THE EFFECT OF PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE CHOICE OF ACADEMIC CAREER AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

THE EFFECT OF PARENTAL INFLUENCE ON THE CHOICE OF ACADEMIC CAREER AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
ABSTRACT
            The study was carried out to
identify the effects of parental influence has on the child’s learning and his
future life, endeavour of student in Ikere 
Local Government Area of Ekiti State. A student population of 50 student
drawn from five Secondary School in Ikere Local Government Area randomly
selected was used for the study to each student questionnaire was administered
and answer offered were collated and analysed. The result obtained from the
study show that, illiterate parents have little or no time to their children’s
education children from educated home background show more interest in
education lack of motivation and parents forcing them to do their will. It was
also found out that only few students are interested in their parent’s
occupation. Discoveries from the study reveals that illiterate parents have no
interest in their children academic growth, parents are not a factor
influencing the choice of career among their children. Furthermore, there is no
significant different between children from educated home towards Education of
given the necessary motivation.  This is
due to the fact that a consideration number of children live without parental
support, as in orphans, children living in the streets, displaced and refused
children who on account of the poverty of their parents are subjected to
inhuman and sadistic ordeals.  This
reduces their desire to learn as it happens frequently in Ikere Local Government
Area of Ekiti State.
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TABLE
OF CONTENTS
Title Page                                                                                                                  
Certification                                                                                                             
Dedication                                                                                                                
Acknowledgement
                                                                                                
Abstract                                                                                                                    
Table
of Contents                                                                                                   
CHAPTER ONE                                                                            
1.1           
Background of Study                                                            
1.2           
Statement of Problem                                                            
1.3           
Objective of Study                                                                         
1.4           
Research Question                                                                  
1.5           
Significance of Study                                                           
1.6           
Scope of Study                                                                      
1.7           
Limitation of the Study                                                          
1.8           
Assumption/Hypothesis of the Study                                           
1.9           
Definition of Terms                                                                
CHAPTER TWO                                                                                     
2.0 Literature Review                                                                  
2. 1    Why
People Choose Career                                                    
2.2     Factor Influencing Choice of Career                                       
2. 3    Why
Parents Influence Career Choice                                           
2.4     Problems Associated With Career
Choice                              
2.5     Positive Influence of Parents of
Career Choice                     
2.6     Historical Overview of Parental
Influence on Career Choice  
2.7     Theories of Career Choice     
                                               
CHAPTER THREE                                                                     
3.0     Research Methodology                                                         
3.1     Research Design                                                                     
3.2     Source of Data                                                                       
3.3     Population of Study                                                               
3.4     Sampling Technique                                                               
3.5     Research
Instrument                                                                
3.6     Administration of Instrument                                                 
3.7           
          Validity of Instrument                                                            
3.8           
          Reliability of Instrument                                                                 
3.9           
          Method of Data Analysis                                                       
CHAPTER FOUR                                                                          
4.0     Analysis and Interpretation of
Result                                              
CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                     
5.1     Summary, Recommendation
and Conclusion                                  
5.1     Conclusion                                                                            
5.2     Recommendation                                                                    
5.3     Recommendation of the Student                                            
5.4     Recommendation to the Parent                                                        
5.5     Recommendation of the School
Administration                     
5.6     Recommendation to Further
Researchers                              
REFERENCES                                                                               
QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                        

