THE EFFECTS OF PARENTS – TEACHERS ASSOCIATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

THE EFFECTS OF PARENTS – TEACHERS ASSOCIATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SCHOOL  

ABSTRACT
This
study examined the Parental attitudes and child’s behavior a case study of selected
Primary Schools in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. One hundred
pupils (100) were used in the research and data was collected through
questionnaire. The questionnaire were analysed and interpreted using simple
percentages. Based on the result of the research work, it was revealed that the
parental attitude contributes to the growth or development of the child, the
way and manner which children are being brought up at home and the attitude of
the parent toward the child determine the child’s behavioural outcomes on the
basis of the findings, it is recommended that parent should serve as a good
role model and great motivator by showing good example for their children to
follow, parent should have interest in the behavioural attitude of their
children. lastly, parent should try as much as possible to take care of their
children and provide for their educational needs

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title                                                                                       Page
No
Title page                                                                                           
Certification                                                                                     
Dedication                                                                                        
Acknowledgement                                                                          
Abstract                                                                                           
Table of
contents                                                                          
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of
the Study                                                               
Statement of the
Problem                                                               
Purpose of the
Study                                                                      
Significance of
the Study                                                               
Limitation of
the Study                                                                  
Research Question                                                                          
Definition of
Terms                                                                        
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual of
Attitudes and Behavior                                       
Parental Love
that Determine Child’s Behavior                        
The Method of Parental Love:
Encouragement                                                              
and Limitation                                                                                   
The Depth and Stability of Parental Love                                               
Parental Attitudes towards Reading                                             
Parental Behaviour and Reading                                                  
The Purpose of Parental Love: How should
be                                       
   
