THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTERGRATED SCIENCE

ABSTRACT
The focus to this student was to
investigate on the effects of instructional materials in teaching and leaning
of integrated science.
Five secondary schools were selected
in Akure south local government area in Ondo State.
200 students were randomly selected from the selected schools, the instrument
used consist of
Student Questionnaire (S.Q)
Teacher Questionnaire (T.P)
There exists a significant (positive)
change on the effect of instructional materials in teaching and learning of
integrated science. This confirms that adequate used of instructional materials
motivate student performances in integrated science.
One also needs to acknowledge that
there are many effect of instructional on academic performances, there must be
improvement on the use of the instructional materials.
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title                                                                                         Pages
Certification                                                                           
Dedication                                                                             
Acknowledgement                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                 
Table of Contents                                                                   
          CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction                                                                  
1.1     Background to
the Study                                                       
1.2     Statement of the
Problems                                            
1.3     Problem of the
Study                                                    
1.4     Research
Questions                                                      
1.5     Research
Hypothesis                                                    
1.6     Significant of
the Study                                                
1.7     Scope of the
Student/Delimitation                                
          CHAPTER TWO
2.1     Literature
Review                                                         
2.2     Selection of
Instructional Materials                             
2.3     Utilization of
Instructional Materials                  
                 
2.4     Mis-Use Instructional
AIDS                                         
          CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Research
Methodology                                                 
3.1     Research Design                                                           
3.2     Sample and
Sampling Techniques                                 
3.3     Instrumentations                                                           
3.4     Method of Data
Collection                                           
3.5     Method of Data
Analysis                                                      
          CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     Presentation and
Interpretation of Data                      
4.1     Procedure of
Data Collection                                        
4.2     Analysis of Data                                                           
4.3     Result and
Discussion                                                   
          CHAPTER FIVE
5.0     Conclusion, Recommendation
and Summary               
5.1     Conclusion                                                                    
5.2     Recommendation                                                          
5.3     Summary                                                                      
          REFERENCES                                                           
 CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACK GROUND TO THE STUDY
The substantial level at which
countries in the whole universe are anxious to improve in science and
technology every day can not be undermined. High priority has been placed on
science and technology because of the vital role it plays on the society at
large.
Science is defined as a body of
knowledge in an orderly manner, especially knowledge obtained by observation
and testing of fact, generalization pursuit of knowledge. Scientists tried to
explain and predict the way in which every thing in the world behaves.
According to Advanced learners
dictionary, science involves finding out how and why things happen natural
curiosity sometimes provide the starting point for a scientist or scientific
knowledge.
Integrated science is a major
fundamental branch of science because its principles are from branch of science
because its principles are from the function of life. Integrated science as the
foundation of all science subjects should be handled and taught properly in
secondary schools so as to produce future generation of vibrant, competent and
qualified scientist.
Integrated science as a subject of
study can be described as the linking together of all science subjects to form
a whole; the science subjects linked together include, Biology, Chemistry,
Physics, Mathematics and deals with reality of life which includes human and
every visible and invisible things. In this regard, Integrated science as a
subject should not be taught in our secondary schools as a body of theoretical
knowledge only, since it deals with theoretical and piratical aspect,
Integrated science should be taught practically most often.
The use of instructional materials
must be encouraged in the teaching and learning of integrated science so as to
make it more realistic an d effective. Although a lot of problems had led to
the poor performances of integrated science students in secondary schools, among
others as a course of study. Other facts include poor instructional materials,
poor facilities, environment factors, teachers’ altitudes, teaching skills, it
is a clear fact that the subject can be difficult, but difficulty itself is a
form of altitudes which can be broken by improving individual interest through
the use of instructional materials. PEREZ (1973) affirmed that if teachers wish
