**
**

**THE EFFECT OF INTERACTIVE GEOMETRY**

SOFTWARE ON SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS UNDERSTANDING OF, AND MOTIVATION

TO LEARNING GEOMETRY.

SOFTWARE ON SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS UNDERSTANDING OF, AND MOTIVATION

TO LEARNING GEOMETRY.

**A CASE STUDY OF IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT**

**BY**

**EMINGHOTEI BUNA TINATEI**

**A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE**

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF

NIGERIA, NSUKKA

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION, FACULTY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF

NIGERIA, NSUKKA

**IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT**

FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

**MAY,**

2016

2016

**TABLE**

OF CONTENTS

OF CONTENTS

Title page i

Certification ii

Approval page iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements v

Table of contents vii

Abstract xi

**CHAPTER**

ONE:

ONE

**INTRODUCTION**

Background to the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 8

Objectives of the Study 9

Research Questions 9

Research Hypotheses 10

Significances of the study 10

Delimitation of the Study 11

Organization of the Study 11

Definition of Terms 11

**CHAPTER TWO:**

LITRATURE REVIEW

Conceptual Framework 13

Concept of Geometry 14

Effects of ICT on the Teaching and Learning of Plane

Geometry 17

Geometry 17

Causes of Learning Difficulty in School Geometry 18

Concepts of Mathematics 20

Effects of IGS on Students Conceptual Understanding

Mathematics 21

Mathematics 21

The Use of Technology in the Teaching of Geometry 22

Theoretical Framework 27

**CHAPTER THREE:**

METHODOLOGY

METHODOLOGY

Research Design 29

Population of the Study 30

Sample and Sampling Techniques 30

Instrument for Data Collection 30

Validity of Instruments 31

Reliability of the Instrument 31

Administration of the Instrument 32

Method of Data Analysis 32

**CHAPTER FOUR:**

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Data Analysis 33

Hypotheses Testing 35

Discussion 38

**CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,**

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIION

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIION

Introduction 40

Summary 40

Conclusion 41

Recommendations 43

References 44

Appendix I:

Questionnaire 55

Questionnaire 55

Appendix II:

Pre-test Questions 57

Pre-test Questions 57

Appendix III: Post-test Questions 59

**ABSTRACT**

The

study sought to find out the effect of the use of interactive geometry software

(IGS) on Secondary school students’ conceptual understanding of, and their

motivation to learn, plane geometry. It investigated ways in which IGS provides

support for student-centred learning in a geometry class. The study was carried

out in 3 secondary schools, 90 students in total, 30 students from each school.

Purposive sampling was used to sample the school, while simple random sampling

was used to select students to respond to the interview guide.The participants

wrote pre-test after which IGS was used to teach the Experimental group to

improve students’ conceptual understanding. The participants then wrote post-test

as well as answered questionnaires to ascertain their experiences about the

effect of IGS on their motivation and understanding. In the pre-test, the

findings indicated that the Experimental group had a mean score of 20.11, while

the Control got 18.07.However there is no significant difference between the

post-test score of students exposed to IGS and those taught using textbook. The

t-test results revealed that t-calculated (0.826) was less than the t-test

critical t-value (1.987) at p<0.05. The findings indicated no significant

difference between the post-test score of students exposed to IGS and those

taught using textbook. The findings also

showed that students were highly motivated to learn geometry, because they

enjoyed the IGS lessons. It further revealed that the use of IGS supported

student-centred learning in a number of ways; the lessons were activity based,

very interactive in nature, students worked in groups and learn collaboratively

through discussions.

study sought to find out the effect of the use of interactive geometry software

(IGS) on Secondary school students’ conceptual understanding of, and their

motivation to learn, plane geometry. It investigated ways in which IGS provides

support for student-centred learning in a geometry class. The study was carried

out in 3 secondary schools, 90 students in total, 30 students from each school.

Purposive sampling was used to sample the school, while simple random sampling

was used to select students to respond to the interview guide.The participants

wrote pre-test after which IGS was used to teach the Experimental group to

improve students’ conceptual understanding. The participants then wrote post-test

as well as answered questionnaires to ascertain their experiences about the

effect of IGS on their motivation and understanding. In the pre-test, the

findings indicated that the Experimental group had a mean score of 20.11, while

the Control got 18.07.However there is no significant difference between the

post-test score of students exposed to IGS and those taught using textbook. The

t-test results revealed that t-calculated (0.826) was less than the t-test

critical t-value (1.987) at p<0.05. The findings indicated no significant

difference between the post-test score of students exposed to IGS and those

taught using textbook. The findings also

showed that students were highly motivated to learn geometry, because they

enjoyed the IGS lessons. It further revealed that the use of IGS supported

student-centred learning in a number of ways; the lessons were activity based,

very interactive in nature, students worked in groups and learn collaboratively

through discussions.

