
numerous questionnaire licenses and contracts lift by the previous regimes the
new president face the curiting task of rebuilding petroleum based on economy,
whose revenue have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement the
further major problem created by the oil industry is the drilling of pipelines
by Local population in an attempt to drain off the petroleum for personal use
or as a source of income. This often leads to major explosions and high death
toils particular notable disaster in this area have been 1st October
1998, Jeese, 1100 death 21st July 2000, Jeese, 250 death 3 September
2004, near Lagos 60 death, 4 May 2006 Illado, Approxi 150-200 deaths.
In the 2007, general election Umaru
Yar’dua and Goodluck Jonathan, both of people democratic party, were elected
president and vice president respectively. The election was marred by electoral
fraud and denounced by other candidate and international observers.
Yar’dua’s presidency was fraught
with uncertain as media reports said he suffered from kidney heart disease. In
November 2009, he fell ill and was flown out of the country to Saudi Arabia for
medical attention. He was there for over 50 days and later died.
In February 2010, Goodluck Jonathan
began serving as acting president in the absence of Yar’dua.
Like the other country, the people
of Nigeria are now enjoying the dividends of democracy that are deprived of
when they are under the ruling of the colonial and the past administration.
This project work is aimed at
examine the socio-economic and political impact of Democracy in Nigeria.
The case study of Ekiti State is a
state in South west Nigeria, on October 1st 1996, Ekiti became an
independent state for several decades since some years back. The Ekiti speaking
people had been trying hand unsuccessful to have their own independent state
carded out from Ondo State, therefore at independence their dream was realized
under the dictatorship of the territory of old Ondo State, on creation, it took
off with sixteen 16 local government areas having had an old ones. Ekiti state
is one of the thirty-six states (Federal Capital Territory Nigeria) that
constitute Nigeria. Ekiti is reputed to have produced the highest number of professors
in Nigeria.
After military rules for three
years a democratic elected system of government was put in place in the state,
under the umbrella leadership of Otunba Adeniyi on May 29th, 1999 as
the first Executive Governor then the socio-economic and political lines of the
Ekiti had witnessed a tremendous change positively. Governor Adeniyi Adebayo
having ruled the state for four years, and another election was conducted which
ushered in a Peter Fayose as the governor who was sent packing following a
prolonged political crisis, President Olusegun Obasanjo in posed a military.
Adunni station (general Tunji Olurin)
on Ekiti state in October 2000 on April 27th, Olurin was replaced by
Tope Ademuluyi, in the PDP primary of 2006, 1st place finisher,
Yinka Akerele and 2nd place Adesegun Ojo were supposed to be in a
run-off to determine who would be the nominee of the Nigerian ruling party when
president Obasanjo imposed the candidate who came third-engineer Segun Oni he
was later elected in 2007, but the election was marred by widespread
irregularities and the AC candidate Dr. Kayode Fayemi challenged his election
and forces a return in May 2009. The May 2009 return was characterized by even
worse rigging and the election was disputed again. Eventually, after three
years, the election of Oni was thrown out and Dr. Kayode Fayemi was declared
the duly elected governor of Ekiti state.
Like the other states, the Ekiti
people are now enjoying dividends of democracy that are being deprived when
they are under the past administration. This project is aimed at examining the
social-economic and political in part of democracy in Ekiti state the gains and
pains of democracy under the past and present administration are the things we
want to thoroughly look deeply into in this research work.
It appears that despite the things the country
stands to gain as a democratic. Country there are still some states or town
that are still being deprived of democracy. Due to this, the focus of this
project will be on both the positive and negative impacts of democracy in
Nigeria or in Ekiti state.
1.       To examine the positives and negative
impacts of democracy in Ekiti state.
2.       To
investigate the significant differences between Otunba Adeniyi administration
and that of Dr. Peter Ayodele Fayose.
3.       To investigate whether the resource in
the state are equitably distributed.
4.       To investigate some shortcoming of
democracy in Ekiti state.
The researcher assumes that there will
be significant differences in the responses of the urban and rural people, the
government because the urban living people are the one enjoying most of these
basic facilities provided.
The study elicits information from
the indigene of Nigeria on the positive and negative impact of democracy in
Ekiti state.
It is hoped that finding from work
will enable the people of Nigerian to evaluate the gain and pain of democracy
since independence to date. It will also enable the incumbent government to
know their shortcoming and works to warding improving on their lapses.
The research is limited to
socio-economic and political impact of democracy in Nigeria by studying the
case study of Ekiti state and the fact that many things are said to have been
achieved from the day Ekiti has been created.
The likely problems to be encounter
in the course of the research are lack of adequate finance, experimental
mentality, and unwillingness of the respondents to disclose information etc.
1.       What
are the socio-political and economic impacts of democracy in Nigeria?
2.       What
are the shortcomings administrations in Ekiti state?
3.       What
are the things to do to improve on these shortcomings?
These will be significant difference in the responses
of the member of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and Action Congress of
Nigeria (CAN) on the impact of democracy in Ekiti state.
has been defined by Abraham Lincoln (1863) as quoted by Late Chief Obafemi
Awolowo (1966) as “the government of the people, by the people and for the
Democracy consists of two Greek
word “demos” meaning the “people” and the “Kratein” meaning “to rule”. Ancient
philosophers and State men used this concept a democracy because the
administration of this in the land of the many and not of the few. According to
Cohen (1971) defines democracy as “government by consent rule by the majority”.
to Aristotle, the Greek philosopher “politics is the essence of social
existence. When two or more men are interacting with one another they are
invariably involved in political relationship. It is the process of adjustment
and inter-play of power and interests within the public life and affairs of a
society, national and multinational levels hence we have national and
is the effect or influence that an event, situation e.t.c. has on someone or



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