TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF COMPETENCIES NECESSARY FOR THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significances of the study
Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITRATURE REVIEW
Attitude of Integrated Science teachers towards teaching and learning
Concept of students performance
Teacher Qualification and Students’ Academic Performance in Integrated Science
Teaching Experience and Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary schools
Competency Based Theory
Self Efficacy Cognitive Ability Theory
Summary of Literature
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Procedures
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
Administration of the Instrument
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Test of Hypotheses
Discussion of Finding
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Appendix : Questionnaire
This study investigates teachers’ perception of competencies necessary for the Teaching of Integrated Science in some selected secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State The study examined whether teachers’ competencies to teaching, working experience, teachers’ qualification, and attitude of teacher towards integrated science contribute to students academic performance in integrated science. In view of these, three research questions were formulated. This study was a descriptive research survey type. 100 students were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. A well structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the data were analyzed using percentage. while Pearson correlation coefficient at 0.05 level of significance was use to analyzed the hypothesis generated for the study. The study revealed that among others that lack of commitment on the part of the teachers, poor working habit, poor attitude of teachers, lack of punctuality in class works among others are revealed in the study as teachers’ factors responsible for students poor performance in integrated science. The study therefore recommended that: Teachers’ with high qualification, good experience of teaching and qualify attitude should be recruited and allowed to teach integrated in secondary schools. There should be room and opportunities for teachers to attend seminars, conferences and workshops on proper ways of utilizing teaching instructional facilities in order to foster learning and good performance among integrated sciences students.
Background to the Study
Competence is the ability of an individual to do a job properly. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. The term “competence” first appeared in an article authored by White in 1959 as a concept for performance motivation. Some scholars see “competence” as a combination of practical and theoretical knowledge, cognitive skills, behavior and values used to improve performance; or as the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. For instance, life, management competency might include systems thinking and emotional intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation. Online Wikipedia (2015). Competency is also used as a more general description of the requirements of human beings in organizations and communities.
Competency is sometimes thought of as being shown in action in a situation and context that might be different the next time a person has to act. In emergencies, competent people may react to a situation following behaviors they have previously found to succeed. To be competent a person would need to be able to interpret the situation in the context and to have a repertoire of possible actions to take and have trained in the possible actions in the repertoire, if this is relevant. Regardless of training, competency would grow through experience and the extent of an individual to learn and adapt.
In recent times, there has been a growing public anxiety about the teaching and learning of integrated science in Nigerian schools. Studies showed that large numbers of students seem to learn very little science at school, learning tends to be by rote and students find learning of integrated science to be difficult (Eyibe, 2010; Jegede, 2009; Salau, 2006). The quality of integrated science teaching and learning has also been questioned over time by parents, science educators, and the general public and even by the government (Adepoju, 1991; Ivowi, Okebukola, Oludotun & Akpan, 2012; Okebukola, 1997). Integrated Science teaching in Nigerian schools has been criticised because of the poor performance of Nigerian students in science subjects relative to their counterparts in other countries. This is evident from the Second International Science Study in which Nigerian students came last in primary science and second to last in secondary science among the participating countries of the world (STAN, 1992).
A number of factors have been identified to be responsible for these poor performances in integrated science from the various studies conducted in Nigeria. These include the lack of motivation for most teachers, poor infrastructural facilities, inadequate textual materials, attitude of students to learning, lack of teaching skills and competence by integrated science teachers, and lack of opportunities for professional development for science teachers (Braimoh & Okedeyi, 2010 Folaranmi, 2010; Okebukola, 1997; Olaleye, 2002; Olanrewaju, 1994).
Other studies mentioned that poor classroom organisation, lack of management techniques and poorly co-ordinated student activities also reduced the quality of science teaching and learning (Akale & Nwankwonta, 1996). Ivowi et al. (1992) also found the shortage of funds for equipment and materials for fruitful practical work; especially in view of large class size in most schools is a problem. Some other researchers also attribute the low percentage of students who pass examinations in science, to dissatisfaction with the syllabus, teachers’ qualifications, workload, experience and disposition, general lack of teaching skills, and the ineffective style of delivery of subject matter (Adepoju, 2001; Salau, 2006).
Research findings have further supported the concerns of Okebukola (2007) that teaching methods could result in poor state of learning and students’ achievement in integrated science (Adeyemi, 1990; Balogun, 1983; Odubunmi, 1986, 1998). A number of international researchers however provide evidence that teachers’ content knowledge has an effect on both the content and the processes of instruction, thus influencing both what and how they teach (Haimes, 1996; Shulman, 1987; Treagust, 2002).
Over the years, science educators and researchers in science education have intensified their efforts to seek a clearer understanding of the issues involved in the declining performance of students in science. Studies indicate that research efforts have proposed various suggestions and recommendations for improving the quality of science teaching and learning in Nigerian classrooms (Ajewole, 1994; Busari, 1996; Igwebuike, 1996; Odubunmi, 1981; Okebukola, 1992; Olanrewaju, 1986). However, despite these various suggestions for improvement, the quality of science teaching and learning and students’ achievement in secondary science continues to decline (Ikeobi, 1995; Ivowi, 1995). This is also evident in a recent report by the Shelter Right Initiative (Olubusuyi, 2003) that for eight consecutive years, between 1992 and 1999, Nigerian candidates trailed behind their counterparts from other countries in the West African region based on performance in science subjects conducted by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC).
