STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ADO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE

strategies for improving teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Ado local government area of Ekiti State
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE
PAGE
CERTIFICATION
APPROVAL
PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE
OF CONTENT
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER ONE
1.1  
1.0
Background of the study
1.2  
Statement
of the problem
1.3  
Purpose
of the study
1.4  
Significance
of the study
Scope of the
study
Research
questions
CHAPTER TWO
Review
of literature
2.0
Introduction
The concept and
meaning of agriculture
The status of
agricultural science in Nigeria secondary schools
The teaching and
learning of agriculture
Learning
resource in agriculture
Roles of the
teacher in practical application of learning for effective teaching and
learning agricultural of science
Learning
theories
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.01
Introduction
3.02 Research
design
3.03 Area of the
study
3.04 Population
of the study
3.05 Sample and
sampling technique
3.06
Instrument/Technique for data collection.
3.09 Method of
data collection
3.10 Method of
data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
Results
and data presentation
CHAPTER FIVE                                                                  
REFFERENCES
APPENDIX
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ABSTRACT
          This project was carried out to find
out the strategies for improving teaching and learning of agricultural science
in secondary schools in Ado local government area of Ekiti State. It contains
five chapters which have been carefully arranged. Twenty agricultural science
teachers and two hundred students were randomly selected from ten secondary
schools which were also randomly selected from all the government secondary
schools in Ado-Ekiti.
          Questionnaire was used to collect data
for the study and analysis was done using mean rating scale. Findings from the
study includes: providing relevant and adequate teaching resources for teaching
and learning of agriculture. Employing Information and communication Technology
in the teaching and learning of agricultural science. Government should provide
incentives in agriculture e.g employment opportunities, scholarship in
agricultural courses and gives enough motivation to teachers so as to improve
their teaching. Also the research found that when parents or guardian motivate
learners and provide adequate study material for them, it helps to improve
their learning of agricultural science.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Background of the study
          The human race needs food for
survival. These needs can only be met through agriculture. Agriculture is the
art and science of cultivating land, rearing of animals and processing and
marketing of agro-produce. Nigeria was predominantly on agricultural country
few decades ago before the era of oil boom. The country is so much blessed with
vast fertile land and human resources that she should be able to feed her
teeming population and also export food to other countries Akinsami, (1988). It
is therefore disheartening to observe that despite all these vast resources,
majority of her population are at threshold of starvation James, (2009).
          Agricultural science is important to
the nation because it had been the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy before the
discovery of crude oil. It provides essential commodities such as fuel, fiber
and shelter which are vital for comfortable living. Agro-based industries also
depend largely on agriculture and it creates employment opportunities for the
people in the country. Hence, there is need to improve the teaching of
agricultural science in secondary schools.
          Olaitan (1981) stated that
agricultural production in Nigeria is still essentially subsistence in all its
ramifications. This is because food production has continued to be mainly the
concern of illiterate farmers most of whom are already advanced in age. For
Nigeria to advance technologically in agriculture, the need to prepare a
significant number of students in secondary schools to pursue course of study
in agriculture in higher institutions of learning may therefore arise. He
stated further that the aim of teaching agricultural science in secondary
schools is to arouse interest, create agricultural awareness and train the  young people in the acquisition of
appropriate skills, abilities and competencies both mental and physical in
order to equip the individual to live in and contribute meaningfully to the
development of his society.
          The problem of food shortage
encountered by the country today can be attributed to the shift of economy to
crude oil as the major source of national income. This has resulted into
complete diversion of citizens and national interest from agriculture as a
source of income to crude oil products. The repercussions are that agricultural
practices have been deserted; hunger and poverty have taken over, and worst of
it is the unemployment syndrome. The only way forward is to re-embrace
agriculture as a veritable source of income, food and employment.
          The primary and most effective means
to revive and further entrench Nigeria agricultural sector is to improve
teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary school. This was
portrayed by Fatunsin (2012) when he stated that “the importance of effective
teaching and learning of agricultural science as well as other science subjects
on the growth and development of the nation’s agricultural sector of economy
cannot be over-emphasized”. He stressed further that the labour force of
tomorrow are the young secondary school students of today.
