THE IMPACT OF CHRISTIAN WOMEN IN CURBING MORAL
DECADENCE AMONG THE YOUTHS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – vii
List of Appendices – – – – – – – viii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – 4
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – 5
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – 6
1.6 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – 6
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study – – – – 7
1.8. Basic Assumptions – – – – – – 7
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.01 Introduction – – – – – – – 8
2.02 Concept of Youth – – – – – – 8
2.03 Concept of Morality – – – – – – 11
2.04 Moral Decadence among Nigerian Youths – – – 16
2.05 Causes of Moral Decadence among
Nigerian Youths- – – – – – – 16
2.06 Influence of Immorality on the Lives and Development of
the Nigerian Youths – – – – – – 21
2.07 Moral Models of Development – – – – 23
2.7.1 Moral Judgement and Behaviour – – – – 25
2.08 Role of Women in the Development of Moral
behaviour of Youths – – – – – – – 26
2.09 Dimensional Roles of Christian Women – – – 28
2.10 Women Organizations and their Functions – – – 36
2.11 Moral Education and National Development- – – 38
2.12 Summary – – – – – – – 41
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.01 Introduction – – – – – – – – 44
3.02 Research Design – – – – – – 44
3.03 Population of the Study – – – – – 45
3.04 Sample and Sampling Procedure – – – – 45
3.04.1 Sampling of Local Government Areas – – – 45
3.04.2 Sampling of Churches – – – – – 46
3.04.3 Sampling of Christian Youths and Women – – – 47
3.05 Instrumentation – – – – – – 47
3.06 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument – – – 48
3.07 Pilot Study – – – – – – – 48
3.08 Administration of the Instruments – – – – 49
3.09 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 49
3.10 Summary – – – – – – – 50
Chapter 4: Results and Discussions
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 51
4.2 Demographic data – – – – – – 51
4.2.1 Sex – – – – – – – – 51
4.2.2 Age – – – – – – – – 52
4.2.3 Marital Status – – – – – – – 52
4.2.4 Perceived causes of moral decadence among youths in Kaduna
State – – – – – – – – 53
4.2.5 Negative influences of immorality on the lives and
Development of the youths in Kaduna State – – – 55
4.2.6 Programmes of events and activities put in place by Christian
Women in Kaduna State to curb moral crises- – – 57
4.2.7 Impact of Christian women/mothers on lives of
the young ones – – – – – – 60
4.3 Hypotheses Testing – – – – – – 62
4.4 Findings – – – – – – – – 65
4.5 Discussion of findings – – – – – – 66
Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – 69
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 71
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – 72
5.3.1 Suggestion for further research – – – – 73
References – – – – – – – 74
Letter to the Respondents – – – – – 79
Questionnaire – – – – – – – 80
1.1 Background to the Study
Morality has to do with the attitude or behavior of man. Attitude can be
cultivated; its cultivation could be personal, corporate, structural or cultural. Our
perceptions, values, beliefs, lifestyles, cultural and religious practices that are deep-rooted
and longstanding could be held tenaciously and easily translated into attitude that may
either enhance or impede development.
Attitudes are categorized according to Guaguano, (1996) into personal, cultural
and social dimensions. If any category of these attitudes and behaviours is harmful, it
cannot pave the way for development unless it is changed. In the light of this, it is
obvious that when these categories of attitudes are cultivated and appropriately directed,
they lead to the growth and development of the individual and the larger society.
Moral attitudes put together help people in communities to live together, settle
their differences, maintain peace and harmony and have cordial relationships with their
environment. In African culture, the way and manner people conduct themselves matter a
lot. An African child is expected to respect and obey elders, dress decently, fear God the
creator and be patriotic citizens of their respective communities. That is, the African
child is expected to be disciplined in all ramifications.
For any nation to experience growth and development, the youths must not be left
out as they form the workforce of any nation. These youths also do not just emerge from
the sky but from families. The family is the first and most important channel through
which societal norms and values are transmitted to the youths right from childhood.
Every member of the family has an important role to play in the task of moral up bringing
of the child. For instance, parents have the responsibility of loving and providing for the
needs of their family members. In the same way, children are expected to obey and
respect their parents and elders.
The training which parents give to their youths from childhood matters a lot,
because charity is said to begin at home. To a large extent, the moral disposition of the
youths can be traced to their homes, as the character development of the children is the
sole work of the parents especially the mother who spends more time with their children.
Since Nigeria places much emphasis on the moral and character training of the child, no
time is wasted in the commencement of the training programme of the youths. The youth
in the first few years of life is more intimate with the mother than the father and that is
why in most societies in Africa, when a child misbehaves, the mother is blamed. It
therefore, becomes traditionally necessary that mothers should educate their young ones.
Education is the aggregate of all the means by which human beings develop the necessary
skills, attitudes and values that are socially acceptable (Akinbote, 1988).
Fafunwa (1974) opined that, traditional education which places emphasis on
moral and character training is the corner stone of African education. Traditionally, the
inculcation of appropriate and culturally approved behavioural patterns in the child is a
joint responsibility among the parents and adult members of the community. However,
despite the cooperative effort in the development of the child socially and emotionally,
the immediate family members still carry the highest responsibility for the child’s moral
upbringing. In Yoruba land for instance, the immediate family is usually attacked
(verbally) when a child misbehaves publicly. Therefore, in order to prevent such insult or
embarrassment, every family ensures the proper and early moral upbringing of their
Through practical examples and moral precepts, simple courteous behaviour such
as mode of greeting and respect for adults are inculcated in the child as early as possible.