This chapter provides an introduction to

the research study. The introduction includes the background of the study,

statement of the problem, the purpose of the study and research questions which

guided the study. It further highlights the significance, the delimitations and

organization of the study.

the research study. The introduction includes the background of the study,

statement of the problem, the purpose of the study and research questions which

guided the study. It further highlights the significance, the delimitations and

organization of the study.

##
1.1 Background

to the Study

Development in science, technology and mathematics is

increasingly gaining recognition as one of the most reliable indicators for

determining the socio-economic and technological development among nations

(Atebe, 2008; Anne and Obinna,2010 and UNESCO, 2012). For example, Wasagu

(2005) reported that, the impact of Science, Technology and Mathematics

Education (STME) on the economy of Japan today has made it not only the second

largest economy but a threat to even the world‟s strongest economy, the United

States of America (USA) which has remained the most successful in harnessing

scientific and technological development for the attainment of its national

objectives. In modern societies world over, including Nigeria, there is strong

emphasis on the need for the provision of good qualitative Science, Technology

and Mathematics Education. It is in this regard that, Nigerian government in

its National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) made Mathematics a compulsory

(core) subject of study at both primary and secondary school levels. Indeed,

for a candidate to gain admission into science and science- related courses in

tertiary institutions, he/she must have credit pass in Mathematics. This is

because Mathematics plays a pivotal role in science and technology advancement.

Musa (2010) buttressed this in his study that, Mathematics provides the laws,

formula and the theories that empower the scientific and technological

developments. Therefore, the study of Mathematics by individual is essential

because it provides avenue for thinking, developing scientific structure,

drawing conclusions as well as solving life problems. Thus, it has useful links

to many other fields of human endeavor.

increasingly gaining recognition as one of the most reliable indicators for

determining the socio-economic and technological development among nations

(Atebe, 2008; Anne and Obinna,2010 and UNESCO, 2012). For example, Wasagu

(2005) reported that, the impact of Science, Technology and Mathematics

Education (STME) on the economy of Japan today has made it not only the second

largest economy but a threat to even the world‟s strongest economy, the United

States of America (USA) which has remained the most successful in harnessing

scientific and technological development for the attainment of its national

objectives. In modern societies world over, including Nigeria, there is strong

emphasis on the need for the provision of good qualitative Science, Technology

and Mathematics Education. It is in this regard that, Nigerian government in

its National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) made Mathematics a compulsory

(core) subject of study at both primary and secondary school levels. Indeed,

for a candidate to gain admission into science and science- related courses in

tertiary institutions, he/she must have credit pass in Mathematics. This is

because Mathematics plays a pivotal role in science and technology advancement.

Musa (2010) buttressed this in his study that, Mathematics provides the laws,

formula and the theories that empower the scientific and technological

developments. Therefore, the study of Mathematics by individual is essential

because it provides avenue for thinking, developing scientific structure,

drawing conclusions as well as solving life problems. Thus, it has useful links

to many other fields of human endeavor.

However, as useful as this

subject is, there is ample evidence of continued low performance of students in

both the standardized and teacher made examinations, (Benjamin and Agwagah,

2006). For example, both national and international evaluation shows that, on

completion of basic education, many pupil‟s mathematics knowledge and

competences fall short of the expected level. More over, the disparities

observed between and within the countries give course for concern (UNESCO,

2012).Also in a related report a comparative study of Mathematics and Science

performance of students around the world showed that United States students‟

mathematical achievement lagged behind those of several other countries.