CHAPTER ONE
1.10      
Background of Study
Career choice has become a complex
science with the advent of information technology, the emergency of post
industrial revolution and job competition. And as such, education is
universally recognised to be the answer to socio-economic problems of the
world. Nation and individuals look up to education to provide a clue or
possibly, a cure for poverty, ignorance, jobless, hunger, bad governance, poor
communication system and inadequate shelter among other things. Every nation of
the world aspires towards quality of life and social status. Most student who
are in secondary schools do not have adequate information about occupational
opportunities to help them make appropriate career choice. This has led to so
many swing of career path after graduation from the university. Hence, this has
highlighted career selection as one of many important choice students make in
determining future plans; these decision will impart them throughout their
lives. Hence it is important to figure out the factors or determinant of career
choice among secondary school student; so as to see if it can help to guide
student to make the right and rational career choice. Thus, with the advent of
information technology, the emergence of post – industrial revolutions and job
competition, the choice of career has become a complex science (Okafor, 2012).
These have given risen interest to scholars on the factors influencing career
choice not just among student alone, but among adults. The essence of who the
student is, will revolve around what the students want to do with their
lifelong work. No matter ones age, the choice of career or desire is an
important question for everybody. A lot of students in secondary schools
believe that their future is a glorious adventure in which they are bound to
succeed (salami and salami, 2013). Many of them have the idea that they would
be able to work in the public or private establishments as soon as they
complete their secondary education. Student in secondary schools  like many other young adult are always
worried about what they will do with their lives, the kind of adult are always
worried about what they will do with their lives, the kind of adult they will
become. They are concerned about early entry into the occupational world and
finding productive and rewarding place in and out rapidly, fast changing
societies where employment is unlikely to be available on a scale sufficient to
absorb more than a small fraction of the young people when they do arrive at
the labour market. How the young people of today meet the problem for tomorrow
ill depend upon the amount of success they make in planning for that tomorrow.
          Today one has not only to make due
career planning but also exhaustive career research before making a career
choice so as to adjust with the evolving socio-economic conditions. (Wattles,
2009). According to Kerka (2000), career choice is influenced by multiple
factors which include personality, interest, self concept, cultural identity,
globalization, socialization, role model, social support and available resource
such as information and finances. Hewitt (2010), suggested that most people are
influenced by career that their parent favour, others follow the career that
their educational choice have opened for them, some choice to follow their
passion regardless of how much or little it will make them; while others choose
the career that gives high income. McQuaid and Bond (2003) cited that student
perception of being suitable for particular jobs also has been found to be
influenced by a number of factors which include ethnic background, years in
school, level of achievement, choice of science subject, attitudes and
difference in job characteristics. However, research show that the choice of
career among secondary school student is determined by a combination of
personal abilities, personality type and other factors (Okafor, 2012). This is
why Onayase and Onayase, (2009) suggested an investigation into other factors
which include some environmental factor such as family background, school
environment, religious and peer group influence. Career according to Cambridge
Advance Learner’s Dictionary (2005) refers to ‘‘job or series of job that you
do during your working life’’. Thus, choosing a career, simply means choosing a
life job. However, all career have their subject requirement, personality
characteristic and personal abilities while are supposed to be fully assessed
before individual can be deemed to be qualified to go into specific career
(Onayase and Onayase, 2009). Career choice is influence by multiple factors
include personality, interest, self concept, identity, globalization,
socialization, role model, social support and available resources such as
information and finance (Kerka, 2000). Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara,
Pastorell, 2001) cited that each individual undertaking the process is
influenced by several factors including the context in which they live in,
their personal aptitudes, social contacts and educational attainment.
Hence,
Okafor (2012) cited that generally, the choice of a career is influenced by
parents, friends and counsellors. Variations occur from one population to the
other. In Kenya, every secondary school student (SSS) makes their career choice
before sitting for West African Examination Council (WAEC). The result of this
final examination determining who Joins University since admission into careers
are determined by grades obtained from it. When these students graduate from
the universities, some of them enter into occupations that are totally
different from the ones they had chosen and training for. The aim of this study
is to look at how gender, home background and student learning outcome
influence choice of career among secondary school students in Nigeria, using
some selected schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti state.
Career play a very fundamental and significant role in the
life of the individual not only because they determine the pattern of income
but also because they affect the individual personality and concepts in life,
career therefore is a choose pursuit, life work or success in one’s profession
occupied by a person throughout his/her lifetime.  In a nutshell, career is the totality of work
one does in his life time and is person centred it is of utmost importance to
every individual as he or she prepares for the future.
          Career choice is something very hard
to decide, especially as his life will depend on it. Her (2003) indicated that,
career is the totality of experience through which one learns about and
prepares to engage in work as part of his way of living ‘ Splete (12001) Stress
