Background of the Study
Webster’s Encyclopedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, defines Audio-Visual a Aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes”. The term has also been defined by (Dike, 1993) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic.
According to (Anzaku, 2011) “the term audio-visual materials are commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language”. Thus according to the above definition, a text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience, for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making diorama. Some of the audio-visual materials like the motion pictures require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all like an exhibit or a study print. This term designates in common usage both material things as well as processes such as field trips. Anzaku further stated that audio-visual materials include materials and equipment alike, that materials are considered to be system, or body of content of potential value when put to work, while equipment or instructions, often referred to as hardware, components, are the means of presenting such content. The importance of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning processes cannot be over emphasized.
Some of the roles of audio-visual materials are; Basing learning in sense experience, Extending experience ,Encouraging participation, Stimulating interest ,Individualizes instructions, Serves as a source of information, Making leaning permanent, Basing learning in sense experience: stressing the importance of audio-visual materials, ( Ngozi, Samuel,and Isaac, 2012) unanimously agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner in so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that audio-visual materials are the equipment through which that function can occur, that is does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that are stimulated by external occurrences.
The subject social studies as a multidimensional discipline in the Nigerian school curriculum has got few text books on it with some marked specifications of teaching aids for illustrations. In some cases, directives and exercises for students as well as for teachers are not given, while in few cases such exercises and instructional guides are not given at all, this quite often than not lead to the learning of just some specified concept in an integrated curriculum. Many teachers hold the notion that social studies is a simple subject that requires little if any, preparation. To them, teaching social studies involves merely talking to students about a given topic as may be taken from text books or a more look at some pictures. (Talabi, 2004).
This is sometimes followed by some discussion and students may ask questions afterwards, about what they have learnt. They may draw pictures themselves of what has been discussed and that is all. Social studies teaching is more than this, that is why adequate teaching aids are needed in teaching the subject at any level of education. Moreover, the methods require in the teaching of social studies such as inquiry, discussion, Role-playing simulation (both activity and historical) demand a lot of preparation on the part of teachers and students alike. In order to communicate effectively or elicit the desired responses, there is the need to employ different ways and means (audio-visual aids) which will appeal to most if not all the senses of the person receiving the message.
The requirement needed by the teacher to make effective teaching is resourcefulness. Aguekobuo, (2004) is of the view that, way to do this is for the teacher to engage in human capacity building which will involve the use of variety of strategies and techniques in his/her teaching. For these reasons social studies teachers need to be acquainted with all the audio-visual aids that will help optimally teaching and learning process. It has also be observed that the use of verbalization method of teaching social studies over the years has not made the subject very interesting. Agu and Hammad (2005), state that, the performance of students has been very low. In fact the need for effective teaching and learning of the subject cannot be over emphasized. Agu and Hammad, (2005) further observed that, teachers still use mainly traditional method of teaching which lead to poor students` understanding and performance of the subject. Abolade(2009) posits that social Studies like other subjects, can be effectively taught by employing various Audio-visual aids that appeal to three senses sight, touch and hearing. Among the numerous possible factors affecting teaching and learning in our schools are the poor teaching strategies. Abolode, (2009) further stated that study have shown that out of the five (5) sense organs we use for acquiring knowledge, visual materials which are learning and instructional materials that can be seen only taken up to 80% in the learning process, while Audio materials and equipment that appeal to our sense of hearing takes 11% and olfactory, tactile and tasting takes 9%.
Therefore, it is stated that Audio-visual instructional materials have made qualitative and quantitative education more meaningful because they have produced desirable results. However, this subject does not seem to be receiving serious attention from all concerned, namely; students, teachers, sponsors of education and educational administrators/managers to mention but a few. These materials have value for instruction and present in different variants and qualities today. The uses of audio-visual materials have been discovered to facilitate effective communication transfer of information, knowledge skills, attitudes and other useful capabilities. Teachers should know that the resources for learning that instructor and students will use can influence the effectiveness of instructional programme. Audio visual materials could be said to be the various method, or devices used to disseminate information in the teaching and learning process, which the social studies teachers need to use to enhance the students better understanding of cultural, means of transportation system and conflict situations in Nigeria. However, lack of adequate and appropriate audio-visual materials essentially for the effective teaching and learning of the subject is rather making parents, teachers and students to perceive the integrated social studies in the school curriculum throughout the country with confusion and perplexity. It is against this background that the researcher tends to investigate the extent of the use of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Areas of Ekiti State.
Statement of the Problem
As a result of advancement and development of modern technology varieties instructional materials can be used to make learning more vivid and effective. This means that students can perform better wherever they are taught with these instructional materials particularly audio-visual aids as their comprehension and demonstration and cooperation are expected to enhance tremendously in teaching-learning process. Unfortunately, most of the social studies teachers neglect the use of audio-visual aids in teaching the subject. Probably, due to non-availability of the materials or lack of techniques for using them. It is a against this background that this study is aimed at finding out the extent of the use of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State
Purpose of the Study
The objectives of this study have been formulated based on cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of learning objectives as follows;
- Identify the resources available for the teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools in the study area.
- Examine the utilization of the available resources in the schools.
- Identify the problems that affect the availability of the resources in the study area.
- Identify roles of the school authority and government in the supply of audio-visual resources to the schools.
- Suggest possible solution to the problem.
Significance of the Study
The study is significant in a number of ways to students, teacher, community and government. The students will benefit from this study in the sense that they will be able to put what they learn theoretically into practice through the resources available in the schools. The students’ interest and attitude will increase towards learning of social studies as a result of adequate resources in the schools.
Teachers will benefit from this study by improving their teaching methods, educate them more on adopting other methods of teaching and it will also help to improvise using locally available material as teaching aids, thus reducing cost and increasing efficiency in the community. Government will also understand some of their responsibility that can promote the teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools for profitability and cultural heritage.
The study will also assess and recommend to government, teachers and students possible ways of improving teaching and learning of social studies.
In conducting this research, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study;
- What resources are available for teaching and learning of social studies in the study area?
- How does the teacher of social studies utilize the available resources?
- What are the problems that affect the availability of resources?
- What are the roles of school authority and government in the supply of the audio-visual resources?
- What are the ways of solving the identified problems?
Scope of the Study
The present economic situation nationwide posed a serious problem on this study, consequently the project could not be very extensive and more elaborate due to financial constraints. Distance and time also limited the researcher in covering the entire junior secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
Definition of Terms
It is important that one describes and defines the term specially used in this research work in order to ensure total clarity of all terms.
Visual Aids: Visual aids are any specifically prepared drawings illustration, model, motion, pictures, filmstrips or other devices that will expedite learning develop other meanings cultivate appreciate and stimulates interest in learning through the use of sense of sight or vision
Achievement: The act of finishing attaining and to carryout success fully a given task.
Academic Performance: It is the display or evidence of knowledge scholastic achievement of skills develop as shown by the scores in an examination
Pre-Test: Test administered before the post-test treated of the topic. It is usually given before the teaching process to know the background knowledge of the learner concerned
Post-Test: This is administered after the treatment of the topic. It is usually given at the end of the learning and was designed to know the achievement gain of knowledge in the treated topic
Junior Secondary School: The first three years spent under the first tiers programme of secondary school education of the 6-3-3-4 system.