          In his global overview, Fatunsin,
(2006), remarked that in all the developed countries of the world where food
sufficiency had been attained, the role of youths had never been overlooked
Nigeria yearning for self-sufficiency in food production, raw material for home
industries, indigenization of technology and security against any external
aggression heightened the need for improving vocational education in school
system especially agricultural science (Olaitan 2005). While government and
individuals are embarking on various agricultural projects, the quality of the
labour force leaves much to be desired. Over eighty percent of the labour force
are uneducated, untrained and very unskilled (Fatunsin, 2012). The leading
position of the United State in agriculture today can be attributed in part to
her infrastructural for developing and delivering new technologies.
Agricultural education in secondary schools is part of the infrastructure of
this remarkable system (Antoine a-et-al 2013).
          Agricultural science is one of the
core curriculum subjects taught at both junior and senior secondary schools in
Nigeria. It is a subject taught in secondary schools as a means for
self-reliance and preparation for further studies. Agricultural science is
therefore designed for inculcation of the necessary skills for the practice of
agriculture for effective citizenship and contribution to food security for
national sustainability (Modebelu and Nwakpadolu 2013). Ogunyemi (2005)
stressed that high agricultural productivity is very important for the economic
and social development of Nigeria since agriculture is the basic working
capital of her largest population.
          National policy of education (2004)
has the following objectives as it affects the teaching and learning of
agricultural science.
ü To stimulate and
sustain students’ interest in agriculture.
ü To enable
students acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in agriculture
ü To prepare
students for occupation in agriculture.
ü To prepare
students for further studies in agriculture.
Attainment of
the above objectives depends on several factors among which teacher plays the
central role. Apart from teacher, other variables such as learning material,
environment, student’s inherent capacity and many others also affect teaching
and learning of agricultural science.
Achieving high
quality standard of teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary
school would mean that the above objectives would be effectively attained.
          The study conducted by Lafita Fuata
(2004), on the factors associated with teaching effectiveness as perceived by
Western Samoa agriculture teachers revealed the following factors as associated
with teaching and learning of agricultural science.
          The teachers’ training, the community
environment, the school environment, student characteristics, the background of
the teacher, support for the agricultural programme, career considerations,
teaching environment, professional development, youth experience, teaching
load, preservice development and enrolment in agricultural programme.
          The works of several researchers
revealed that the effective teaching and learning of science subjects, of which
agricultural science is the parts, is not based on undefinable variables, but
on some factors which differently and jointly influence teaching and learning.
These factors range from classroom practices, the wider environment of the
learners, the prevailing societal culture, the learners inherent capacity, the
teaching facilities, the teachers who is the custodian of teaching and learning
exercise etc.
          In its commentary, the American
Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP, 2004) sees the factors of
effective teaching and learning as a ripple that grows from pebble thrown into
the pond. The first ripple is the classroom processes and outcome. These in
turn have to do with teachers’ roles, values, knowledge and skills that were
considered as the second ripple. The professional training and development and
the environment for learning which collectively influence teachers’ roles,
knowledge and skills constitute the third ripple. Change in approach to
professional training often stimulates change in school structure and culture.
This is the fourth ripple. Change in school culture and structures can be
constrained or enhanced by local and national policy at system level. This
constitute the fifth ripple. These relationship emphasize an important truth
about attempts to bring about improvement in teaching and learning since
employing better strategies to improve teaching and learning will involve
changes and adjustment at several levels. For example, virtually all forms of
educational innovation will require teachers to re-evaluate their beliefs,
accept new commitments, develop new skills and adopt new forms of practice.
They have implications for forms of school organization, inspection, national
strategies and government policies.
          The decision to undertake this
research was informed by the fact that teaching and learning are dynamic
processes that need to be regularly adjusted to meet the changing needs and
opportunities in the area of study. It is therefore envisaged that this
research will be used as a tool to help the educators reach the common goal of
assisting the learners to do their best in agricultural science at Ado local
government secondary schools and else where in Nigeria.
1.5   Statement of the problem
          The impact of agriculture in the
growth and development of any nation cannot be overemphasized. The problem of
food insecurity and poverty faced by the developing nations due to population
explosion, poor management of resources, inability to adapt new technology etc
can be solved in part through effective teaching and learning of agricultural
science and other science subjects. Effective teaching and learning of
agricultural science will help the youths to acquire saleable agricultural
skills which will in turn stimulate their interest in agricultural production
and processing.
