SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TREATMENT OF MALARIA

ABSTRACT
Malaria
is a major public health problem, in many tropical and subtropical countries
and the burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing
resistance of plasmodium falciparum against the widely available anti malaria
agents Herbal medicine for  the treatment
of various disease including malaria are an important part of the cultural
diversity and tradition of which Ikere-Ekiti biodiversity has been an integral
part. Two major anti malaria drugs widely used today came originally from
indigenous medical system that is quinine and atemisin in respectively. Malaria
infection is the second largest killer disease after HIV IN Nigeria failure of
the orthodox medication due to drug adulteration high cost of procurement of
anti malaria drugs and in the use of high dosage of the new anti malaria drug combination
thereby has timed the attention of the people in the world towards the used of
local herbs this study investigated selected medicinal plants used in treatment
of malaria in Ikere Local Government Area, Ekiti State and how the treatment (
selected plant) are very efficient and active in treatment of malaria. Malaria
is one of the most common major health problem all over the world.
Pharmacothropy is the most common treatment strategy for the disease. But the
main obstacle behind this is emergence of resistance for many of these drugs.
Hence, to overcome this problem, the major often available since the ancient
times is medicinal plants all over the world. Mankind is blessed with wide
range of herbal plants for various ailments with lot of those useful for
malaria treatment also. In the review we have highlighted many of those plants
all over the world which are being used since ancient times for the treatment
of malaria.
INTRODUCTION
          Malaria is the world’s most important
parasite disease especially when plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent.
Malaria is endemic in about 100 developing countries, and kill an estimated 1.2
million people each year in Africa (WHO 2001). In Nigeria and some West
African, one in five children will die before they are five and 75% of those
death are attributed to malaria (NWAKA 2006). Pregnant woman and children under
five years of age are the most vulnerable. The socio economic consequences of these
diseases are particularly dramatic in rural areas where poverty and malnutrition’s
are more pronounced. In the absence of an effective vaccine, the fight against
malaria depends on chemotherapy and the reduction and prevention of human anopheles
mosquito contacts through the use of insecticides treated bed nets and environmental
care.
          In Nigeria, a large number of plant
species have been identified as anti malaria. Pure products have been isolated
from same of these plant amongst which are those whose anti-malaria activities
are resistant stains of  P. falciparum.
It is therefore imperative that anti malaria drug development has to be pursued
further with those highly active product to perianal, manufacture and
distribution and then final marketing phamarcovigilance. We report on the
plants which have been identified as anti malaria and the work done so far in
evaluating their anti-malaria potential the review is structured according to
plant families and the extent of investigation carried out in the specific
plant families to date some of these selected plant used in treatment of
malaria in Ikere Local Government Area in Ekiti State are
VERNACULAR
NAME
BOTANICAL
NAMES
Bitter
kola (orogbo)
Garcinia Kola
Neem
(dangoyaro)
Azadiracthta  indica
Garlic
Allium  Sativum
Bitter
leaf (Ewuro
Vernonia  amydalina
Scent
leaf (Efinrin)
Ocinum  gratissium
Wild
Sunflower coconut
Tithania  diversifolia
Coconut
(Agbon
Cocos  nucifera
Paw-paw
Carica  papaya
Mango
Mangifera  Indica
[1]     Bitter Kola Health Benefit for Malaria
Bitter
kola is locally called Orogbo and the botanical names is  Garcinia
kola. Considerable experimental
studies found the chemical constituent in bitter kola have anti malaria
properties that is aside, traditional healer have for many years prescribed
bitter kola for the treatment of malaria infection. Researcher who reported
that bitter kola had anti—malaria effect. In the 2010 issue of journal of
medicinal plant research form a survey of plant used by traditional healer in
Ikere-local government of Ekiti State. They found extract from bark, stem and
seed of bitter, kola tree inhibit the growth of malaria parasite (plasmodium
falciparium) by at least 60% a low concentration of 6mg/ml. further more,
kolaviran, the powerful chemical compound found in bitter kola was reportedly
tested on a malaria parasite and found in bitter kola was reportedly tested on
a malaria parasite and found to inhibit malaria activity. The bark, the stem and
the seed of bitter kola all contain anti-malaria properties. Bitter kola has
thick  slash and garish brown bark and
buttressed trunk. It bears greenish white flaws and orange –colored fruit
carrying brown seed embedded in the pulp. It belong to family Guithferae
[ii]     Dongoyaro health benefit of malaria
          Azadirachta    indica is  common in Ikere Local Government of Ekiti
State otherwise called Neem the potency of dongoyaro is indisputable as it is
has been used by many generation of rural area in the country. The dongoyaro is
very bitter. It usually takes as anti-malaria medication. Hot pot of dongoyaro
is cook and inhale the steam. It is an ever green tree and usually grows
between 10metre with great but under utilized potential. Its effectiveness in the
treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria.  