Any form of mis-behaviour is appropriately punished by the parents or relations
Generally, Africans cherish high degree of discipline and sense of respect for one
another; hence parents(especially Christian women) do everything possible to give good
moral examples to their offspring.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There are many outcries against immorality in the Nigerian society today. The
level of indiscipline and crime waves among the youths has seriously escalated in
geometric progression. Moral decadence in the Nigerian society today is beyond sexual
perversion. From general observations, the severity of immoral actions ranges from
“simple cheating” at school to drug abuse, murder and the exhibition of other anti-social
behaviours. The depth of the problem has reached a point where common decency can no
longer be described as common. For instance, decent people are honest and behave in a
way that most people approve of, but in our society today, honesty as a virtue most
especially among our youths, is not as common as it was in years past and this in one way
or the other, has affected the development of the society.
Educational institutions have become comfortable dens for gangsters, cultists and
prostitutes. Wearing of “decorated rags” and seductive attires has become a fad for ladies,
and the virtue of virginity is becoming unthinkable and abominable. Examination
malpractice, which is aided by parents and teachers, has become common place in
Nigerian schools. This entails that students rely on fraudulent means to earn certificates,
thereby giving little or no regard to hard work.
However, the government at all levels, non-governmental organizations,
traditional leaders and religious organizations have been unrelenting in their efforts to
checkmate gross immorality in the society. Turaki (1989), has indicated that from 1975 to
the present there has been an increasing national concern over the question of morality
and ethics. For example,General Obasanjo’s Jaji declaration was more of a treatise on
moral,political and philosophy. This declaration is a call to all Nigerians to take national
morality and ethics seriously. In contrast was President Shehu Shagari Ethical
Revolution, also General Buhari tried to checkmate immorality with War Against
Indiscipline(WAI)but it is sad to note that this evil still persists. These moral crises have
eaten deep into the fabric of the nation and pose tremendous barrier to the moral,
spiritual, social and economic development of the Nigerian populace especially the
youths. Kumuyi (2001) observed that the problem of immorality among the youths is
mainly caused by carelessness and negligence of parents most especially the mothers.
The gravity of the issue of moral decadence has motivated the researcher to
examine the role of Christian women in addressing these moral crises among youths in
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This research aims at examining the role of Christian women in curbing immoral
acts prevalent among the youths in Kaduna State. Specifically, the study seeks to achieve
its aims through the following objectives which are to:
i. Critically examine the various perceived causes of moral decadence among the
youths in Kaduna State.
ii. Determine the negative influence of immorality on the lives and development of
the youths especially in Kaduna State.
iii. Critically examine and analyze some of the programmes and activities put in
place by Christian women in Kaduna State to checkmate moral crises among the
iv. Critically examine the impact of Christian mothers on the lives of the young
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study is significant in the following ways:
First, moral crisis is a deadly problem in the Nigerian society and efforts are being
put in place by governments and different organizations and even international
organizations to checkmate the problem of moral decadence in the society. This research
therefore, seeks to contribute to this aspect by taking a survey of what women especially
Christian women are doing to resolve this moral crisis associated with the youths in
Secondly, it seeks to contribute to the pool of literature that has been generated
about the role of women in the society and serve as a resource or reference material to
others who may want to undertake further research in this area.
Thirdly, the research is expected to chart a path for the critical appraisal of the
central role of women in the society apart from their traditional roles in the family. This
is because God created the woman to play multiple roles and imbued her with divine
power of transformation.
Finally the study is expected to serve as a source of encouragement to women in
the society, as this will enable them to know that their efforts, no matter how little, are
not in vain.
1.5 Research Questions
This study attempts to provide answers to the following research questions:
1. What are the various perceived causes of moral decadence among the youths in
2. What are the negative influences of immorality on the lives and development
of the youths in Kaduna State?
3. What are the various programmes of events and activities put in place by
Christian women in Kaduna State to curb moral crises among the youths?
4. What are the roles of Christian women in the lives of the youths?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated for this study:
1. Immorality has no significant influence on the lives and development of the
youths in Kaduna State.
2. The various perceived causes of moral decadence in the society have no
significant influence on the moral development of the youths.
3. There are no significant programmes of events and activities being put in place by
Christian women in Kaduna State on immorality to curb moral crises among the
4. Christian women have no significant impact on the lives of the young ones.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The problem of immorality cuts across the society, and Kaduna State is not an
exception. This study focuses on the role of Christian women in curbing moral decadence
among the youths in Kaduna State. The research work is limited to Kaduna State because
it is an academic and economic center. This therefore attracts a high concentration of
youths and women from different parts of the country who are pursuing various academic
and economic programmes and activities. Therefore, the necessary information required
for this research could be best gathered from them.
1.8 Basic Assumptions
In this study, the following assumptions were made
1. It is assumed that the respondents who are Christians will sincerely respond to
2. It is assumed that every parent is good; however, some bad parents pretend to
3. It is assumed that all Christian women are Godly and capable of inculcating
the right type of attitude in the youths.
4. It is assumed that since parental negligence is one of the causes of this
ORIGINAL WORK OF OLORUNDARE, Janet Olubunmi MSC THESIS
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THE IMPACT OF CHRISTIAN WOMEN IN CURBING MORAL