THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON THE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON THE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS 
ABSTRACT
Most often, chemical concepts appears
to be abstract in nature to the extent that most teachers of chemistry adopt
the lecture method of teaching.  Hence
the need for the application of technology to the teaching of chemistry.  This study was designed to examine the
factors that affect the utilization of ICT in the teaching of chemistry in
secondary schools in Ekiti
State.  The study adopted an expost factor research
design.  The target population comprises
of one hundred and twenty chemistry teachers public secondary schools randomly
selected from the Ikere local government areas of Ekiti State.  A type questionnaire on the factors affecting
the utilization of ICT in teaching chemistry in secondary schools were
constructed for this study.  The
reliability coefficient of 0.72 was obtained using cowbach alpha method.  Descriptive statistics of frequency counts,
percentage, mean and standard alleviation were used to provide answers to the
research questions.  The findings of the
study revealed that the level of utilization of ICT by chemistry teachers in
secondary school level is low.  The
findings also revealed that power supply, time, cost availability and
accessibility are the major constraints to the utilization of ICT facilities in
secondary schools.  The findings also
show that social and health problems caused by information overload does not
affect the utilization of ICT by the teachers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                        
CERTIFICATION                                                                           
DEDICATION                                                                       
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                      
ABSTRACT                                                                           
TABLE OF CONTENT                                                         
CHAPTER          I:
1.0     INTRODUCTION                                                                 
1.1     Background
to the study                                                        
1.2     Statement
of Problem                                                   
1.3     Research
Questions                                                      
1.4     Scope
of the study                                                                  
1.5     Significance
of the study                                                    
1.6     Definition
of Terms                                                      
CHAPTER II:
2.0           
LITERATURE
REVIEW                                              
2.1     Theoretical
Framework                                                
2.2     ICT
and Education in Nigeria
                                      
2.3     Need
for ICT in Education                                            
2.4     Teaching
of Chemistry Using ICT                                
2.5     Problems
Inhibiting the Utilization of ICT in
Secondary Schools                                                      
2.6     Implementation
of ICT in Secondary Schools              
2.7     Appraisal
of Literature Review                                             
CHAPTER III:
3.0           
METHODOLOGY                                                       
3.1     Research
Design                                                           
.2     Population                                                                
3.3     Sample
and Sampling Techniques                                
3.4     Instrument                                                               
3.5     Validity
of the Instrument                                            
3.6     Reliability
of the Instrument                                         
3.7     Procedure
for Data Collection                                      
3.8     Method
of Data Analysis                                                       



CHAPTER IV:
4.0           
RESULT                                                                                
4.1     Presentation
of Socio – Demographic Data                                      
CHAPTER V:
5.0     DISCUSSION,
RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION       
5.1     Discussion
of the Findings                                                     
5.2     Recommendation                                                                    
5.3     Conclusion                                                                             
5.4     Limitation
of the study                                                           
5.5     Suggestions
for Further Research                                           
          REFERENCES                                                                    



CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                
INTRODUCTION
1.1           
Background to the study
There has indeed been a scientific
revolution in the 20th century. 
This revolution has touched all aspects of life such as industries of
all types – pharmaceuticals, chemicals, clothing, wood, medicine, agriculture
and construction.  Information and
communication technology have already shrunk the world into a global
village.  In all, science has also been a
key factor.
Science is the search for meaning or
explanation of event in nature. Oguniyi (1986) as cited by Oladosu (2010),
observed science as an attempt by human beings to organize their experience
about nature into meaningful systems of explanation.
Science is a dynamic human activity
concerned with understanding the working of our world, science enable man to
explain how the world, events and objects around him originate, develop,
operate or function (Olagunju 2003).  It
also helps him to predict how they will behave in future and also enable him to
control behaviour of things around him, once he is able to develop the
appropriate instruments for such control (Nwala, 1997).
The development in science and
technology has been the most effective factors in enabling less developed
countries to enter the mainstream of contemporary technology and commerce.
UNESCO Congress Report (1981), as
cited by Lewis and Kelly (2007), emphasized that science and technology and
their teaching in formal and non formal education of peoples lives and a
priority objectives of cultural development.
Technology, according to Black and
Harrison (2008) is the practical method which has enable human being to raise
itself above the animals and to create its habitat, food supply, comfort and
means of health, travel and communication to them, technology is necessary for
achieving a wild range of human purposes.
Science education gives children
awareness of technology and develop their personal experiences.
It is an essential vehicle to provide
human resources development, modernization and overall development of countries
(UNESCO 1981).
Science education also improves the
education of future scientists and fosters a greater and more relevant
understanding of nature and the finding of science among the population as a
whole (Lewis & Kelly 2007).