Neem tree is the permanent cure for malaria. The part used is the bark
and the leaves method of extraction is decoction. Single plant (monotherapy)
can be used or in combination of more than one part.  Dongoyaro is also used in treatment of
cerebral malaria. It occur when malaria parasite filled blood cell block small
blood vessel to the brain, causing swelling of the brain the usual symptom when
it affects the brain are severe headache and pain at the neck, severe vomiting
and finally coma. The symptoms is high fever accompanied by chills, headache,
shivering and general body pain. Neem is a medicinal plant commonly used in the
Ikere-Ekiti whose usefulness in the treatment of malaria has been demonstrated
GARLIC
HEALTH BENEFIT OF MALARIA
          Allium  sativum as its called botanically, the
compound disulfides, occur naturally in garlic onions and mahogany tress for
years scientist have suspected chew are flesh bulb of garlic with lot of water
first thing in the morning Garlic is called Nature antibiotic. It both
detoxified and rejuvenate everything in the body with which it carry compound
in garlic may be helpful against malaria. The part used is the bulb of the
garlic and method of extraction is by concoction tincture (the prepare of the
medicine out of many ingredients)
Leaf
Extract Of Mango And Papaya Health Benefit For Malaria
          A combination of the two leaf extract exhibited a higher
anti malaria efficacy than separate leaf extract add decoction of unripe pawpaw
and mango has anti-malaria properties the juice made from the pawpaw leaf and
mango leaves reduce side effect it does not have any toxic effect on the body.
How
to prepare paw and mango juice at home
          It is very important to remember that the papaya leaf has
to be raw which means no boiling nor cooking 
the juice is squeeze out with hand and raw fresh papaya leaves and mango
leaves are used .
Expert have found that
the water extract of pawpaw and mango leaves showed potencies against malaria
parasite and they cut leaves from a mango tree 
wash them properly get two grapes or limes in a cooking pot add water
and boil for 20 minutes and there you have your drinks. Take half a glass of
the drink twice a day
Bitter
Leaf Health Benefit of Malaria
          Bitter leaf called Ewuro in Yoruba
language is a medicinal and food plant in Ikere-Ekiti. It is used in the
various types of native soup like Egusi (melon) Okro. The leaves, stem and
roots are used for various herbal preparation in Ekiti State and other part of Nigeria.
The water from the squeezed leaves cures malaria and reduces upset with
malaria. The bitter leaf obtained after washing crushing the leaves in clean
water take good care of malaria. Very few people are aware that this vegetable
is highly medicinal and can be used to cure diseases as well as help to keep
out body in good health condition. The important thing this leaf does is to
clean the blood hence prevent sickness this is made by squeezing the fresh
leaves to get the juice. Drink about a glass of the juice three [3] times a
day. Bitter leaf also medicinal for malaria treatment because of the presence
of natural Quinine regular intake of this bitter leaf juice will prevent
malaria sickness.