Specifically in geometry content area, United States students achievement was

bottom third of all countries tested. 38 countries outperformed the US in

geometry with Japan at the top with a score of 575 and international average of

473 in geometry, (Unal, 2013). Also in Nigeria, results from examination bodies

like West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examinations Council

(NECO) reports indicate students‟ low performance in Mathematics as contained

in the chief examiner‟s report, (2000, 2002 and 2005). Going by the above

reports, Pussey (2003) and Atebe, (2008) opined that, performance in

Mathematics is a good indicator of performance in geometry specifically. Many

reasons have been advanced for this poor state of students‟ performance in

Mathematics in general and geometry in particular. Some researchers viewed

teachers‟ subject matter incompetence as a contributing factor, (Benjamin and

Agwagah 2006; Unal, 2005). Others like Ishaku (2003); Tahir (2006) attributed

this consistent poor performance in Mathematics by the students to Mathematics

teachers‟ lack of necessary skill and competence in both the content and

delivery.

subject is, there is ample evidence of continued low performance of students in

both the standardized and teacher made examinations, (Benjamin and Agwagah,

2006). For example, both national and international evaluation shows that, on

completion of basic education, many pupil‟s mathematics knowledge and

competences fall short of the expected level. More over, the disparities

observed between and within the countries give course for concern (UNESCO,

2012).Also in a related report a comparative study of Mathematics and Science

performance of students around the world showed that United States students‟

mathematical achievement lagged behind those of several other countries.

Specifically in geometry content area, United States students achievement was

bottom third of all countries tested. 38 countries outperformed the US in

geometry with Japan at the top with a score of 575 and international average of

473 in geometry, (Unal, 2013). Also in Nigeria, results from examination bodies

like West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examinations Council

(NECO) reports indicate students‟ low performance in Mathematics as contained

in the chief examiner‟s report, (2000, 2002 and 2005). Going by the above

reports, Pussey (2003) and Atebe, (2008) opined that, performance in

Mathematics is a good indicator of performance in geometry specifically. Many

reasons have been advanced for this poor state of students‟ performance in

Mathematics in general and geometry in particular. Some researchers viewed

teachers‟ subject matter incompetence as a contributing factor, (Benjamin and

Agwagah 2006; Unal, 2005). Others like Ishaku (2003); Tahir (2006) attributed

this consistent poor performance in Mathematics by the students to Mathematics

teachers‟ lack of necessary skill and competence in both the content and

delivery.

Development in almost all areas of life

is based on effective knowledge of Science and Mathematics. There cannot be any

meaningful development in any area of life without knowledge of Science and

Mathematics. It is for this reason that the education systems of countries that

are concerned about their development put great deal of emphasis on the study

of mathematics. It is therefore not surprising that the government of Nigeria

made mathematics a core subject at both the Basic and Secondary levels of Education

in Nigeria. The Senior secondary School syllabus in Nigeria is based on the

notion that an appropriate mathematics curriculum results from a series of

critical decisions about three inseparably linked components: Content, Instruction

and Assessment (Olayemi, 2010). Plane geometry is one of the major content

domains the mathematics curriculum covered to promote the acquisition of

mathematical knowledge and skills for life. Plane geometry in the Senior

Secondary School mathematics curriculum covered angles of a polygon,

Pythagoras’ and circle theorems including tangents (Olayemi, 2010).

is based on effective knowledge of Science and Mathematics. There cannot be any

meaningful development in any area of life without knowledge of Science and

Mathematics. It is for this reason that the education systems of countries that

are concerned about their development put great deal of emphasis on the study

of mathematics. It is therefore not surprising that the government of Nigeria

made mathematics a core subject at both the Basic and Secondary levels of Education

in Nigeria. The Senior secondary School syllabus in Nigeria is based on the

notion that an appropriate mathematics curriculum results from a series of

critical decisions about three inseparably linked components: Content, Instruction

and Assessment (Olayemi, 2010). Plane geometry is one of the major content

domains the mathematics curriculum covered to promote the acquisition of

mathematical knowledge and skills for life. Plane geometry in the Senior

Secondary School mathematics curriculum covered angles of a polygon,

Pythagoras’ and circle theorems including tangents (Olayemi, 2010).

Geometry is the study of shapes and

space. Ibu, J.E, Ngban, A.N & Maliki,

A.E. (2011) defined geometry as a branch of

mathematics that provides a rich source of visualization for understanding,

algebraic, arithmetic and statistical concepts. Geometry appears naturally in

the structure of the solar system, in geological formation of some rocks and

crystals, in plants and flowers, and even in animals. It is also a major part of

our synthetic world such as art, architecture, cars, machines, and virtually

everything humans create. The knowledge of geometry is so important that its

utility is needed by everyone. Fortunately geometry is well represented in the

Nigerian mathematics curriculum at all levels of education.

space. Ibu, J.E, Ngban, A.N & Maliki,

A.E. (2011) defined geometry as a branch of

mathematics that provides a rich source of visualization for understanding,

algebraic, arithmetic and statistical concepts. Geometry appears naturally in

the structure of the solar system, in geological formation of some rocks and

crystals, in plants and flowers, and even in animals. It is also a major part of

our synthetic world such as art, architecture, cars, machines, and virtually

everything humans create. The knowledge of geometry is so important that its

utility is needed by everyone. Fortunately geometry is well represented in the

Nigerian mathematics curriculum at all levels of education.