The objectives of secondary education
as stated by the Federal Government in the National Policy of Education (2004)
is to equip students to live effectively in this modern age of science and
technology.  Hence the major goals of
science education is to develop scientifically, literature individual that are
concerned with high competence for national thought and actions.
The objective of science education as
stated by Onwu (1993) cited by Olagunju (2003) includes the needs to prepare
the students to.
i.                  
Observe
and explore the environment
ii.                
Explain
simple natural phenomena
iii.             
Develops
scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity.
iv.             
Apply
the skills and knowledge acquired through science to solve everyday problems in
the environment.
v.                
Develop
self confidence and self reliance through problem solving activities in
science.
In order to achieve these objectives,
several strategies and resources have evolved ranging from human to materials
including audio visual to catch the attention of learners during lessons.
The contribution of chemistry to
human existence and development can be seen in the provision of secured and
stable means of obtaining the basic necessities of life such as food, clothing
and shelter (CESA, 2006). Chemistry has also contributed immensely to the socio
economic development of the Nation in the following areas – employment
generation, provision of raw materials for industries, research, foreign exchange
earning, medicine and many more areas. 
This chemistry in general, involves investigation and understanding the
substance that makes up our environment.
According to Okoronkwo (2009),
chemistry has central role in science education providing the molecular
alphabet for science.  To him, chemistry
interacts and overlaps with mathematic, physics, biology, geology,
environmental science, engineering and other disciples.  Hence, there is virtually nothing in the
world that is not related to chemistry.
The importance of chemistry and
chemistry education came up in a number of places, yet the fortunes are
gradually dwindling year by year.  The
interest in teaching and learning chemistry has gone down so much, that one
needs to take a look at the result of the students at both WAEC and NECO
examination (Okoronkwo, 2009).
The desire for effective teaching of
chemistry arose from the government, teacher and the stakeholders in education
that an entrenched dogmatic approach to the subject was destroying its ability
to adopt to change brought about by new discovering, new social and education
needs.
Yinusa (1990) as cited by Ademejo
(2010) stated that the rate at which science is advancing and its teaching
procedures are being improved required that facilities should be flexible and
adaptable has possible.  Ajadi (2008)
opined that teaching and learning are processes involving activities,
inculating knowledge and patterns of interaction between teacher and learner,
and between learner and learning materials. 
Therefore, effective teaching and learning at any level of education are
dependent on the instructional strategies used which is the major factor
responsible for the level of performance by the students.
Instructional materials or teaching
aids are useful in any classroom situation because it is a devise used in
bringing the outside world into the classroom.
Thorson (2000) says if students are
to effectively contextualized what is to be learnt within a short time and
limited space, a variety of made a approach must be used to present the
information.  Hence the major function of
instructional material is enhancement of teaching and learning.
Towards the end of the 20th
century and the dawn of the 21st century marks the era of
information technology where computer is playing an important role (Olagunju,
2003).  The need for computer technology
and literacy in our educational system has become more relevant in recent
years, in 1988, the Federal Government launched the National Policy on computer
literacy at all levels of our educational system.  At the secondary school level, of our
education, Abimbade (1997) cited the following main curricular content areas.
i.                  
Rudimentary
knowledge about information system
ii.                
Information
processing technologies and the role of computer in this regard.
iii.             
Exposure
to the historical overview and the development of modern day computer and its
basic component
iv.             
Knowledge
about the uses to which computer are put in everyday life.
v.                
A
basic appreciation of how a computer work
vi.             
Understanding
the basic principle of operating a computer
vii.           
Hands
on experiences using pre – programmed package which are relevant to the
internet of the students as teaching aid in different subjects.
viii.        
Introduction
to the concepts of different computer language and their application.
ix.             
Appreciation
of problem solving methods and techniques as they apply to the computer
programme design, coding and documentation.
Development of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) has therefore broken all national and
international barriers and turn the world into a global village making
information available to everybody, anywhere and at anytime (Abimbade, 1997).
Technology has found its way into the
classroom in a dramatic manner to become part of teaching and learning
processes in education especially in science education (Alese, Adetunnibi and
Ogundele, 2009).
Technology, by its nature is
concerned with the endless search for easier, faster and better ways of doing
things in all sphere of human activities including communication and education.  The basic concepts of the education system
are being replaced as the challenges towards education cannot be solved anymore
within the existing educational framework.
The paradigm shift to computer,
especially when they are linked in network have the potential to change
everyday classroom practice.  The impact
of the use of Information and Communication Technology, (ICT) in education will
not only be for the actors involve in the learning processes but will also
change the instructional infrastructure, relations and patterns of behaviour
within the education system (Alese, 2007).
Information and Communication
Technology, ICT, has fundamentally change the ways in which we measure, hardly
data and access information.  It does not
only provide means to fulfill curriculum needs, it offers uniques opportunities
to extend work in the classroom (Alese et al 2009).  It was stressed further that when properly
used, ICT afford insights, possibilities and efficiencies that are difficult to
achieve in other way.  ICT also extends
pupils and efficiencies that are difficult to achieve in other way.  ICT also extends pupils ability to exercise
choice, work independently and make connection between their studies and wider
world.