career is an enjoying process that occurs over the life span and includes
homes, schools and community. Every human being needs to do one job or the other
to help contribute his quote to the development of the country.
          Ipaye (2000) refers to the need for
one to discuss with one’s peer school counsellors, parents and teachers on the
need to choose a life span work as “career convention” or “career conference”.
However, career convention according to him is an instrument of career
information. This occurs for a number of reasons, which includes:
1.                
To stimulate career thinking and widen occupational horizon.
2.                
To focus attention on particular jobs in order to help an
individual crystallizes his preference and to create a situation in which
parents can on one hand meet employers and discuss the opportunities they offer
and on the other hand meet the career teachers or career officers with whom
they can exchange views.
Work experience during industrial training or those
experiences acquired during vocational education also aids the students in
choice of career. This is a techniques in which students do job under realistic
conditions without payment this may help them choose a career to that effect.
          James (2004) Observes that the
influence home has on the child’s learning is the fundamental concepts of
life.   This cause and most of the habits
and basic adjustment were established during pre-school years. The highlights
the fact that home and parents occupy the most important position in the
child’s education. It should be stressed that work experience is not an attempt
to find job for the students but an attempt to widen the horizons of students
and ease the ultimate transition from school to work. This is usually based on
the information given to the school by the parents, such guidance and
information are necessary because most school children are adolescents and are
controlled by double standards, hypocrisy, truancy, materialism, dishonesty
etc. .
          The factor that may influence choice
of career includes.
Ø Socio-economic factors
Ø Personal or family factors
Ø Cultural factors, which include
schools, peer group, age and work experience. 
The effect of parental influence on choice of career is both negative
and positive this is due to: security factors
Ø No usual hazards to health
Ø Assured steady income
Ø Certainty of continued employment
Ø Career or occupational satisfaction
Ø Prestige
Ø Social rewards.
To increase students interest and ability to use his hands
and brains, the parents, must be involved to give desired assistance/guidance
to the students.
1.11      
Statement of Problem
This research is based on the effect of parental influences
on the choice of career among secondary school students in Ikere Ekiti Local
Government Area of Ekiti State. The parents may desire what they think is good
or best for their ward.
This may affect the child positively if the child can cope
with it but negatively when such a child has other things in mind, which he/she
wishes to do. The result of this is that the child may not concentrate on the
parents needs and so may not adjust positively towards the career. This
sometimes leads to students waywardness, secrete cult involvement, armed
robbery and so on. The child may not cope with the parents continual force
against his/her will. 
The world is marking such drastic demand upon the coming
workers every truthful man and woman every teaches and reflecting parents is
planning way to fit the students for the life and needs of this new century.
This statement which is still relevant today was written by Mejer Bloomfield in
his book ‘finding ones place in life in (2007) since the early 2000 career
development or vocational guidance at it was then known has increasingly gained
more and more attention and respect in essence career counselling is a
specialty within the profession of counselling one that fosters vocationally
development and work adjustment of individual abilities interest and goals with
the work roles structured by the community and occupation organised by
companies and assist a developing and deciding individual to make suitable and
viable choice why examine the factors affecting career choice on senior
secondary school students, in the past and even now for many. It was assumed
that on individual going through late adolescent would be developing their
independence and slowly eliminating his or her family’s constraints as he or
she formed his or her own identity into the larger word in effect the person
would make career decision based on his or her own interest research and
occupational goals with limited influence from others. Infact even when young
adult move away from home, their family will likely still have a strong
influence upon them on two significant life events marriage and their
career.   
1.12      
Objective of Study
The main purpose of this study is the attempt to find out
the effect of parental influence on the choice of career among students in Ikere
Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
It will as much as possible, try to find out to what extent,
the influence of the parent will play on the students choice of career, and
whether the influence will always aid the students positively or negatively.
It will also focus on how processing techniques. Learned
from  family system can lead to effective
career counselling research concerning the impact of a family social economic
status has ultimately divided this lack of consensus is partially during 60 the
limited research in this particular are as it is rarely the main focus of the
students. (Brown, 2001) but also because of the lack of detail given by the
researcher about their participants. 
1.13      
Research Question
The research question which the
study attempt to verify are as follows:
       i.           
Do you always desire most things your friends do?
     ii.           
Is student’s choice of career influenced by their peer
group?
  iii.           
Does career choice affect the academic performance of
students?
  iv.           
Is your choice of career based on your interest and value
towards that career?
     v.           
Illiterate parents have no influence on their children’s
choice of career?
1.14      
Significance of Study
The importance of this researcher work is to investigate to
what extent the influences of the parent will affect the student choice of
career and the attendance performance of students on the subject that would
heard them successfully toward this occupation or job as a life span endeavour.
i.                  
It will enable the research give recommendations to the
parents about their children’s response to the advice five to them.
    