 Children Raised                                                                         
Parental Versatile Roles                                                                 
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                                                              
Population of
the Study                                                                 
Sample and
Sampling Technique                                               
Research
Instrument                                                                                  
Validation of
the Instrument                                                         
Reliability of
the Instrument                                                         
Method of
Administration of Instrument                                    
Method of Data
Analysis                                                               
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Results                                                                                              
Discussion                                                                                        
CHAPTER
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary                                                                                          
Conclusion                                                                                      
Recommendation                                                                            
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
            Primary
school education is widely accepted as the first level of education system
where formal education begins. It is seen as very important because it ensures
that children acquire basic literacy skills and that they are taught to think
critically. It is available to all citizens in every country of the world. This
is the reason for the huge investment and involvement of governments of all
countries of the world in its administration and processes. In Nigeria, primary
education is recognised as the education given to children starting from the
age of 6 years to 11 years plus. It runs for a period of six years, and its
objectives include developing basic literacy, numeracy, communication skills,
adaptation to changing environment and transmission of the culture of the
people to younger generations. It should be noted that to fully realise the
goals and objectives of this important level of education, efforts and
resources must be pulled together by all concerned stakeholders who include
government, relevant and concerned organisations as well as parents especially.
It is for this reason that the Federal Republic of Nigeria stated in National
Policy on Education (2004) that the involvement of voluntary agencies,
communities and private individuals, parents inclusive, is welcomed.
Parental
involvement in public schools has been documented as academically beneficial by
educational researchers, supported politically, and valued by many educators
and individuals in the general public (Gonzalez-DeHass and Willems, 2003). Hung
(2007) and Mwaikimu (2012) both agreed that parental involvement is a way of
making the educational system more self-governing, developing more power at the
local level and allowing for greater accountability by schools to the society.
Moreover, they acknowledged that in general, society needs to increase its
level of educational involvement, and that this starts with the support by the
parents. Dodge et al. (2002) have noted that parents and family members have
much to offer the school in terms of support, insights and skills.
Parent
involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million, 2003). In
fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positively impacts
students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior, graduation, and life
goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these
benefits cross lines of family income and parent education level. In an era
characterized by tremendous emphasis on school accountability as measured by
students’ performance, education reform measures are replete with components
that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001).
The
parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated in Nigeria in
recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvement to enhance the
educational outcome of students. The number of PTA has been increasing
drastically. Parent Teacher Association can be identified as very important
variable that have potential directly or indirectly on student academic
achievement (Olatoye and Ogunkola, 2008).
Looking at
the quality of products that Nigeria’s primary schools turn out, it appears the
quality of education received by the students is low in terms of cognitive,
affective and psychomotor development there-by making the primary school system
ineffective. Omoregie, (2006) lamented that the primary education which is the
pivot of the entire educational system in Nigeria is fast loosing relevance, as
it is not fulfilling the national objectives as set down in the National policy
of education.
The
academic performance of primary school pupils could be attributed to several
factors but this study is restricted to the effect of parent – teachers
association (P.T.A) on educational development of primary school. It has been
noticed is some areas that schools head teacher do not involve the parents in
the administration of the schools for fear of being criticized. It appears in
some cases, parents are no longer allowed to participate in school programmes
and parents are no allowed to visit their children in school regularly to how
they fare. All these  tend  to  make  the 
parents  handicapped  in  assisting the  school 
in  the  provision  of  qualitative  education 
to  its students.
According
to Cotton and Wikelund (2001), many benefits are accrued for the school and for
parents themselves when parents become involved in their children’s school
activities. They maintained that, school personnel benefit from the improved
report that generally accompanies increased parents’ involvement.
This
rapport is often expressed in parents’ increased willingness to support school
with their labour and resources furing fund-raising activities or special
projects. Beside,  Hicks and Sammons
(1992) and Hillman and Mortimore (1995) had showed in their various studies
that parental presence in the school activities and participation in
committees’ event and other activities all had positive effects on achievement
Adewumi
(2002) also submitted that active parent involvement and positive
home-school-community relations have been shown to positively influence
effective schooling and students’ achievement. Ajayi (1999) also posited that,
effective administration of schools could be hampered where the PTA is not
performing its roles as expected. Also, Ajayi (2008) posited that, the school
and the community are interdependent and interrelated and for the relationship
between them to be meaningful, worthwhile and productive they must be willing
to assist each other to achieve their respective goals in atmosphere of love,
mutual trust and cooperation
Statement of
the Problem
Primary education has been widely
accepted as the first and most important level of education. It is for its
importance that governments all over the world as well as Nigerian government
invest massively in it. This is why the Nigerian government also welcomes the
involvement of private individuals, organisations and most especially parents
in its administration and implementation. Despite this, it seems that many
things are wrong with primary school education in Nigeria in the areas of
availability of instructional materials, curriculum implementation and
administration. This could be because parents of primary school children are
not actively involved in primary education. It is based on this background that
this study investigated the effects of Parents – Teachers Association (P.T.A)
on educational development of primary schools. Parents’ involvement in primary
school education in the areas of provision of instructional materials,
curriculum implementation and administration. An examination of involvement of
parents of public primary school education in these areas would lead to
valuable suggestions and proposition of practical steps that could be taken to
improve primary education in Nigeria.
Purpose
of the Study
The purposes of this study are:
1.       To reveal parents’ and
teachers’ perceptions towards the PTA in achieving its goals.
2.       To examine the impact of
parent involvement in the academic performance of students in the primary
school.
3.      To explore factors that have been
perceived to promote or inhibit the parents’ involvement in the academic
process of students in primary school
4.      To investigate the extent of
parents’ involvement in school administration and its effect on the development
of primary schools students.
Significance
of the Study
It is hoped that this study will provide information for
parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors
that help Parents Teachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so
doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to
their own PTAs, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational
outcomes in school.
In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public
schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In
this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to
reflect upon the rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.
Scope
of the Study
This research work focuses on the effects of Parents –
Teachers Association on educational development of primary schools in some
selected primary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This
research work covers all public primary schools students in the
aforementioned Local Government Area. However, four public primary schools will
be used as case study.
Limitation
of the Study
          Apart  from 
time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance,  the 
major  limitation to  this  research  is  the 
inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover 
the  whole public primary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti
State as the title suggest.
Research
Questions
1.       Are there any difference
between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of
PTA in achieving school goals?
2.       To what extent does parent
involvement in the academic process affect their performance in primary school?
3.      What factors have been perceived to
promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of students in
primary school?
4.      To what extent does parents’
involvement in school administration affect the development
of primary school students?
Definition of Terms
The
following terms are operationally defined below;
Government: A group of people governing a state or the national at large
            Teacher:
A person who teaches, especially in a school
            Parent:
A father or mother of children
            Schools:
Is an institution for education acquiring
Parent-Teachers Association (P.T.A):
An organization, which attempts to
bring parent and teacher together in the interest of the wards

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