ICT improves students capabilities
when they learn to organize complex information, recognize pattern, draw
inferences, communicate findings and learn better organizational and problem
solving skills.
ICT stands for Information and
Communication Technology and is defined as a derives set of technological tools
and resources used to communicate and create, disseminate, store and manage
information.
The application of technology to
teaching and learning ranges from the use of computers, the internet, broad
coasting technologies (Radio and Television, and Telephone).
According to Alese (2007), ICT in
education can be understood as the effective use of electronic computers and
computers software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve
information for learning purposes.
The potential of each technology
varies according to how it is used Haddad and Daxler 1995, identify five level
of technology used in education as follow presentation, demonstration, drill
and practice, interaction and collaboration.
Alese (2007) pointed out the main application
of ICT in chemistry as;
a)                
Information
resources
b)               
Data
logging
c)                
Data
based, spread sheets and graphical calculators
d)               
Stimulation
and modeling
e)                
Publishing
and presentation softwares
Jeans and Paddock (2005) are of the
opinion that the use of ICT in education can be divided into three broad
categories, namely computers, broadcasting (Television and Radio) as well as
Distance learning.
This study will investigate the use
of computer and computer software in the process of teaching as well as the
factors determining the utilization of ICT in the teaching of chemistry in
secondary schools.
Computer managed instruction (CMI)
involves the use of computer in scheduling courses or subject, space
utilization, inventory and personal control, recording and reporting attendance
school accounting, storage and retrieved of study of information, computation
and reporting of marks and word processing. 
Computer stimulations is an advanced skills instruction which improved
the interaction educational technologies with which students learn to organize
complex information, reorganize patterns draw inferences and communicate
finding and learn better organizational and problem solving skills.
Video disc system store video
pictures, still pictures aid sound on disc that students can use in their
studies.
These system can provide the
interactive capabilities of computers and the motion picture capability of
videos.
Use of Internet: The internet is a
collection of computers, all linked together to share information worldwide,
through the use of internet, students and the teacher can search for
information, read newspapers or listen to news, send and received mails
(E-mail) and do many other things.
Even though, ICT has been making
tremendous impact on science education, the rate of adoption and utilization of
ICT as a tool for teaching chemistry has not be encouraged.  Horgan (1998) observed that despite that,
much has been written about the value of ICTs in teaching and learning, studies
have shown that successful integration of technology into the secondary schools
depends not only on availability and access but also on the extent to which
teacher embrace these technologies.
Hafkin and Taggart (2001) noted that
factors which affect the use and non – use of ICTs by men actually be different
from those that affect the use and non – use by women.  Therefore, Hafkin and Taggart (2001) identify
the following as the factor that can affect the use of ICTs in teaching:
i)                  
Availability: As identify by Horgan (1998), the
non – availability of most of the computer softwares has contributed immensely
to its non – adoption and under utilization in most secondary schools.  There are no computer rooms in some schools;
those that have one or two computers are packed under lock in the principal’s
offices.  Ajayi et al (2009) revealed
that ICT facilities where not available in secondary schools due to inadequate
funding by the government.
ii)               
Access to ICTs Infrastructure: Most secondary school teachers do
not have access to the computer and other equipments connected to the
computer.  Oyejola (2007) and Fakeye
(2006) opined that accessibility to computer and the familiarity with
information communication technology are function of the teacher background.  This is due to the fact that most of the
teachers are computer illiterates.  Since
they do not have knowledge of the computer and those that have the knowledge of
the computer do not have access to personal computer or school computer because
of financial constraint on the part of the teacher and the school.
iii)             
Lack of power supply: Irregular power supply (Okebukola
2000, Yusuf 2005, Ofodu 2007 cited by Ajayi et al 2009), will affect the
utilization of ICT in teaching chemistry since ICT is made up of electronic
devices or equipment.  Hence, all aspect
of teaching and learning using let for effective instructional strategy largely
on the electricity supply or other means of generating electricity to power the
equipments. 
It should be
noted that lack of regular supply of electricity by the government can jeopardize
the flow of work with ICT in teaching. 
Also, fuel scarcity can hinder the adequate utilization of those
equipments.
iv)             
Time: As identified by Hafkin and Taggart
(2001), time factor is another constraint to the utilization of ICT in teaching
chemistry because working on computer is time consuming.  Since the normal lesson duration time is
forty minutes and teaching using computer operation will takes more than time
schedule for the teaching of subjects. 