          Government of Nigeria has embark on
many projects such as:
Operation Feed
the Nation (OFEN)
Structural
Adjustment Programme (SAP)
Green Revolution
(GR)
Better Life for
Rural Women (BLRW)
Family Support
Programme (FSP)
Directorate of
Food, Road and Rural Infrastructures (DFRRI) etc.
          None of these actually addressed the
backbone of the problem. It is a time to focus on improvement of teaching and
learning of agricultural science in schools as a means of proffering a viable
solution to the problem hindering agricultural development in Nigeria.
          The American Teaching and Learning
Research Programme (TLRP 2004) emphasized that teaching and learning should aim
to help individuals and groups to develop 
skills, intellectual, personal and social resources that will enable
them to participate as active citizens, contribute to economic development and
flourish as individual in a diverse and changing society.
          In light of this, the major problem of
this study is that agricultural science taught in secondary schools has not
been able to transform the citizens and the nation adequately. The inability to
manifest agricultural science practical skills and the indication of lack of
interest in choosing agricultural courses as a career appear to be due to
inadequate learning of expected skills.
1.6   Purpose of the study
          The general purpose of this study is
to determine the strategies for improving the teaching and learning of
agricultural science in secondary schools in Ado local government area of Ekiti
State. The specific purpose of the study are to:
i.                  
Determine
the variables associated with the effective teaching and learning of
agricultural science in secondary schools.
ii.                
Determine
the extent to which Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been
employed in the teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary
schools.
iii.             
Assess
the extent to which the collaborative and cooperative effort of teachers,
students, school management, parents and government will enhance effective
teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools.
iv.             
Determine
the factors which the teachers perceived can influence effective teaching and
learning of agricultural science in secondary schools.
v.                
Determine
possible support strategies from students’ point of view that are needed to
improve the teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools.
1.7   Significance of the study
          The findings of this research work
will be of immense benefit to the following set of people.
i.                  
The
researchers
ii.                
The
agricultural science teachers
iii.             
The
students
iv.             
The
school
v.                
The
policy makers and
vi.             
The
nation at large.
The
researchers:
The
work will enable the researchers highlight the various problems affecting
teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools and provide
a platform for further work.
The
agricultural science teachers:
This research work will expose areas the
teacher needs to put more effort in the teaching of agricultural science. The
areas where there is need for considerable change and necessary adjustment in
the teaching and learning of agricultural science will be exposed. It will
further help the teachers to employ better techniques and method of teaching
that will bring about better understanding of learners.
The
students:
They
will stand a better chance of becoming self-employed and self-reliant when they
are adequately equipped with various agricultural skills through effective
teaching and learning. This will also afford them opportunity to improve their
education and also function effectively in the society.
The
school:
 The work will help schools see any necessary
readjustment required in enhancing effective teaching and learning of
agricultural science. It will afford school to discover any problem associated
with the teaching and learning of agricultural science and possible ways of
solving them.
The
policy makers:
It
will also enable the policy makers to be abreast of the problems of teaching
agricultural science in our secondary schools and for the serving teacher to
improve upon their works. It will also assist in formulating the education
policies which can enhance the effective teaching  and learning of agricultural science.
The
nation:
Finally,
when agricultural science teachers, schools management, students, parents and
policy makers are aware of and understand various variables hindering effective
teaching and learning of agricultural science and work collectively to
reinstate effective teaching and learning, the students will benefit immensely.
This will in turn help the entire nation to be self-reliant and self-sufficient
in food production.
Scope
of the study
          The study will only deal with the
strategies for improving the teaching and learning of agricultural science in
secondary schools within Ado local government area of Ekiti State.
Research
questions
          The following questions will be
used for this research.
i.                  
What
are the variables associated with the effective teaching and learning of
agricultural science in secondary schools?
ii.                
To
what extent has information and communication technology (ITC) been used in the
teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary school?
iii.             
To
what degree can the efforts of teachers, students, school management, parents
and government help to enhance effective teaching and learning of agricultural
science in secondary school?
iv.             
What
are the factors perceived by teacher to influence effective teaching and
learning of agricultural science in secondary schools?
v.                
What
are the support strategies perceived by the students to improve teaching and
learning of agricultural science in secondary schools?
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