The applications of geometry are diverse

and universal in all aspects of life. In the school, studying geometry provides

many foundational skills and helps to build logical thinking skills, analytical

reasoning and problem solving among others. Geometry has an applicable link to

many other topics in mathematics, specifically Measurement. Consequently, a

very good grip of the knowledge of geometry prepares students to adequately

respond to the challenges of further mathematics in life. In the place of work,

geometry is used by architects, engineers, physicists, pilots, captains of

ships and land surveyors. More importantly, a teacher without a good knowledge

of geometry cannot adequately convey the concepts and the beauty that comes

along side its teaching to students.

and universal in all aspects of life. In the school, studying geometry provides

many foundational skills and helps to build logical thinking skills, analytical

reasoning and problem solving among others. Geometry has an applicable link to

many other topics in mathematics, specifically Measurement. Consequently, a

very good grip of the knowledge of geometry prepares students to adequately

respond to the challenges of further mathematics in life. In the place of work,

geometry is used by architects, engineers, physicists, pilots, captains of

ships and land surveyors. More importantly, a teacher without a good knowledge

of geometry cannot adequately convey the concepts and the beauty that comes

along side its teaching to students.

In order to draw the full benefits of

geometry in the mathematics curriculum, classroom instructions should aim at

enhancing students’ geometric thinking. Improving students’ geometric thinking

levels is one of the major aims of mathematics education. This is because

geometrical thinking is an important tool in many scientific, technical and

occupational areas. One of the best descriptions of students’ geometric

thinking level on two-dimensional shapes is the Van Hiele theory of Geometric

Thinking (Batista, 2007). Teaching geometry at the Senior High level should be

done in ways that promotes geometric thinking.

geometry in the mathematics curriculum, classroom instructions should aim at

enhancing students’ geometric thinking. Improving students’ geometric thinking

levels is one of the major aims of mathematics education. This is because

geometrical thinking is an important tool in many scientific, technical and

occupational areas. One of the best descriptions of students’ geometric

thinking level on two-dimensional shapes is the Van Hiele theory of Geometric

Thinking (Batista, 2007). Teaching geometry at the Senior High level should be

done in ways that promotes geometric thinking.

However, Mehdiyev (2009) stated that in

Azerbaijan the teaching and learning of geometry tend to focus on having

students learn a list of definitions and the properties of shapes. According to

Mehdiyev, textbooks for use at the Senior High Schools provided only pencil and

paper illustrations that are not comprehensive, because, they lack the visual description

of a complete interactive process needed for the construction of geometrical

concepts. These illustrations, often lead to memorization and does not target

development of conceptual understanding. This situation is not different from

what is happening in Nigerian schools. Fredua-Kwarteng and Ahia (2005) observed

that the teaching and learning culture of mathematics in Nigeria schools have the following characteristics:

Students learn mathematics by listening to their teachers and copying from the

chalkboard rather than asking questions for clarifications and justification.

Furthermore, students learn mathematics by regurgitating facts, theorems or

formulas instead of probing for meaning and understanding of mathematical

concepts. Students in the learning process hardly ask the logic or philosophy

underlying those mathematical principles, facts, or formulas. Consequently,

students learn mathematics as a body of objective facts rather than a product

of human invention.

Azerbaijan the teaching and learning of geometry tend to focus on having

students learn a list of definitions and the properties of shapes. According to

Mehdiyev, textbooks for use at the Senior High Schools provided only pencil and

paper illustrations that are not comprehensive, because, they lack the visual description

of a complete interactive process needed for the construction of geometrical

concepts. These illustrations, often lead to memorization and does not target

development of conceptual understanding. This situation is not different from

what is happening in Nigerian schools. Fredua-Kwarteng and Ahia (2005) observed

that the teaching and learning culture of mathematics in Nigeria schools have the following characteristics:

Students learn mathematics by listening to their teachers and copying from the

chalkboard rather than asking questions for clarifications and justification.

