THE CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE.

THE
CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EMURE
LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI
STATE.

BY
IBIDAPO
AANUOLUWAPO IBITOLA
MATRIC NO: 2013/2008
DEPARTMENT OF
HEALTH EDUCATION. FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA
NSUKKA
OCTOBER,
2017



THE CONSEQUENCES
OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT
AREA OF EKITI STATE.
A RESEARCH
PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH EDUCATION. FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA
IN PARTIAL
FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF
SCIENCE IN HEALTH EDUCATION
BY
IBIDAPO
AANUOLUWAPO IBITOLA
MATRIC
NO:
2013/2008
OCTOBER,
2017



CERTIFICATION
PAGE
Ibidapo
Aanuoluwapo Ibitola
An undergraduate student in the
Department of Heath Education and With Reg
No. 2013/2008
has satisfactory completed the requirement for course and
research work for the degree of B.sc Ed. The work embodied in this project is
original and has not been submitted in part or full for any other Diploma or
Degree of this or any other university
________________                                                ______________________
Supervisor                                                     Head of Department

 




APPROVAL
PAGE
            This
project has been approved for the department of Health Education Faculty of
Education, University
of Nigeria, Nsukka, Ikere
–Ekiti Campus

By
________________                                    ______________________
Supervisor
                                        Internal
Examiner
________________                                    ______________________
External
Examiner                           Head of Department
___________________________________
Dean of Faculty



DEDICATION
This project is
dedicated to God Almighty who has been my hope and strength and for sparing my
life throughout the programme, my life has been an example of his grace. It is
also dedicated to the best parent in the world Mr and Mrs I.O Ibidapo



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
            Life is not a
bed of roses but a field to succeed in one
must preserve in the face of tribulation and be courageous when faced with
difficulties, considering the fact that the path of success is full of
challenges and there is a royal road to success today, My sincere gratitude and
appreciation goes to my project supervisor Mr Fajemibola N.B who painstakingly
read through the manuscript and made all necessary correction in order to make
it succeed. Also, I wish to appreciate the effort of all the lecturers in my
department in persons of Mr. T.T Alade, Mr S.O Dada, Mrs A.A. Ibikunle, Mr O.M.
Peter -Ajayi, Mr C.G Aribamikan, Mrs R.O Agunbiade , Mrs V.D Owolabi and my HOD
Mr A.A. Ilugbusi for their parental advice.
            I
also have to record my indebtedness to my father Mr I.O Ibidapo (Baba Olorire)
for his unfading support through the thick and thin of acquiring this education
through financial and moral support. I pray that God in his infinite mercy will
grant you long life and Good health for you to cat the fruit of your labour. My
appreciation also goes to my mother Mrs. E.A. Ibidapo (Iya Olorire) for her
relenting effort over me right from my primary education up to this stage of my
life, you have been my pillar and support even when I want to relent in my
effort, you always give me hope, and reasons why I should proceed, I will also
appreciate your effort over this research project, it was has if we were both
carrying out the research, because we went through all the stress together I
pray the Good lord will grant you long life and Good health so as to eat the
fruit of your labour.
            I also heavily appreciate Mr. Ajise,
Heath educator primary health centre Emure-local government, Emure –Ekiti for
his counsel and encouragement to go for this course and also for his effort
over this project, I pray you will never lack any good thing in life in Jesus
name.       My acknowledgment is
incomplete  without thanking my uncle Mr.
Ayodele Gbenga (CEPHAS) for his moral and financial support towards the success
of my academic endeavour, may God bless you. My gratitude goes to my siblings
Engr Ibidapo Temitope Moses, Ibidapo Ayodeji, Ibidapo Olunifemi, Ibidapo
Temilayo and Ibidapo Oluwatobiloba for their encouragement and moral support, I
pray we will get to the top in our different careers in Jesus Name. Also to my
friends Ayodele Eniola Idowu, Aderemi Femi, and brother Ologunja Samuel  for their encouragement I say a very big
thanks you. My appreciation goes to Adedipe Tolulope a.k.a Toluene, for his
knowledge of statistics over this research work, also my course mate Ayodele
Titilayo for putting me through even though it was not convenient, I say may
God bless you and your family and also Majeminu Tosin for helping me out.
            My
profound gratitude also goes to Omoogun Taye managing director TY computer
Institute my amiable school father also for his support, I say a big thank you.
Also to all the people I met in school who I cannot mention all their names,  you guys have been wonderful and you have
added to my life in one way or the other, we shall all meet at the top.  I will like to commend the effort of all the
teachers who assisted me in administering my questionnaire in the selected
schools in Emure Ekiti local government Area of Ekiti State, I say God bless
you all. I am grateful to the almighty God for making me an overcomer all
through the period of this  programme all
praise be to him. Thanks be to God almighty for making it possible for me to
write this research project



