THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN EKITI STATE

THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN EKITI STATE 
TABLE
OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                
Approval pages                                                                      
Certification                                                                          
Dedication                                                                             
Acknowledgement                                                                
Table of contents                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                 
ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study                                                       
Statement of the problem                                                    
Purpose of the study                                                            
Significance of the study                                                     
Scope of the study                                                                
Research Questions                                                             
Research Hypothesis                                                           
Delimitation of the study                                                    
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The concept of the environment                                         
The physical Environment                                                   
The social Environment                                                       
Elements of social Environment and
Academic performance 
CHAPTER THREE:
Research methodology                                                           
Research Design                                                                     
Area of the Study                                                                   
Population of the study                                                         
Sample and sampling Techniques                                         
Research Instruments                                                            
Validity of the instruments                                                    
Method of Data Collection                                                   
CHAPTER FOUR
Presentation and Analysis of Data                                        
Discussion                                                                              
FIVE:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
 Discussion of Results                                                          
Conclusion                                                                             
Recommendations                                                                 
Limitation of the studies                                                       
Suggestion for further studies                                              
Summary                                                                                
REFERENCES                                                                      
APPENDICES                                                                       
ABSTRACT
          The
study examined the environmental factors and students’ academic performance in
secondary schools. The subject for the research study were students selected in
five schools within Ikere Local Government Area. From the research study, it
was discovered that rural environment played a little role in the academic
achievement of students. Rural schools are grossly inadequate compared to urban
schools and inadequate environmental facilities that can facilitate learning in
rural environment make students abandoned rural schools for urban schools. This
research has also discovered that the students in rural area have not been able
to do better than those students in the urban area due to low level of
educational awareness of the students and unexposed to the world of technology.
Environmental factors have been seen as factors that affect students’ academic
performance either positively or negatively depending on the students
themselves. Recommendation were preferred based on environmental assistance,
parental, motivation from schools, as well as the government to make rural
environment to worthy of living for the inhabitants and because their
educational or academic endeavor.



CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
          It
has been observed that there exists inequality in the academic performances of
students. Many assumptions have been made as to the causes of this inequality.
Such researchers have traced these differences to be hereditary while some
traced it to prevailing environmental condition. Some researchers even combined
the two as a factor affecting students’ academic performance.
          It
is the belief of the researcher that the environment in which the students find
his or herself should be seen as a first hand factor that affects the students’
academic achievement. This is because environment in the whole encompasses
individuals, therefore the norms and culture should be seen as a miniature
within the environment. Thus, the environment serves as a focal point on which
all other factors contributing to students’ academic depends. Ezewu (2007)
affirmed this when he said that environment in both physical and social, and
that both geographical and social condition affects the child physically,
mentally, and emotionally. He stressed further that educators should be
interest in their children’s “environment”, as this rather than heredity is the
phenomenon they can readily assess and control. This research project aims at
taking into consideration all the environments.
          Many
researches have been conducted in many countries of the World to find out the
influence of environmental factors on students’ academic performance
          The
education profession itself has experienced significant changes and revisions
of curriculum and programme requirements in the past decades. The changes
brought new educational challenges and opportunities. Although some schools
experienced enrolment declines from time to time most schools enrolment have
notably increased in all parts of the country and every community.
          Educational
standards are continuously revised and often raided while competitions for high
achieving secondary school students have intensified (Chu & Hossler, 2000;
Mcpherson and Shapiro, 2008). The initiatives are intended to meet challenges
stemming from increased demand for educational reforms and new programmes.
Indeed the key to enhance learning is the creation of an environment that
encourages secondary school students to pursue educational activities in and
outside classrooms. In the increasingly competition markets for high quality
students entering schools, there is a need to identify and evaluate the effect
of the factor that affect the decisions to attend a particular performance and satisfaction
in schools, such factors include  the
family socio-economic background, educational achievements of both parents on
students’ academic performance. These factors create a learning environment
that affect positive school outcomes and performance (Kuh and Hu, 2001).
Furthermore, the level of education and the social status of parents are
perceived as factors that foster a socio-cultural background conducive to
positive school experience and learning.
          Some
of the researchers have found that environmental factors had significantly
lower students’ performance in rural area than the urban area (Crawford, 2002).
This assertion was shared by Urwick (2000) who reported that teachers’
preference for urban residence has been a major reason of the bias in quality
of education. This was in support of Adeyinka (2007) argument that more
teachers often leave teaching in rural areas as a stepping stone to more
respectable and rewarding careers. Confirming this point, Bello & Bello
(2010) reported that in Nigeria, many young unmarried teachers often consider
teaching in a rural school as starting point of their careers for a few years
and after establishing themselves on the job, they often move to urban centers
to settle down. In other developing countries some situation was found.
Tarring, Faraj (2000) found out in Pakistan that there is the reluctance of
teachers particularly female, to accept a rural posting, they also found that
there were numerous applications for urban posts while small rural school
division had fewer applications. This lead to the shortage of trained teachers
in rural areas than urban areas.
          In
terms of performance, Raven (2001) reported that urban students exhibit a
greater increase in academic ability and preparation than rural schools Ridzuan
(2001). Also found that “urban students” achievement in Physics, Chemistry and
additional Mathematics was superior to that of rural students. He then reported
that low achievement was associated with poor performance to learning on the
part of many students in rural schools. His findings support those of Pabor
(2002) who reported that boys in urban school were high achievers and showed
more positive attitudes in continued study of mathematics than boys in rural
schools.
          Education
has often identified as an instrument of development of societies and
individuals. Hence as a way of life, it serves as a means of transmission and
preservation of the core issue in every culture. Although three types of
educations are known to exist, the type under this study is the formal
education. Most societies tend to build their national hope and aspiration upon
this because of its competence in the instrumentality of production of high
level skilled manpower for administrative, scientific and engineering
utilization. Since student are in a unique position to provide an assessment of
their choice of school.
1.3     Statement of the Problem
          The
problem of this study is to find out the efect of the environment on the
academic achievement of secondary school students within the local government
area of the study.
          Although
the state government has taken several measures such as providing facilities
and rehabilitation of roads as well as rebuilding of some schools, yet it seems
that the performance of students has not justified the huge amount of money
which the government has been spending. The problem of this research therefore
is to examine the level in which environmental factors decline the students’
academic performance in Ikere-Ekiti Local government area of Ekiti state.
1.3     Purpose of the study
        