Furthermore, students learn mathematics by regurgitating facts, theorems or

formulas instead of probing for meaning and understanding of mathematical

concepts. Students in the learning process hardly ask the logic or philosophy

underlying those mathematical principles, facts, or formulas. Consequently,

students learn mathematics as a body of objective facts rather than a product

of human invention.

Instead of memorising properties and

definitions, Battista (2007) suggested that students should be made to

personally develop meaningful geometric concepts and ways of reasoning that

enable them to carefully analyze spatial problems and situations. This calls

for an alternative teaching approach where Information and Communication

Technology (ICT) can be used to enhance students’ thinking and problem-solving

skills.

definitions, Battista (2007) suggested that students should be made to

personally develop meaningful geometric concepts and ways of reasoning that

enable them to carefully analyze spatial problems and situations. This calls

for an alternative teaching approach where Information and Communication

Technology (ICT) can be used to enhance students’ thinking and problem-solving

skills.

One change that has irresistibly

affected education institutional delivery globally has been the introduction of

technology into society which results in the explosion of computers into

schools. Technology in schools, particularly the computer with its

communicative abilities, has become the focus and substance of strategic

planning in shaping national economies. Governments of both developed and

developing nations have recognized, as a matter of urgency, the role of

computer technology in redefining their economic activities (World Bank, 1998).

This then calls for the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning situation

in the world over. The integration of ICT into education is recognized as:

providing opportunities for developing skills that has the potential to

transform pedagogical practices, and for reforming curricula (Roschelle, Pea,

Hoadley, Gordin, & Means, 2000). Recent advancement in communication

technology has contributed immensely to minimize the effect of distance in

education. Roblyers (2006) aptly describes the situation as the “death of

distance”. She writes that the death of distance has given new life to

education.

affected education institutional delivery globally has been the introduction of

technology into society which results in the explosion of computers into

schools. Technology in schools, particularly the computer with its

communicative abilities, has become the focus and substance of strategic

planning in shaping national economies. Governments of both developed and

developing nations have recognized, as a matter of urgency, the role of

computer technology in redefining their economic activities (World Bank, 1998).

This then calls for the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning situation

in the world over. The integration of ICT into education is recognized as:

providing opportunities for developing skills that has the potential to

transform pedagogical practices, and for reforming curricula (Roschelle, Pea,

Hoadley, Gordin, & Means, 2000). Recent advancement in communication

technology has contributed immensely to minimize the effect of distance in

education. Roblyers (2006) aptly describes the situation as the “death of

distance”. She writes that the death of distance has given new life to

education.

From the discussions above, the

researcher observed that ICT is a powerful tool that can accelerate the

attainment of educational goals. According to Butzin (2001), the focus of ICT

in education should be on integrating technology into teaching and learning and

must not be predicated on learning. This entails the application of ICT tools

to facilitate the teaching and learning situation in the school. The use of ICT

as suggested by Reynolds, should supplement classroom activity by accessing

existing information and knowledge, rather than as an integral part of

pedagogical practice Ibu, J.E, Ngban, A.N & Maliki, A.E. (2009)..

researcher observed that ICT is a powerful tool that can accelerate the

attainment of educational goals. According to Butzin (2001), the focus of ICT

in education should be on integrating technology into teaching and learning and

must not be predicated on learning. This entails the application of ICT tools

to facilitate the teaching and learning situation in the school. The use of ICT

as suggested by Reynolds, should supplement classroom activity by accessing

existing information and knowledge, rather than as an integral part of

pedagogical practice Ibu, J.E, Ngban, A.N & Maliki, A.E. (2009)..

In Nigeria, the goal of ICT is to enable

every Nigeria to be able to use ICT tools and resources confidently and creatively

to develop the skills and knowledge needed to achieve personal goals and be

full participants in the global economy by 2015 (MOE, 2006). The ICT for

accelerated development policy document outlined some guiding principles

towards the integration of ICT into classroom practice. The policy stipulated

that a curriculum reform is necessary for effective integration and utilization

of ICT in the classroom. It encouraged teachers to explore and use ICT tools in

teaching to improve students’ learning in order to develop skills necessary for

the competition in the knowledge `economy and information society. Exploration

of ICT is crucial to provide best experiences for educators to incorporate this

new technology into teaching (Ibu, J.E, Ngban, A.N & Maliki, A.E. (2009), as

the positive impact of ICT depends on how teachers use ICT in their teaching

and learning activities (Galbraith, 2006). Consequently, efforts are being made

to integrate ICT into the Ghanaian mathematics curriculum and researchers are

calling for the adoption of strategies that will make ICT integral to teaching

and learning processes (Assuah, 2010; Yidana & Amppiah, 2003; Dontwi,

2001). Achieving this requires extensive research that will identify strategies

applicable in the Ghanaian classroom.