TABLE
OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS                                                                                                   PAGE
COVER PAGE                                                                                          
TITLE PAGE                                                                                            
CERTIFICATION                                                                                     
APPROVAL PAGE                                                                       
DEDICATION                                                                                         
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                        
TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                            
LIST OF TABLE                                                                                     
LIST OF APPENDIX                                                                                  
ABSTRACT                                                                                                
CHAPTER
 I: INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study                                                   
Statement
of the Problem                                                  
Purpose
of the Study                                                          
Significance
of the Study                                                  
Delimitation
of the Study                                                  
Research
Questions                                                                      
Hypotheses
                                                                       
Assumption
of the Study                                                  
CHAPTER  II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE              
           Conceptual Framework                                                     
           Theoretical Framework                                                      
           Review of Related Empirical Studies                              
Prevalence
Rate of Teenage Pregnancy                           
Reactions
to Pregnancy                                                      
Culture
and Teenage Pregnancy                                       
Teenage
Motherhood and Social Relationship              
Causes
of Teenage Pregnancy                                           
Consequence
of Teenage Pregnancy                              
Infant
Mortality                                                                   
Maternal
Mortality                                                             
Sexually
Transmitted Infections                                       
Education
Disruption                                                         
Poor
Health Status                                                              
Poverty
                                                                                
           Summary
of Review of Literature                                             
CHAPTER
III: METHODOLOGY                                                        
Research
Design                                                                              
Area
of the Study                                                                            
Population
of the Study                                                                 
Sample
and Sample Technique(s)                                                
Instrument
for Data Collection                                                     
Validation
of the Instrument                                                     
Reliability
of the Instrument                                                        
Administration
of the Instrument                                                 
Data
Analysis Technique(s)                                                       
IV       PRESENTATION
AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
Hypothesis
1                                                                                                       
Table
                                                                                                
Interpretation
                                                                                  
Hypothesis
2                                                                                    
Table
                                                                                                
Interpretation
                                                                                  
Hypothesis
3                                                                                               
Table
                                                                                                
Interpretation
                                                                                  
Hypothesis
4                                                                                               
Table
                                                                                                
Interpretation
                                                                                 
Hypothesis
5                                                                                             
Table
                                                                                          
Interpretation
Hypothesis
6
Table
Interpretation
Hypothesis
7
Table
Interpretation
V         DISCUSSION
OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION
AND
SUMMARY
Discussion
of result                                                                                    
Conclusion
                                                                                      
Implication
of findings                                                                   
Recommendations
                                                                         
Limitation
of the study                                                                 
Suggestions
for further studies                                                     
Summary
of the study                                                                    
References                                                                                       
Appendix
                                                                                           
LIST
OF TABLE
Table 1: Data on level of education
Table II: Data on age of Respondents
Table III: Data on religion of
respondents
Table IV: Rate of teenage pregnancy
Table V: Infant Mortality
Table VI Maternal Mortality
Table VII Sexuality Transmitted
infection
Table VIII Education disruption
Table IX         Poor
health status
Table X:         Poor Socio-economic status



LIST
OF APPENDIX
Appendix A:             Questionnaire on the consequences of teenage preganacy
among secondary school students
Appendix B:  Letter of approval to collect data/information (carry out
experiment for the study)
Appendix 
C: List of schools used for the study.



