TEACHERS QUALIFICATION EXPERIENCE AND GENDER AS DETERMINANTS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY

TEACHERS QUALIFICATION EXPERIENCE AND
GENDER AS DETERMINANTS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY
IN IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
          Many factors contribute to a student’s
academic performance, including individual characteristics, family
andNeighborhood experiences. But research such as Jordan, Mendro and Weersinge
(1997) suggests that among school related factors, teachers matter most. When
it comes to student performance on reading and math tests, a teacher is
estimated to have two or three times the impact of any other school factor,
including services, facilities and even leadership (Mohammed and Yusuf, 2015).
          Effective teachers are best identified
by their performance not by their background or experiences. Despite common
perceptions, effective teacher cannot reliably be identified based on where
they went to school, whether they are registered or how long they are taught.
The best way to asses teachers’ effectiveness is to look at their on the – job
performance including what they do in the classroom and how much progress their
students make on Performance tests. Quality teachers are considered to be those
who bring about student learning. (Harris and Sass, 2006) Non-school factors do
influence student Performance but effective teaching has the potential to help
level the playing of such factors. The importance of good or quality teachers
is no secret or it cannot be overemphasized. Schools have always sought out the
best teachers they could get in the belief that their students’ success depends
on it. If teachers are so important to student learning, how can schools make
sure all students receive the benefit of good/quality teachers?
          More than two decades of research findings
are unequivocal about the connection between teacher quality and student
learning. The report of the National Commission on teaching and America’s
future (1996) made teaching the core of its three simple promises in its
blueprint for reforming the nation’s schools. They are: what teachers know and
can do is the most important influence on what students learn. Recruiting,
preparing and retaining good teachers is the central strategy for improving
schools. School reform cannot succeed unless it focuses on creating the
conditions under which teachers can teach well. A highly effective teacher,
therefore, is one whose students show the most gains from one year to the next.
By using this approach, researchers are able to isolate the effect of the
teacher from other factors related to student performance such as students’
prior academic record or school they attended. “The effect of teaching on
student learning is greater than student ethnicity or family income, school
attended by student or class size.
          Biology education aims at equipping
learners with diverse basic scientificskills, competencies and creativity
needed to provide opportunities for wealth creation. These aims will remain a mirage
if teachers of biology do not have the pre-requisite qualification and
experience needed for an engaged
biology
interactive classroom to enhance their productivity.
          The effect is stronger for poor and or
minority students than for their more affluent peers, although all groups benefit
from effective teachers. The effects accumulate over the years. The positive
effects associated with being taught by a highly effective teacher, defined as
a teacher whose average student score gain is in the top 25% were stronger for
poor and minority students than for their white and affluent counter parts. The
study found that low income students were more likely to benefit from
instruction by a highly effective teacher than were their more advantaged peers
Van der Bergh and Roos, (2014). Another study found that the Performance gain from
having a highly effective teacher could be almost three times as large for
African American students as for white students even when comparing students
who start with similar Performance levels (Sanders and Rivers 1996). All of the
foregoing necessitated the need to carry out this study. It against this background
that this study is undertaken to determine the impact of teacher qualification
and experience on students’ performance in senior secondary school Ikere Ekiti
          A second important finding from this
work was that the positive effects of teacher quality appear to accumulate over
the years. That is, students who were enrolled in succession of classes taught
by effective teachers demonstrated greater learning gains than did students who
had the least effective teachers one after another. For example, 5th grade math
student who had three consecutive highly effective teachers scored between 52
and 54% percentile point ahead of students who had three consecutive teachers
who w
        Biology
is the science that draws necessary conclusions and also the manipulation of
the meaningless symbols of a first order language according to explicit,
syntactical rules.
Advanced Biology is widely used, but
often in an unseen and unadvertised way.
This study titled Teachers Characteristics
and Performance as Determinants of senior secondary schools students’
performance in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. This will study the
event that occur such as the rate of students failure in Biology in the senior
secondary school(SSS), stakeholders blame students who are not ready to learn
as one of the causes of their failure. Also, teacher can be blame as a result
of their attitude to work which will affect the academic performance of
students.
Adesina (2000), also revealed that
teachers are the primary indicator and determinant of the quality of education.
Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the knowledge of teachers and
knowledge that exists in many forms.
        Teacher
must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. Teachers who master
the material will pass a language more clearly and provide better explanations
that those with weaker backgrounds. Perspective of students to teachers in this
mastery of the material have a significant influence on students academic
performance.
According to Eggen and Kaunchk
(2001), positive attitudes of teachers is essential for effective learning.
Fisher et al (2000) stated that the study that the high level of learning that
will takes place on learners when they are happy going themselves and the
material being studies when teacher use instructional time effectively. Ways to
deal with student-teacher affect student’s attitudes towards school and
academic performance of students. How students perceptions of their teachers
attitudes while teaching in the classroom be measured in this study are
qualifications, Experience and teaching skills.
        Ehindero
and Ajibade (2000) asserts that students are stakeholders in education, and has
been suspected and speculated about some of their teachers do not have the
necessary professionals qualifications. In a sense, skills, techniques,
strategies are needed to convey concepts, ideas, principles are a means to
facilitate effective learning.