every Nigeria to be able to use ICT tools and resources confidently and creatively

to develop the skills and knowledge needed to achieve personal goals and be

full participants in the global economy by 2015 (MOE, 2006). The ICT for

accelerated development policy document outlined some guiding principles

towards the integration of ICT into classroom practice. The policy stipulated

that a curriculum reform is necessary for effective integration and utilization

of ICT in the classroom. It encouraged teachers to explore and use ICT tools in

teaching to improve students’ learning in order to develop skills necessary for

the competition in the knowledge `economy and information society. Exploration

of ICT is crucial to provide best experiences for educators to incorporate this

new technology into teaching (Ibu, J.E, Ngban, A.N & Maliki, A.E. (2009), as

the positive impact of ICT depends on how teachers use ICT in their teaching

and learning activities (Galbraith, 2006). Consequently, efforts are being made

to integrate ICT into the Ghanaian mathematics curriculum and researchers are

calling for the adoption of strategies that will make ICT integral to teaching

and learning processes (Assuah, 2010; Yidana & Amppiah, 2003; Dontwi,

2001). Achieving this requires extensive research that will identify strategies

applicable in the Ghanaian classroom.

Mehdiyev (2009) stated in his study on

students’ learning experiences using dynamic geometry software that, the

teaching and learning of geometry in Dynamic Geometry Environment (DGE)

established positive effects on students’ conceptualisation of Mathematics

concepts. The DGE encouraged students to discuss, interact with each other and

explore the content collaboratively. The students are not coerced to accept the

geometrical content with absolute certainty. Rather, students are motivated to

learn in a student-centred dynamic environment. Mehdiyev later in his research

described the traditional teaching and learning of geometry at secondary

schools as “teacher-centred”, which is at variance with learning geometry in a

DGS environment. Personal experience and empirical research (Mereku, 2010)

indicated that teaching in the Ghanaian classroom is teacher-centred. Thus the

student is made a passive listener in the learning process, which makes the

student deficient in mathematical analysis and logical reasoning. Therefore,

Mathematics achievement in Kanton Senior High School is poor. It appears that

something is wrong with the way mathematics is learnt and assessed in Ghana.

The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (Asabre-Ameyaw &

Mereku, 2009; Anamuah-Mensah, Mereku & Ghartey-Ampiah, 2008;

Anamuah-Mensah, & Mereku, 2005), report that Ghana remained second from the

bottom in 2003, 2007, out of the number of countries that participated in the

examination. The reports stated that students’ performance in geometry was the

lowest in the five domains the test covered. Also National Educational

Assessment (NEA), which is an indicator of the overall national status of

Mathematical achievement in the primary school system in Ghana. The NEA

reported that mean scores percent of primary 3 and primary 6 pupils in

mathematics respectively of 41.8% and 39.6% was far below the average of 50%

(CRDD, 2009). In Addition, the West African Examination Council Chief

Examiner’s annual reports for the SSSCE & WASSCE from 2003 to 2006 observed

that candidates were weak in Geometry of circles and 3-dimensional problems.

The reports repeatedly indicated that most candidates avoided questions on

3-dimensional problems. Where they attempted geometry questions, only few of the

candidates showed a clear geometrical understanding of the problem in their

working process.

students’ learning experiences using dynamic geometry software that, the

teaching and learning of geometry in Dynamic Geometry Environment (DGE)

established positive effects on students’ conceptualisation of Mathematics

concepts. The DGE encouraged students to discuss, interact with each other and

explore the content collaboratively. The students are not coerced to accept the

geometrical content with absolute certainty. Rather, students are motivated to

learn in a student-centred dynamic environment. Mehdiyev later in his research

described the traditional teaching and learning of geometry at secondary

schools as “teacher-centred”, which is at variance with learning geometry in a

DGS environment. Personal experience and empirical research (Mereku, 2010)

indicated that teaching in the Ghanaian classroom is teacher-centred. Thus the

student is made a passive listener in the learning process, which makes the

student deficient in mathematical analysis and logical reasoning. Therefore,

Mathematics achievement in Kanton Senior High School is poor. It appears that

something is wrong with the way mathematics is learnt and assessed in Ghana.