Chemistry is also voluminous, teachers feels that working on the
computer will waste most of their time and embark on the theoretical aspect of
teaching chemistry.  Also the fast
response survey system (FRSS) contained in Nigeria National centre for
education statistics (NCES) (2000), identified lack of release of time to learn
how to use computer and lack of time in the class schedule for students to use
computer as barrier that teacher encountered in using computer in the
classroom.
v)               
Gender Barrier: This is also an important factor
that can affect the effective utilization of ICT in secondary schools, since
most of the secondary schools teachers are females.  Considering the use of ICT in teaching, a lot
of students (Lavatt and Blake, 2001, Selweyin, 2003; Sorenson and Stewart ,
2004) have noted that there are disparities in the use of ICT between male and
female teachers, it is generally believed that women are lagging behind men
when it comes to the availability and accessibility and the used of ICTs, this
is due to heave domestic responsibility placed on women and also some cultural
beliefs which prevents young girls and woman from accessing and using ICTs.
vi)             
Computer literacy of the teacher: Computer literacy is the knowledge
and ability a person has to use computer and technology efficiently.  It can also be referred to as knowing how
computers works and operate, the technical constraint as identified by Ajadi
and Adeoye (2005), Mujibul (2007), is also a major problem of ICT utilization
in secondary schools.
                    Okafor
and Umonyang (2008) found out that most of the secondary schools teacher lack
computer knowledge and information literacy which is a result of limited
exposure and low level of awareness of ICT. 
Thos who claim to have the knowledge have poor access to the ICT so the
knowledge is limited to the theoretical aspect of it rather than the practical
aspect.
vii)          
Social and Health Problem: Social effects of ICT are
manifested in increased tension and competition in the work place, lowered
productivity, decreased benevolence to others, spiritual emptiness, longer
working days and less leisure.  More so,
adverse health consequences of ICTs includes increase in teacher’s blood
pressure, cardio – vascular stress and digestive disorders, memory
difficulties, lack of concentration, headaches, stomach and muscle pain and
weakened vision compound, the teachers problem as he or she spend much time on
computer, R.O. Ekoko (2005).
Based on the foregoing and
considering the role and use of ICT in the teaching and learning of chemistry
at the secondary level of the educational system, there is the need to examine
the utilization of ICT in the teaching of chemistry at the secondary level of
the educational system, there is the need to examine the utilization of ICT in
the teaching of chemistry in Nigeria secondary school levels especially in
Ekiti State.
1.2           
 Statement of Problem
The wide use of ICT in all walks of
life and its attendant revolution in the teaching and learning process cannot
be over- emphasized.  Its integration
between the teaching and learning process could make the work of teacher
effective, meaningful and more accessible. 
Therefore, this study would be designed to find out the effect of ICT in
the teaching of chemistry in selected secondary schools in Local Government Area
of Ekiti State.
1.3           
Research Questions
The following research questions were
addressed
1)               
What
is the teacher level of ICT utilization in the teaching of chemistry?
2)               
What
is the level of availability of ICT facilities for teaching chemistry in
secondary schools?
3)               
How
accessible are these ICT facilities, where available to the chemistry teachers?
4)               
Which
of the following factors viz:
a)                
Power
supply
b)               
Time
factor
c)                
Social
and health problem
d)               
Computer
literacy of the teachers
e)                
Financial
problems, hinder the utilization of ICT in teaching chemistry?
1.4           
Scope of the study
          This
study investigated the effect of ICT in the teaching of chemistry in selected
secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti Local Government of Ekiti State.  The study would involve thirty (30) chemistry
teachers from ten (10) secondary schools.
1.5           
Significance of the study
The rate at which poor results of
chemistry is increasing has call for effective teaching of Chemistry in
secondary.  This is evident even in the
just released West African Examination Council results for May/June 2014. The
search for effective teaching of chemistry in secondary schools has led to the
use of instructional materials which are useful in bringing the outside world
into the classroom, which have paved ways for the information and communication
technology in secondary schools.
This study further reiterates the
usefulness of information and communication technology in the teaching of
chemistry.  Also the study is an eye
opener to the curriculum designers in the area of suggestion, appropriate strategies
for curriculum implementation.
Finally, the findings from this study
will also enable the government to embark on the process of rapid
computerization of public secondary schools both in the urban and rural areas
as a way of improving the teaching of chemistry in particular and other science
subject in general.
1.6           
Definition of Terms
The following terms are operationally
defined as used in this study.
1)               
Teaching
effectiveness: This refers to knowledge and organization of the subject matter,
skills in instruction, personal qualities and attitudes that are useful when
working with the students.
2)               
ICT:
Information and Communication Technology which enhances the use of computer and
other electronic based facilities.
3)               
Utilization:
This involve the adaptation and integration of ICT facilities into the teaching
and learning of chemistry.
4)               
Factors:
These are the determinants i.e. things that determine the success or failure of
other thing.  Utilization, it involve the
adaptation of ICT facilities into the teaching and learning of chemistry.
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