ii.                       
It will enable the researcher make concrete recommendations
to the government about the choice of career among students especially now that
the rate of unemployment is high.
 
iii.                       
It will enable the researcher to make recommendation to
school administrators.
 
iv.                       
The findings will also enable the researcher made
recommendations for further research on the issue of career prospects.
    
v.                       
It will enable the peer and the students community to have
an impact on the youth adult expectation and perception of vocation.
1.15      
Scope of Study
The research study is limited to the effect of parental
influence on the choice of career among student’s in Ikere Ekiti Local
Government Area of Ekiti State. This research work will cover five secondary
schools in Ikere Ekiti Local Government Area. Three public and two private
secondary school, were selected:
Ø    Amoye Grammar School
Ø    Bobas high School
Ø    Demonstration Secondary School
Ø    Eleyo high School
Ø    Comprehensive High School
Furthermore, for the survey to be properly conducted
questionnaire will be employed. Students’ questionnaires, teacher’s
questionnaires and parents questionnaires will be given to men and women in the
community to know their degree of involvement in their children’s education and
choice of career.
1.16      
Definition of Terms
Ø    Career – A chosen pursuit or course of
business activity or enterprise, especially one’s professional life or
employment that offers advancement and honour.
Ø    Influence– The power of acts by which parents
or a person has to control the desire of another.
Ø    Choice: An act of choosing between two or
more possibility. The right to choose or the possibility of choosing.
Ø    Factors: One of several thing that cause or
influence something or somebody to include as particular fact or situation when
you are thinking about or planning something.
Ø    Effective:
Producing strong feeling of sadness
and sympathy.
Ø    Counseling:
This is the process where a troubled
or a confused person is helped by a professional to solve his problem and to
make better adjustment to his society.  
Ø    Guidance: This is the process of helping the
student to understanding himself and his environment in other to develop self
defectiveness.
Ø    Personality:
a characteristics way of thinking, feeling and behaving (Britannica, 2002). The
personality is the collection of impression in the appearance of the student’s
body and the impression believed to have been made on others, good or bad. Ones
personality may embrace attitudes and opinions that affect the way we deal with
interactions of people and in particular to this study, the situation of
choosing a career.
Ø    Environment:
the complex physical factors that make up our surrounding (Britannica, 2002)
and in turn act upon us for the purpose of this study they would include the
forces of family, social and economic issues that both typical and non-typical
students may deal with on a day-to-day basis.
Ø    Opportunity:
those choices in one’s life which are exposed either in a subtle or obvious
manner. These choices or paths give the individual a selection between two or
more outcomes. The outcomes of one’s choosing may or may not exceed one’s
present abilities.
Ø    Family:
the people one lives with and sees daily.
Ø    Peers:
peers are adolescents who are about the same age of maturity level.
Ø    Students:
in this study, it refers to individuals who are officially admitted and
registered in the secondary and non secondary school system as full time
candidates.

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