The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (Asabre-Ameyaw &

Mereku, 2009; Anamuah-Mensah, Mereku & Ghartey-Ampiah, 2008;

Anamuah-Mensah, & Mereku, 2005), report that Ghana remained second from the

bottom in 2003, 2007, out of the number of countries that participated in the

examination. The reports stated that students’ performance in geometry was the

lowest in the five domains the test covered. Also National Educational

Assessment (NEA), which is an indicator of the overall national status of

Mathematical achievement in the primary school system in Ghana. The NEA

reported that mean scores percent of primary 3 and primary 6 pupils in

mathematics respectively of 41.8% and 39.6% was far below the average of 50%

(CRDD, 2009). In Addition, the West African Examination Council Chief

Examiner’s annual reports for the SSSCE & WASSCE from 2003 to 2006 observed

that candidates were weak in Geometry of circles and 3-dimensional problems.

The reports repeatedly indicated that most candidates avoided questions on

3-dimensional problems. Where they attempted geometry questions, only few of the

candidates showed a clear geometrical understanding of the problem in their

working process.

Even though there are some research

works on the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning of Mathematics

in Ghana (Assuah, 2010; Yidana & Amppiah, 2003; Dontwi, 2001), little is

known about the use of interactive geometry software in the teaching and

learning process in the Ghanaian classroom. This study is therefore developed

to explore the teaching and learning of geometry in an Interactive Geometry Environment

(IGE) in Ghanaian classroom using Geogebra.

works on the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning of Mathematics

in Ghana (Assuah, 2010; Yidana & Amppiah, 2003; Dontwi, 2001), little is

known about the use of interactive geometry software in the teaching and

learning process in the Ghanaian classroom. This study is therefore developed

to explore the teaching and learning of geometry in an Interactive Geometry Environment

(IGE) in Ghanaian classroom using Geogebra.

## 1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent

times, the teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in Nigeria

has witnessed a great setback with students, irrespective of sex, performing poorly

and showing lack of interest. This is evident in the performance of the

students in Basic Education Certificate and Senior Secondary Certificate

Examinations. Mathematics is a very important subject, yet it is a subject that

many students fear, fail and possibly dislike. The problems have been

attributed partly to lack of instructional materials

times, the teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in Nigeria

has witnessed a great setback with students, irrespective of sex, performing poorly

and showing lack of interest. This is evident in the performance of the

students in Basic Education Certificate and Senior Secondary Certificate

Examinations. Mathematics is a very important subject, yet it is a subject that

many students fear, fail and possibly dislike. The problems have been

attributed partly to lack of instructional materials

especially the

modern educational facilities like Information and Communication Technology

(ICT). Other problems include little or no motivation for teachers and

students, and overcrowded classes. The aforementioned could be adversely

affecting the teaching and learning of Mathematics in Nigerian secondary

schools. GeoGebra, an ICT Mathematics software package for teaching Geometry,

Algebra and Calculus has been developed by Markus Hohenwarter in response to

this lack, but its effect on students’ learning outcomes such as performance

and attitude to Mathematics has not been established in Nigeria; hence this

study

modern educational facilities like Information and Communication Technology

(ICT). Other problems include little or no motivation for teachers and

students, and overcrowded classes. The aforementioned could be adversely

affecting the teaching and learning of Mathematics in Nigerian secondary

schools. GeoGebra, an ICT Mathematics software package for teaching Geometry,

Algebra and Calculus has been developed by Markus Hohenwarter in response to

this lack, but its effect on students’ learning outcomes such as performance

and attitude to Mathematics has not been established in Nigeria; hence this

study

## 1.3 Objective of the Study

The

major objective of this study is to investigate the effect of interactive

geometry software on secondary school students.

major objective of this study is to investigate the effect of interactive

geometry software on secondary school students.

The

specific objective is to find out:

specific objective is to find out:

1.

The effect of

interactive geometry software (IGS) on

the development of Secondary School students’ conceptual understanding of geometry

2.

The effect of the use

of interactive geometry software (IGS )on Secondary School students’ motivation to learn geometry

3.

Ways in which interactive

geometry software IGS provides support for student-centred learning in a

geometry class

##
1.4 Research

Questions

In pursuance of the purposes stated

above, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

above, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

1.