Scent
Leaf Health Benefit for Malaria
Efirin (Ocimum 
grahssimum
) the extract of the fresh ocimum  grassimum leaves
contains thymol an anti  malarial agent
component which make the plant very effective the plant is wonderful in the
treatment of malaria with palm wine. The palm wine is use to squeeze the leaf
and taken orally 3 times daily. Efirin is used as cold infusion. The essential
oil produced the activity with the respective percentage it belong to family
Lamiaceae.  A ployherbal preparation of a
water extract obtained from the leaves of ocimum  grassimum show analgesic and anti  malaria activity. It best know species are
cooking herb. Efirin is a sacred herb in Ikere-Ekiti used as healing remedies
and cooking it is a home grown plant and is also commercially cultivated. The
plant give out a sweet scent of camphor these plants are aromatic perennial
herbs which go through several variation in cultivation to attain improved
growth it has anti-malaria component that are used in treating the disease. It
is best to avoid this herb during pregnancy
Ticthona   diversifolia (commonly called wild sunflower)
It
is are of medicinal plants under consideration locally Known as Jogbon among
the Yoruba researcher have found it to the effective in the treatment and
prevention of malaria extract from the leaf of sunflower used in folk medicine
for treatment of various ailment were-tested, under laboratory condition for
anti malaria and mosquito repellency properties chloroquine. In the extract
from the leaf showed that T diversifolia
was 100 percent effective in clearing parasite the administration of the plant
extract during the malaria episode was effective with longer period of administration
sunflower leaf is extracted by cold infusion due to its bitterness. 7up is used
to squeeze it or water can also be used, the part used is the leaf of the wild
sunflower the aqueous and methanol extract has 50% & 70% clearing of
parasites respectively conquer to 100% for chloroquine more effective when
administered at the onset of infection.
Coconut
health benefit for malaria
Cocos   nucifera husk fibre and
white flesh are used in folk medicine for the treatment of malaria. In vitro
studies have authenticated the acclaimed anti malaria and potentials of the hut
fibre extract of five cocos   nucifera
Cymbopogon   citratus
        Lemon
grass health benefit for malaria
          It is commonly called Ewetea and cymbopogan  citrotus
botanically lemon grass is a genus of about 55 species which is indigenous in
tropic and semi-tropical area of Africa. The grasses with a rhizomatous as with
citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered or use trash. The anti malaria
activity the essential oils of cymbopogan  citratus was found to produce 86.6%
suppression in the growth of plasmodium bergbei when compared with chloroquine.
The fresh leaf essential oil has anti-malaria activity. Study in mice have
shown that lemon  grass is effective
lemon-grass tea is taken internally in the treatment of headache, cold, asthma
the part used is the leaf decoction method is used is the leaf. decoction
method  is used (boiling  of leaves is used only or with another herb
such as lime and alabukun drug to kill malaria resistance. Lemon grass is
locally called Ewe tea in Ikere-Ekiti for treating malaria.
SUMMARY
The selected medicinal
plant used in treatment of malaria have been tested with the method of
extraction
Method
Of Extraction
Botanical
Names
Part
Used
Concoction
Tincture
Allium sativum
Bulb
Infusion
carical papaya
Fruit,
Leaves
Infusion
Tithania  diversifolia
 Leaves
Decoction
Azadirachta  indica
Bark,
Leaves
Decoction
Mangifera   indica
Bark,
Leaves
Decoction
Garcinia kola
Seeds,
Leaves
Infusion
Ocinum   gratissiumgra
Leaves
Decoction
Cocos   nucifera
Fibre
Infusion
vernonia  amygadina
Leaves
CONCLUSION
          The present seminar brings out information on different
medicinal plant used various part of Ikere local government area for the
treatment of malaria according to the investigation each plant has gone
through.
Over 50 medicinal plant
have been used for treatment of malaria but 10 medicinal plant have been
recorded here for their used as anti malaria in Ikere-Ekiti. Only one third of
the medicinal plant have been tested for their anti malarial activity. There is
need to advance the work on plants which have already been shown to have anti
malaria activity through further invitro and invino testing in annual modes of
malaria followed by sub acute and chronic toxicity tests.
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