ABSTRACT
The
purpose of this study was to know the consequences of teenage pregnancy among
secondary schools student in Emure local government  Area of Ekiti state. A total of three hundred
requirements were used for the study. A questionnaire was designed for the
study and data were analyzed using chi –square. The result showed that teenage
pregnancy will lead to infant mortality. The result equally showed that teenage
pregnancy will lead to maternal mortality among the teenagers. The result also
showed that teenage pregnancy also leads to sexually transmitted infections.
For the teenagers and their baby, the result also showed that teenage pregnancy
will lead to education disruption of the pregnant teenager. The result reflects
that teenage pregnancy leads to poor health status of the teenager and her
baby. The result also showed that teenage pregnancy leads to poverty for the
teenager.  Recommendation were made, it
was recommended that federal government in collaboration with the community and
the school should determine interventions to reduce teenage pregnancy in
addition to being effective, the proposed interventions to reduce teenage
pregnancy should be culturally acceptable, low cost, multispectral and
sustainable. 
 

CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
Background
of the Study.
            Over
the past few decades, teenage pregnancy rates world wide have declined yet
teenage pregnancy in Emure-Local Government Area of Ekiti State is still a
growing concern, the teenage pregnancy rate is the number of pregnancy per
1,000 women against 15-19 years. Some teenage pregnancies ends in miscarriages
or abortions. Pregnancy rates are calculated by adding the number of live
births, the number of abortions and the number of estimated miscarriages.
            However
in 2010, the teenage pregnancies rate increased from 69.5 in 2006 to 71.5 (
Kost, Henshaws & Carlin, 2010.) This is the first increase in teenage
pregnancy rate since 1990. Unintentional pregnancies among adolescence can
severally impact the health of teenage mother and their babies women aged 10-19
years deliver only 11% of births worldwide yet they account for 23% of the
overall burden of diseases from pregnancy and child birth (World Health
Organization, 2008) . Infants born to women in their late teens are more likely
to be premature, have low after scores, have low birth weight or die during
infancy, (World Health Organization, 2010.) Teenage mothers are likely to
suffer health complications such as urinary tract infections during pregnancy.
            Not
only those teenage pregnancy have impact on young women, it also impact the
economy, Teenagers who get pregnant in high school are at disadvantage when it
comes not only to providing for themselves but for their children, women aged
18-35 years who have their first child at 17 years or younger earn #3,350 less
than women who have their first child at 20 or 21 years ( Chapman, 2006) one
explanation of why teenage mothers earn less is that they have lower levels of
educational achievements and occupations that do not require high levels of
educational are usually lower wage positions in 2004, only 40% of teenage
mothers graduated from high school compared to about 75% of women who had their
first child at 20-21 years (Chapman, 2006), the same trend can be seen in years
of years of higher education completed. In 2004, women who had their birth at
20 over 21 years of college (21%) compared to women who had their first birth
at 17 years or younger (5%) or 18-19 years (10%) (Chapman, 2006). These
findings highlight the negative impact teenage pregnancy can have  on the pursuit of education. The cost of
society is another reason teenage pregnancy is a concern tax payers on the
federal, state and local levels pay for the teenage mothers and their children
through welfare, the national campaign to prevent teenage pregnancy estimated
that teenage pregnancies cost taxpayers #9.1 billion in 2004 (Chapman, 2006).
The cost of tax a taxpayer pays is based on the money that could be saved due
to avoiding negative outcome of teenage pregnancy. Government programme that
provide public health care like Medicaid, Medicare (For disabled children),
state children health insurance program (SCHIP) and civilian health and medical
programme of the informed services (CHAMPUS) , renamed (TRICARE) are utilized
primarily by the children of teenage mothers is provided through these sources,
compared to 50% for children of mothers who were 20-21 years at the time of
their first birth (Chapman, 2006). Reducing teenage pregnancy rate could be
applied to other government programme there is on-going debate concerning the
best way to decrease the rate of teenage pregnancy. Research has as shown that
sex education programs have an impact on the sexual behaviour of teenagers
(Kalil, 2007). Widespread sex education programmes that are evidence based on
effective way to reduce teenage pregnancy rates (Barnette, 2008).
Statement
of the Problem.
            The
rate of teenage pregnancy in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State is very
high. Majority of the secondary school girls were sexually active which prone
them to be at high risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STD). However, most
of them have developed the attitude of not been regular in school, which has
resulted in poor performance within the targeted group. Further, some of these
teenagers engaged in casual sex as if they are commercial sex workers, due to
their socio-economic disadvantages and they were found with many social vices
like drug abuse, smoking and raping, some even developed the risk of physical
problem which make them to experience obstetric difficulties when compared with
adult mothers. However, teenage mothers stand the risk of delivering premature
babies or giving birth to children with low birth weight and respiratory
distress which many later result in psychological problems or untimely death.
Purpose
of the Study
            The
main purpose of the study is to investigate the consequences of Teenage
Pregnancy among secondary schools students in Emure Local Government Area of
Ekiti State. Specifically this study is set to find out:
        
i.           
If the rate of teenage pregnancy in
Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State is high.
      