The lukewarm attitude of society to science and the teaching profession, compared to other professions in the country, could be responsible for these lingering problems. Also, the non-involvement of all the key stakeholders in science education in Nigeria including teachers, students, school principals, education officers, teacher educators, curriculum planners, parent associations, professional bodies, scientists and educational leaders to gain their support in examining the actual situation of science teaching and learning could be a factor. There is therefore the need to involve key stakeholders to reveal a realistic ideal picture through which recommendations could be made in the context of science education in Nigeria. This in essence will help to arrest the decline in the quality of secondary science education.
The need to improve the quality of science teaching and learning for citizens so that they develop scientific literacy to cope with the demands of science and technology growth has been the yearning of every nation in this 21st century. Such efforts have been made by researchers in the United States of America (Darling-Hammond, 1997), Australia (Goodrum, Hackling & Rennie, 2001) and the United Kingdom (Millar & Osborne, 1998) by engaging the support of key stakeholders in science education. Recognising this, the need to involve key stakeholders in science education in making recommendations for improving the quality of integrated science teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools as a means of helping citizens to become more scientifically literate, is a task that is widely acknowledged as important.
The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. The most important factor in improving students’ achievement in integrated science is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools (Abe and Adu, 2013). Okuruwa (1999) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlates of students’ achievement in integrated science. It is further reported that, teacher’s competeance such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes in integrated science. This report was in line with the findings of Salman (2009).
Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) opined that, a teaching competencies or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school. Such qualifications include, but are not limited to, the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGDE). The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE).
In Ekiti State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carry out instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince Will, 2011). Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc, B.A, and M.A. and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education (Edu and Kalu, 2012). They hold degrees like, B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed and so on. On the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship between teacher educational qualification and students’ academic achievement. For instance, Igwe (1990) investigated the influence of teacher’s perception on academic performance of students in integtated science subjects in Ekiti State. The researcher found no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and students’ performance. While Adeniji (2009), Osokoya (1999) and Oladele (2009) found out that teacher’s competency contributed minimally to the variance with students’ cognitive achievement and Bilesanmi (1999) and Okonwa (1999) found that teacher’s experience was highly significant on students’ academic achievement in Integrated science. Coonery (1990) opined that students do not understand Economics when it is taught by an ineffective teacher. Izumi and Evess (2002) buttressed this by saying that teacher quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, funding, small class size and learning situation. George (2004) attributed poor achievement of students in Economics to teacher qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors. In teaching Economics , Adesina (2002) and Fafunwa (2005) opined that with an exception of holders of minimum of B.Sc in integrated science, many other teachers would be confronted with problem of teaching secondary school syllabus effectively. Hence, Lussa (2005) argued that no one gives what he/she does not possess. He further said that no matter how good a course curriculum is, if we do not have well trained, qualified and motivated teachers, we may not achieve the desired goals. In view of this, a teacher is someone who has been exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area as well as in professional education:such professionally qualified teachers may according to the Federal Ministry of Education (2004) fall into a number of academic categories. Mkpa (2007) regarded the trained teacher as someone who underwent and completed his education in a formal teacher training institution or in a planned programme of training. Among such areas of training may include principles and practice of education as well as being exposed to an observed period of internship either after or as part of the period of training. People who fall within this category should under normal circumstances be able to fulfill the various functions expected of teachers within and outside the four walls of the classroom. Furrugia (1987) perceived a professional teacher as one who possesses professionally based knowledge in the theory and practice of education as well as find job satisfaction in the belief that he/she is making an important contribution to the social, cultural and economic development of his/her country. Such a teacher should equally, be able to understand students’ abilities to exploit educational benefits of the social context within which he/she lives. He/She should be able to assist Students to reach their full intellectual and social potentials. According to Adieze (1986) non qualified and non-professional teachers in teaching profession are killing the profession because they are not really teachers. He regarded them as “bird” of passage that create unnecessary vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect in the profession they are originally trained for.
Statement of the problem
The current situation of science teaching and learning in Nigeria is a concern to all including government and the society at large. Research indicates that many students found integrated science to be difficult, boring and not interesting to them. Large class sizes, inadequate funding, insufficient curriculum resources, poor teaching skills and lack of supports for teachers among other factors further limit the quality of integrated science teacher in teaching and learning in Nigerian schools. To solve these lingering problems one needs to develop a realistic picture of what is currently happening in the teaching and learning of integrated science in Nigerian schools and also to identify the factors that are limiting the quality of science education. Furthermore, one needs to develop a reasonable ideal picture for which the nation can strive towards within the existing resource limitations.
However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students, such variables may be lack of teacher competencies, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others. Therefore this studies sought
Purpose of The Study
The study sets out clearly to investigate teacher perception of competencies necessary for the teaching and learning of integrated science in selected secondary schools in Akure Local Government Area.
Also the specific objective is;
- To determine teacher competencies on student academic performance
- To determine the impact of working experience on teaching and learning of integrated science.
- To determine the perception of teacher on students for poor performance
- To determine the attitude of teacher towards teaching and learning of Integrated Science.
This research will attempt to answer the following questions.
- Does teacher competencies have impacts on students academic performance in Integrated science ?
- Does integrated science teachers working experience have impact on students academic performance in integrated science
What effect does teachers attitude have on students academic performance?
- There is no significant difference between teachers’ competencies and student performance in integrated science.
- There is no significant difference between teachers’ working experience and students performance in integrated science
- There is no significant difference between teachers’ attitude and students performance in integrated science
Significance of the Study
This study is considered significant in the sense that it will generate sufficient data that is useful to teachers Government would further show more to the welfare of student. Also, it is hopeful that the study will provide data on teacher perception of competencies in teaching and learning of integrated science
Scope of the Study
This research work focus on teachers perpectption of compentencies necessary for teaching Integrated Science. The study covers five selected secondary schools in Akure South local government area of ondo state.