to teach science properly, the teacher must be willing to delegate to the
students’ many duties.
These materials are necessary for the
purpose of bringing about effective teaching and learning. They also concerned
with a person, material or event that established condition which enables the
learners to acquire knowledge, skills and altitudes. It could also be referred
to as instructional media
Instructional materials include text
books, object models, charts, audio visual, pictures, maps and globes these
instructional materials facilities effective teaching and learning of science
in general
IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS
1 It enhances better understanding
and good communication between the teacher and the learners.
2 It gives room for learner’s active
participation in the lesson, thereby making the lesson interesting.
3 It promote self discovery.
4 Instructional materials can be used
in the classroom to arouse the mind of readiness to learn in the learner.
5 It makes teaching effective, even
through it cannot replace the teacher; It is an auxiliary to the teacher’s
effort.
6 It make the subject to be more
realistic practically included.
7 Using of instructional materials
will have great impact in the performances of students, since it will help the
students to experiment or investigate matters using scientific skills.
8 For teacher to be successful, in
teaching integrated science, and to achieve, his/ her pre-stated objectives,
instructional materials must be readily available, timely and effectively used.
1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Integrated science is a subject which
should not be taught abstractly. Teachers should endeavor to make it their habit
to used instructional materials in teaching integrated science as a subject.
Also, they should take note either the use of instructional materials method
has many impacts or not their student’s performances. It does, positively, it
means the performance of the students will be though, instructional material
are not enough in most schools, not only secondary schools, yet those available
should be adequately used by the teachers or make improvisation, as need may
arise for those not available, so that, the students can get themselves in the
classroom lesson, especially if the teacher adopt- activities based method in
his teaching. The act of making the teaching and learning of integrated science
and chalk and talk method should be discouraged.
1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to look at the
effect of instructional materials, on the teaching and learning of integrated
science in secondary schools and their academic performance.
This study is set to achieve the
following:-
1                  
Encouraging
teachers to make use of instructional materials; in the absences the should
improvised.
2                  
To
stimulate interest and improve the method teaching integrated science with the
use of instructional materials.
3                  
To
find out either the schools are well equipped with science fertilities or
not. 
4                  
To
enlighten the teachers on the effects of the instructional aids on their
learners performances
5                  
To
find out if available instructional materials are adequately used the teachers.
6                  
To
determine both the teachers and the students attitudes towards the used of
instructional materials etc.
1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following are the
research questions arouse in the study, viz;
1                  
Where
there is no instructional material or aids will the       teaching and learning of integrated
science be effective and efficient?
2                  
When
instructional materials are adequately used by the teachers, will it affect the
academic performance of the students?
3                  
What
are the altitudes of teacher toward the use of the instructional aids?
4                  
Is
there any relationship between academic achievement and instructional material?
5                  
In
from should the instructional material for teaching integrated science be? Etc
1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research hypothesis fasted in
this study are as follows:
(i)      students that were taught with the aid of
instructional material performed better academically than those who were taught
without the aid of instructional materials.
(ii)    Instructional materials have a great effect
in the effective  
teaching and learning of integrated
science.
(iii)    There are significant relationship between
the instructional materials and effective teaching etc.
1.6     SIGNIFICANCE
OF THE STUDY
The study was intended to identify
the key roles and effects of instructional in making the teaching of integrated
science more efficient, effective and impressive and also interesting in our
secondary schools.
Also to vehemently ascertained that
the used of instructional material in the teaching of integrated science aids
retardation, so that it should be mandated for integrated science teaching in
secondary schools to make use of instructional materials during the process of
teaching and learning of integrated science.
Likewise, to make both the teachers
and learners aware that teacher performed well during when there are
instructional material. Also the learners discovered many relevant things in
their physical environments
Moreover, to show that all science
subjects should be practically oriented than theoretical.
1.7     SCOPE OF THE
STUDENT/DELIMINATION 
 
        This student is deliminated
to Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State Nigeria.
The student covered JSS1 and JSS2 students of five schools.
Integrated science will be used as
the teaching subject.
There were forty students in the
class of each five (5) schools, during this study i.e student from each of the
five schools covered by the study making a total population of 200 students
(two hundred).

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