ii.           
How teenage pregnancy will lead to
education disruption in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
   
iii.           
How teenage pregnancy will affect the
level of social interaction among secondary school students in Emure Local
Government Area of Ekiti State.
    
iv.           
How teenage pregnancy will lead to
infant mortality among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area
of Ekiti State.
      
v.           
How teenage pregnancy will lead to
poverty among secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti
State.
Significance
of the Study.
            This
research work will be of importance to the school heads administrations as to
investigate the cause attitude toward peer group and how parents, guardian and
government should join hands together to keep their children away from
premarital sex which leads to teenage pregnancy.
        
i.           
To enable students shows negative
attitudes towards premarital and unprotected sex.
      
ii.           
To provide detail description of the
levels and patterns and trends of teenage pregnancies.
   
iii.           
To find out the reasons behind teenagers
having sex.
    
iv.           
To assist government, parents and
guardian to join hands to keep the society and students away from unprotected
sex.
Delimitations
of the Study.
            The
study covers all secondary school students within Emure Local Government Area
of Ekiti State on the consequences of teenage pregnancy among them. The
research will involve a research assistant who will be secondary school teacher.
The research will involve the independent variables of Teenage pregnancy and
dependent variables of the consequences.
            The
Analysis of data will be done using descriptive statistics of frequency count,
mean, median and mode for demographic data and Chi-square (x2) will
be used for the section B.
Research
Questions.
            In
an attempt to carry out the study, answers will be provided to the following
research questions:
1.      Is
there high rate of teenage pregnancy  in
Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
2.      Does
teenage pregnancy lead to infant mortality among secondary school students in
Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
3.      Will
teenage pregnancy lead to maternal mortality among secondary school students in
Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
4.      Will
teenage pregnancy lead to sexually transmitted infections (STI) among secondary
school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
5.      Does
teenage pregnancy leads to education disruption among secondary school students
in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
6.      Will
teenage pregnancy lead to poor health status among secondary school students in
Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
7.      Will
teenage pregnancy lead to poverty among secondary school students in Emure
Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
Hypotheses.
The following
hypotheses are put forward for the purpose of this study:
1.      There
will be no significant differences in the high rate of teenage pregnancy among
secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
2.      Teenage
pregnancy will not significantly cause infant mortality among secondary school
students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
3.      Teenage
pregnancy will not significantly cause maternal mortality among secondary
school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
4.      Teenage
pregnancy will not significantly cause sexually Transmitted Infection among
secondary school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
5.      Teenage
pregnancy will not significantly cause educational disruption among secondary
school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
6.      Teenage
pregnancy will not significantly cause poor health status among secondary
school students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
7.      Teenage
pregnancy will not significantly cause poverty among secondary school students
in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Assumptions
of the Study.
            The
researcher assumes that a lot of works have been done by previous researchers
on the topic consequences of teenage pregnancy among secondary school students,
which makes the literature review for the study not to be scanty. The
researchers therefore intend to make use of those literature reviews during the
course of the study.



CHAPTER
II
REVIEW
OF LITERATURE
            This
study investigates the consequences of Teenagers frequency among secondary
Students in Emure Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The review of
literature for this study is done under the following subheadings.
     Conceptual Framework
     Theoretical Framework
     Review of Related Empirical Studies
a.      Prevalence
Rate of Teenage Pregnancy
b.      Culture
And Teenage Pregnancy
c.      Teenage
Motherhood and Social Relationships.
d.      Cause
of Teenage Pregnancy.
e.      Infant
Mortality
f.       Maternal
Mortality
g.      Sexually
Transmitted Infections
h.      Education
Disruption
i.       
Poor Health  Status
j.       
Poverty.
    
Summary of Literature Reviewed
Conceptual
framework
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