Obanyan (2000) says that teacher are
considered instrumental to translate content standards into the subject matter
in the classroom, the teacher remain a constant factor in the successful
implementation of educational programs.
Ajayi(2006) found that the classroom
teacher is one of the major determinants of student’s Performance, training is
most important as a determinant of student’s academic performance.      
On the contrary, Husen (2000)
reported that increased in-service is accompanied by low Performance levels by
students especially where the training is assumed to be for only teachers of
low scoring students.
Biology
is the fundamentals root on which science is based.  Unfortunately, students in our secondary
schools and the teacher teaching them have negative attitude towards Biology
regardless of its importance in making it as far as science and technology.
It is
very important to look into teachers characteristics in student’s performance
in Biology. Biology as a compulsory subject in the secondary school record poor
performance of students.
Biology
is regarded as the key to all science and technology subject, without a good
foundation in Biology student would not be able to do well in science and
technology.  It is very important to note
that boys and girls in secondary school usually run away from Biology classes
without any regard for its being a compulsory subject.
Obi
(2000) noted that for the effective teaching of Biology, the teacher must be
well equipped with the idea of what he or she is going to teach in the
classroom.  Appropriate method of
teaching is also required while supporting the fact that it is necessary to be
knowledgeable about a particular concept, it is also necessary to know how to
impact the knowledge adequately.  The
teacher must know the best techniques and method of presenting his/her ideas to
his or her pupils, bearing in mind their interest, needs and individual differences.
Kolawole
(2005) he Stated that creative teaching requires new materials and thoughtful
activities such as learning single as learning skill, procedures analysis of
problem and application of generalization.
Therefore,
a good teacher must have a sound knowledge of the contents, method and above
all good attitudes to work.  Based on the
general belief that Biology is regarded as the foundation of all science
subjects there is need to handle its teaching effectively.  He further observed that falling standing in
performance of pupils in Biology in the secondary school could attribute to the
teacher’s characteristics toward its effectively teaching.
Statement of the Problem
          The
view of the researcher is to find the teacher’s qualification, experience and Gender
as determinants with particulars reference to senior secondary school in Ikere
Local Government, the researcher is going to look critically into the
following.
i.               
Do
we have enough qualified teacher to teach Biology in all our secondary school.
ii.             
Do
we have enough experience  teacher to
teach biology in all our secondary school
Purpose of the Study
The
purpose of the study is to examine the teachers qualification experience and
gender as determinants of senior secondary school students’ performance in Biology
in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Research Questions
To guide
this study the following research question were raised.
i.               
Will
perceived problems affects teachers experience and Performance of senior
secondary school students in Biology
ii.             
Will
teachers complexity in implementation of continuous assessment affect senior
secondary school students performance in Biology.
Hypothesis
        From the above research question the following hypothesis
were formulated.
i.               
Perceived
problems will not affect teachers experience and Performance of senior
secondary school in Biology.
ii.             
Teachers
complexity in implementing continuous assessment will not affect senior
secondary school students performance in Biology.
Significance of the study
The
study would help the teacher’s developed positive experience towards teaching
and learning of Biology and would also arouse students interest to Biology.
Scope and Limitation of the study
The
study is concerned with the students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti
State.  The study is limited to five
selected secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
Delimitation of the Study
        The study is delimited to SS2 students in the selected
schools used for the study.
Definition of terms
Teachers:A teacher is a
person that impact knowledge to the unknown and a teacher is a person who
provides education for student. Teacher are like a candle which consumes
themselves to show the way others. In the real sense, a teacher is a symbol of
learning a leader of learner and a miracle to education.
Qualification:- A
characteristics can be described as a type of personality or atmosphere as well
and it also means the essential nature of a thing.
        Qualification in
the ability, characteristics or experience that makes someone suitable for a
particular job or activity.
        However, qualification within any one
level can cover a huge range of subject and take different amounts of time to
complete.
Teachers Qualification:Teaching Qualification is one of a number of academic and
professional degrees that enables a person to become a registered teacher. Examples of teaching qualifications include the
Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE), the Professional Graduate Diploma
in Education (PGDE) and the Bachelor of Education.
Student: student is not just
a name given to anybody that learns. A student is a learner, or someone who
attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term is
reserved for those who attend university, while a school child under the age of
eighteen is called a pupil. In the widest use, student is used for anyone who
is learning
Biology: –Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and
living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution,
distribution, identification and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of many branches
and subdisciplines.
Determinant:- Is a factor
which decisively affects the nature or outcome of something
Performance:- An act of
presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment and also is the
performing arts, generally comprises an event
Student’s
performance:- This can be explain as the attitude of student towards learning
or toward education.
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
        In this chapter the review of
literature is organized under the following subheading:
·       
Teachers
attitude towards Biology
·       
Students
negative attitude toward Biology
·       
Teachers
teaching experience
·       
Teachers
qualification
·       
Teachers
knowledge of subject matter
·       
Performance
in Biology
·       
The
use of teaching aids
Teachers Attitude towards Biology
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