To what extent does the

use of interactive geometry software (IGS) affect Secondary School students conceptual understanding of

geometry?

To what extent does the

use of interactive geometry software (IGS) affect Secondary School students conceptual understanding of

geometry?

2.

How does the use of interactive

geometry software (IGS) motivate Secondary School students to learn geometry?

How does the use of interactive

geometry software (IGS) motivate Secondary School students to learn geometry?

3.

In what ways do

interactive geometry software (IGS) support student-centred learning in a

geometry class?

In what ways do

interactive geometry software (IGS) support student-centred learning in a

geometry class?

**Research**

Hypothesis

Hypothesis

In

order to answer the research question 1, the following null and alternative

hypotheses were formulated.

order to answer the research question 1, the following null and alternative

hypotheses were formulated.

*HO*:

There is no difference in the understanding of geometry between the Control and

Experimental groups.

*H1*:

There is significant difference in the understanding of geometry between the

Control and Experimental groups.

## Significance of the Study

The study explores the effect of interactive

geometry software (GeoGebra) on students learning experiences in an interactive

geometry environment. The findings of this study will be a resource for policy

makers, teachers and other stakeholders to help improve students’ geometric

reasoning in Nigeria, through the use GeoGebra. It will generate information

that could inform policy makers on ways of implementing the national policy on

the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning of mathematics.

geometry software (GeoGebra) on students learning experiences in an interactive

geometry environment. The findings of this study will be a resource for policy

makers, teachers and other stakeholders to help improve students’ geometric

reasoning in Nigeria, through the use GeoGebra. It will generate information

that could inform policy makers on ways of implementing the national policy on

the integration of ICT into the teaching and learning of mathematics.

Again, the findings of the study will

serve as a resource for curriculum developers and teachers to improve students’

learning outcomes in schools especially in Ikere local government in Ekiti

state and the nation at large. The study will also serve as a baseline document

for other researchers investigating into the effects of IGS on motivation and

student-centred learning. It will further make a significant contribution to

existing literature.

serve as a resource for curriculum developers and teachers to improve students’

learning outcomes in schools especially in Ikere local government in Ekiti

state and the nation at large. The study will also serve as a baseline document

for other researchers investigating into the effects of IGS on motivation and

student-centred learning. It will further make a significant contribution to

existing literature.

## Delimitation of the Study

The

study covered three randomly selected secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti. The area was chosen because of its familiarity

to the researcher. The choice was made with the belief that population for the

study would be easily accessible to the researcher. The study explored students learning

experiences when using interactive geometry software.

study covered three randomly selected secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti. The area was chosen because of its familiarity

to the researcher. The choice was made with the belief that population for the

study would be easily accessible to the researcher. The study explored students learning

experiences when using interactive geometry software.

## Organization of the Study

The

study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one covers the introduction,

background to the study, statement of the problem, research questions, purpose

of the study, significance of the study, organization of the study and

delimitation. The second chapter reviews related literature and discusses the

theoretical framework. Chapter three deals with the research methodology; this

includes the research design, population and sampling, instrumentation,

procedures for gathering data and how the data were analyzed. The presentation

of the results and the discussion of the findings are described in chapter

four. The final chapter which is chapter five looks at the summary,

conclusions, recommendations and areas for further research.

study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one covers the introduction,

background to the study, statement of the problem, research questions, purpose

of the study, significance of the study, organization of the study and

delimitation. The second chapter reviews related literature and discusses the

theoretical framework. Chapter three deals with the research methodology; this

includes the research design, population and sampling, instrumentation,

procedures for gathering data and how the data were analyzed. The presentation

of the results and the discussion of the findings are described in chapter

four. The final chapter which is chapter five looks at the summary,

conclusions, recommendations and areas for further research.

**Definition of Terms**

**Attitude**: This is the

disposition that a student has about Mathematics before and after the

introduction of GeoGebra software to the class. It indicates the students’

disposition or feeling towards Mathematics.

**Performance**: These are the

scores derived from Student Achievement Test in Mathematics.

**Learning Outcomes**: These are

determined by the students’ performance and attitude towards Mathematics.

**Technology**: This is the

application of scientific knowledge to provide solutions to human problems. In

most cases it is referred to as Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

**GeoGebra**: GeoGebra is an

interactive dynamic Mathematics software on geometry, algebra, statistics and

calculus application, designed for teaching and learning of Mathematics from

primary school to university level.

**Geometry:**is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions

of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space

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