To examining the environmental factors
and students’ academic performance  in
some selected secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti Local Government area of Ekiti
State.
        
To compare the schools located in urban
and rural area in Ekiti State in terms of location, facilities and things that
surround the school.
        
To compare the teachers in both schools.
Thereby recommending ways of improving the academic performance of the
students.
Significance
of the study
          It
has been noted that there seems to be difference in academic performance of
students from both urban and rural areas despite the facts that they are
exposed to the same teaching experience. Environmental factors should not been
seen as the root cause of these differences in students’ academic achievement
but the child’s immediate environment for this entails both geographical,
economic and social conditions which affects the child physically, mentally and
emotionally.  The researcher is
interested in the child’s “environment” which can be easily assessed and
controlled. The
investigation is therefore hoped that it
would be of tremendous help to both the school environment and students.
          If
the investigation shows that students from 
urban environment perform better than the students from rural
environment, the class teacher will be able to fashion out teaching strategies
with up to date instructional materials to help the students from rural
environment and also the schools administrators would know how to persuade the
government concerning in the provision of basic infrastructural facilities for
the rural endowment so as to bridge the gap of difference in achievement of
students between rural area and urban environment.
Scope
of the study
The studies will
covered only five selected secondary school in Ikere Local government which
are;
       i.           
Amoye grammar school
     ii.           
Eleyo high school
  iii.           
Ikere high school
   iv.           
St Louis grammar school
     v.           
African comprehensive high school.
Research
Questions
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1.6     Research Hypothesis
Ho1  There is no significant relationship between
the environmental factors and students’ academic performance in Ikere-Ekiti
Local Government Area of Ekiti State
Ho2
   There is no significant difference
between the environmental factors and the performance of the student in rural
area compare to urban area
Ho3
   There is no significant relationship
between the environmental factors and the low rate in student academic
performance in Ekiti State.
H04
   There is no significant difference
between the responsive environment and the current student academic performance
in Ekiti state
H05
   There is no significant relationship
between the environmental factors and the job performance of teachers in Ekiti
State
1.7     Delimitation of the Study
          The
study is delimited to only public secondary schools in Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti
State, Nigeria, that are owned and financed by state government.
          Private
secondary schools were included for comparative purpose especially in the
analysis of results, although most time environmental factor are in favour of
students in private schools for it is owned and financed by a sole
proprietorship.
Limitation
of the Study
          The
research has its focus on Ikere Local Government Area, Ekiti State. The study
perhaps aimed at finding out the effects fo school environment on student
academic performance in secondary school.
          The
limitation of the study is necessitated by the resources within the disposal of
the researcher. These limited resources includes finance, time and also lack of
accurate information from the students.
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CHAPTER
II
LITERATURE
REVIEW
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